Bullock TL

References (2)

Title : Peptide aldehyde complexes with wheat serine carboxypeptidase II: implications for the catalytic mechanism and substrate specificity - Bullock_1996_J.Mol.Biol_255_714
Author(s) : Bullock TL , Breddam K , Remington SJ
Ref : Journal of Molecular Biology , 255 :714 , 1996
Abstract : The structures of two ternary complexes of wheat serine carboxypeptidase II (CPD-WII), with a tetrapeptide aldehyde and a reaction product arginine, have been determined by X-ray crystallography at room temperature and -170 degrees. The peptide aldehydes, antipain and chymostatin, form covalent adducts with the active-site serine 146. The CPD-WII antipain arginine model has a standard crystallographic R-factor of 0.162, with good geometry at 2.5 A resolution for data collected at room temperature. The -170 degrees C model of the chymostatin arginine complex has an R-factor of 0.174, with good geometry using data to 2.1 A resolution. The structures suggest binding subsites N-terminal to the scissile bond. All four residues of chymostatin are well-localized in the putative S1 through S4 sites, while density is apparent only in S1 and S2 for antipain. In the S1 site, Val340 and 341, Phe215 and Leu216 form a hydrophobic binding surface, not a pocket, for the P1 phenylalanyl side-chain of chymostatin. The P1 arginyl of antipain also binds at this site, but the positive charge appears to be stabilized by additional solvent molecules. Thus, the hybrid nature of the S1 site accounts for the ability of CPD-WII to accept both hydrophobic and basic residues at P1. Hydrogen bonds to the peptide substrate backbone are few and are made primarily with side-chains on the enzyme. Thus, substrate recognition by CPD-WII appears to have nothing in common with that of the other families of serine proteinases. The hemiacetal linkages to the essential Ser146 are of a single stereoisomer with tetrahedral geometry, with an oxygen atom occupying the "oxyanion hole" region of the enzyme. This atom accepts three hydrogen bonds, two from the polypeptide backbone and one from the positively-charged amino group of bound arginine, and must be negatively charged. Thus, the combination of ligands forms an excellent approximation to the oxyanion intermediate formed during peptide hydrolysis. Surprisingly, the (R) stereochemistry at the hemiacetal linkage is opposite to that expected by comparison to previously determined structures of peptide aldehydes complexed with Streptomyces griseus proteinase A. This is shown to be a consequence of the approximate mirror symmetry of the arrangement of catalytic groups in the two families of serine proteases and suggests that the stereochemical course of the two enzymatic reactions differ in handedness.
ESTHER : Bullock_1996_J.Mol.Biol_255_714
PubMedSearch : Bullock_1996_J.Mol.Biol_255_714
PubMedID: 8636973
Gene_locus related to this paper: wheat-cbp02

Title : Structure of the complex of L-benzylsuccinate with wheat serine carboxypeptidase II at 2.0-A resolution - Bullock_1994_Biochemistry_33_11127
Author(s) : Bullock TL , Branchaud B , Remington SJ
Ref : Biochemistry , 33 :11127 , 1994
Abstract : The structure of the complex of L-benzylsuccinate (Ki = 0.2 mM) bound to wheat serine carboxypeptidase II has been analyzed at 2.0-A resolution for native and inhibited crystals at -170 degrees C. The model has been refined and has a standard crystallographic R-factor of 0.176 for 57,734 reflections observed between 20.0- and 2.0-A resolution. The root mean square deviation from ideal bonds is 0.017 A and from ideal angles is 2.6 degrees. The model consists of 400 amino acids, 4 N-linked saccharide residues, and 430 water molecules. L-Benzylsuccinate occupies a narrow slot in the active site defined by Tyr 60, Tyr 239, and the polypeptide backbone. One carboxylate forms hydrogen bonds to Glu 145, Asn 51, the amide of Gly 52, and the catalytic His 397, suggestive of how the peptide C-terminal carboxylate is recognized by the enzyme. The phenyl ring stacks between Tyr 239 and Tyr 60, while the other carboxylate occupies the "oxyanion hole". One of the oxygens accepts hydrogen bonds from the amides of Tyr 147 and Gly 53, while the other forms a very close contact (2.3 A) with the O gamma of Ser 146, forcing the side chain into a conformation alternative to that found in the resting state of the enzyme. The inhibitor occupies the active site in a way that suggests that it can be regarded as a transition-state analogue of serine carboxypeptidases. The model suggests a novel enzymatic mechanism, involving substrate-assisted catalysis, that might account for the low pH optimum (4.0-5.5) of peptidase activity unique to this family of serine proteinases.
ESTHER : Bullock_1994_Biochemistry_33_11127
PubMedSearch : Bullock_1994_Biochemistry_33_11127
PubMedID: 7727364
Gene_locus related to this paper: wheat-cbp02