Aberman J

References (3)

Title : Effects of subchronic administration of clozapine, thioridazine and haloperidol on tests related to extrapyramidal motor function in the rat - Trevitt_1998_Psychopharmacology.(Berl)_137_61
Author(s) : Trevitt J , Atherton A , Aberman J , Salamone JD
Ref : Psychopharmacology (Berl) , 137 :61 , 1998
Abstract : Clozapine, thioridazine (THIO) and haloperidol were administered for 14 consecutive days, and separate groups of rats were used to study the effects of these drugs on tremulous jaw movements and lever pressing. Rats were observed on day 13 for the ability of the antipsychotic drugs to induce jaw movements. Haloperidol produced a dose-related increase in jaw movements, while clozapine and THIO failed to induce jaw movements. On day 14, rats were challenged with 5.0 mg/kg of the anticholinesterase tacrine, which induces a very high level of jaw movement activity. Clozapine significantly reduced tacrine-induced tremulous jaw movements, while haloperidol did not. Although previous work had shown that acute THIO could suppress jaw movements, repeated THIO failed to do so. In order to provide an additional behavioral test for comparisons of the relative potencies of the antipsychotic drugs, rats were tested for the effects of these drugs on fixed ratio 5 lever pressing. All three drugs significantly suppressed lever pressing. Haloperidol showed sensitization with repeated injections, while clozapine showed tolerance. Data were analyzed by taking the ratio of the ED50 for suppression of tacrine-induced jaw movement over the ED50 for suppression of lever pressing on day 14. Clozapine reduced tacrine-induced jaw movements in a dose range slightly lower than that required for reduction of lever pressing. In contrast, THIO and haloperidol failed to affect tacrine-induced jaw movements even at doses that were 5-18 times the ED50 for suppression of lever pressing. Thus, tests of jaw movement activity and lever pressing after repeated administration may be useful for assessing atypical antipsychotic drugs.
ESTHER : Trevitt_1998_Psychopharmacology.(Berl)_137_61
PubMedSearch : Trevitt_1998_Psychopharmacology.(Berl)_137_61
PubMedID: 9631957

Title : Effects of clozapine, thioridazine, risperidone and haloperidol on behavioral tests related to extrapyramidal motor function - Trevitt_1997_Psychopharmacology.(Berl)_132_74
Author(s) : Trevitt JT , Lyons M , Aberman J , Carriero D , Finn M , Salamone JD
Ref : Psychopharmacology (Berl) , 132 :74 , 1997
Abstract : Evidence indicates that the antipsychotic drug clozapine has a low propensity for the induction of extrapyramidal motor symptoms, and also that clozapine has therapeutic effects in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Because tacrine-induced tremulous jaw movements in rats have been suggested as a possible model of extrapyramidal motor dysfunctions, including parkinsonian tremor, the present work was undertaken to investigate the effects of clozapine on tremulous jaw movements. Clozapine decreased tacrine-induced tremulous jaw movements in a dose-related manner, with an ED50 of approximately 3.3 mg/kg. In order to determine the relative potency of this effect compared to other behavioral effects of clozapine, suppression of lever pressing was also studied. Clozapine reduced lever pressing in a dose-related manner, with an ED50 of approximately 5.4 mg/kg. This indicates that clozapine suppressed jaw movements at or below the doses required for suppression of lever pressing. In contrast, the typical antipsychotic drug haloperidol failed to suppress tacrine-induced tremulous jaw movements in doses up to 1.0 mg/kg, which is about 11-fold higher than the ED50 for suppression of lever pressing with that drug. Thioridazine and risperidone also suppressed tremulous jaw movements in roughly the same dose range at which lever pressing was reduced. It is possible that the suppression of tacrine-induced tremulous jaw movements by clozapine in rats is related to the unique behavioral and motor effects of clozapine. The ratio of potencies of these effects (i.e., suppression of tremulous jaw movements versus suppression of lever pressing) could be used as a behavioral procedure for assessing clozapine-like activity in novel compounds.
ESTHER : Trevitt_1997_Psychopharmacology.(Berl)_132_74
PubMedSearch : Trevitt_1997_Psychopharmacology.(Berl)_132_74
PubMedID: 9272762

Title : Motor dysfunction produced by tacrine administration in rats - Carriero_1997_Pharmacol.Biochem.Behav_58_851
Author(s) : Carriero DL , Outslay G , Mayorga AJ , Aberman J , Gianutsos G , Salamone JD
Ref : Pharmacol Biochem Behav , 58 :851 , 1997
Abstract : In the present study, three experiments were conducted to provide a characterization of some of the motor effects of the anticholinesterase tacrine (1.25-5.0 mg/kg I.P.) in rats. In the first experiment, tacrine was found to produce tremulous jaw movements in the dose range of 1.25-5.0 mg/kg. The second experiment examined the effects of tacrine on locomotion, and it was demonstrated that tacrine produced a dose-related suppression of open-field motor activity. In the third experiment, the effects of tacrine were assessed using operant conditioning procedures. Behavioral output during lever pressing on a fixed ratio 5 schedule was recorded by a computerized system that measured response initiation time (time from offset of one response to onset of the next) and duration for each lever press. Tacrine administration substantially depressed lever pressing response rate. This deficit was largely due to a substantial increase in the average response initiation time. Analysis of the distribution of response initiation times indicated that tacrine-treated rats made relatively few responses with fast initiation times (e.g., 0-125 ms), and also that tacrine led to a dramatic increase in the number of pauses in responding (i.e., response initiation times greater than 2.5 s). Tacrine-treated rats showed a slight increase in the average initiation time for fast responses (i.e., a slight decrease in the local rate of responding), and also showed a substantial increase in the average length of pauses greater than 2.5 s. Analysis of response durations indicated that there was an overall increase in average response duration among animals that received the higher doses of tacrine. Although tacrine-induced decreases in the local rate of responding and increases in response duration contribute to the overall deficit, the major reason why tacrine-treated animals responded less was because they took much longer breaks in responding. It is possible that the tacrine-induced increases in pausing reflect a drug-induced akinesia. Thus, the present experiments indicate that tacrine impairs several aspects of motor function in the dose range tested. In view of the fact that tremor and motor slowing are classic symptoms of Parkinsonism, the present results in rats are consistent with the human literature indicating that tacrine (Cognex) can produce Parkinsonian side effects. Studies of the motor dysfunctions produced by tacrine in rats could be useful for investigating the motor side effects of tacrine in humans.
ESTHER : Carriero_1997_Pharmacol.Biochem.Behav_58_851
PubMedSearch : Carriero_1997_Pharmacol.Biochem.Behav_58_851
PubMedID: 9408186