Monsch AU

References (3)

Title : Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors combined with memantine for moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease: a meta-analysis - Glinz_2019_Swiss.Med.Wkly_149_w20093
Author(s) : Glinz D , Gloy VL , Monsch AU , Kressig RW , Patel C , McCord KA , Ademi Z , Tomonaga Y , Schwenkglenks M , Bucher HC , Raatz H
Ref : Swiss Med Wkly , 149 :w20093 , 2019
Abstract : BACKGROUND: The clinical efficacy and safety of combination therapy with acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI) and memantine compared to AChEI or memantine alone in patients with Alzheimer’s disease is inconclusive. AIMS OF THE STUDY: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the clinical efficacy and safety of combination therapy of AChEI and memantine to monotherapy with either substance in patients with moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease (Mini-Mental State Examination score is <20). METHODS: We systematically searched EMBASE, Medline and CENTRAL until February 2018 for eligible RCTs. We pooled the outcome data using inverse variance weighting models assuming random effects, and assessed the quality of evidence (QoE) according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). RESULTS: We included nine RCTs (2604 patients). At short-term follow-up (closest to 6 months), combination therapy compared to AChEI monotherapy had a significantly greater effect on cognition than AChEI monotherapy (standardised mean difference [SMD] 0.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.05 to 0.35, 7 RCTs, low QoE) and clinical global impression (SMD −0.15, 95% CI −0.28 to −0.01, 4 RCTs, moderate QoE), but not on activities of daily living (SMD 0.09, 95% CI −0.01 to 0.18, 5 RCTs, moderate QoE) or behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (mean difference −3.07, 95% CI −6.53 to 0.38, 6 RCT, low QoE). There was no significant difference in adverse events (relative risk ratio 1.05, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.12, 4 RCTs, low QoE). Evidence for long-term follow-up (≥ 9 months) or nursing home placement was sparse. Only two studies compared combination therapy with memantine monotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Combination therapy had statistically significant effects on cognition and clinical global impression. The clinical relevance of these effects is uncertain. The overall QoE was very low. With the current evidence, it remains unclear whether combination therapy adds any benefit. Large pragmatic RCTs with long-term follow-up and focus on functional outcomes, delay in nursing home placement and adverse events are needed.  .
ESTHER : Glinz_2019_Swiss.Med.Wkly_149_w20093
PubMedSearch : Glinz_2019_Swiss.Med.Wkly_149_w20093
PubMedID: 31269225

Title : Plasma lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 activity in Alzheimer's disease, amnestic mild cognitive impairment, and cognitively healthy elderly subjects: a cross-sectional study - Davidson_2012_Alzheimers.Res.Ther_4_51
Author(s) : Davidson JE , Lockhart A , Amos L , Stirnadel-Farrant HA , Mooser V , Sollberger M , Regeniter A , Monsch AU , Irizarry MC
Ref : Alzheimers Res Ther , 4 :51 , 2012
Abstract : INTRODUCTION: Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is a circulating enzyme with pro-inflammatory and oxidative activities associated with cardiovascular disease and ischemic stroke. While high plasma Lp-PLA2 activity was reported as a risk factor for dementia in the Rotterdam study, no association between Lp-PLA2 mass and dementia or Alzheimer's disease (AD) was detected in the Framingham study. The objectives of the current study were to explore the relationship of plasma Lp-PLA2 activity with cognitive diagnoses (AD, amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), and cognitively healthy subjects), cardiovascular markers, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers of AD, and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype.
METHODS: Subjects with mild AD (n = 78) and aMCI (n = 59) were recruited from the Memory Clinic, University Hospital, Basel, Switzerland; cognitively healthy subjects (n = 66) were recruited from the community. Subjects underwent standardised medical, neurological, neuropsychological, imaging, genetic, blood and CSF evaluation. Differences in Lp-PLA2 activity between the cognitive diagnosis groups were tested with ANOVA and in multiple linear regression models with adjustment for covariates. Associations between Lp-PLA2 and markers of cardiovascular disease and AD were explored with Spearman's correlation coefficients.
RESULTS: There was no significant difference in plasma Lp-PLA2 activity between AD (197.1 (standard deviation, SD 38.4) nmol/min/ml) and controls (195.4 (SD 41.9)). Gender, statin use and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) were independently associated with Lp-PLA2 activity in multiple regression models. Lp-PLA2 activity was correlated with LDL and inversely correlated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL). AD subjects with APOE-epsilon4 had higher Lp-PLA2 activity (207.9 (SD 41.2)) than AD subjects lacking APOE-epsilon4 (181.6 (SD 26.0), P = 0.003) although this was attenuated by adjustment for LDL (P = 0.09). No strong correlations were detected for Lp-PLA2 activity and CSF markers of AD. CONCLUSION: Plasma Lp-PLA2 was not associated with a diagnosis of AD or aMCI in this cross-sectional study. The main clinical correlates of Lp-PLA2 activity in AD, aMCI and cognitively healthy subjects were variables associated with lipid metabolism.
ESTHER : Davidson_2012_Alzheimers.Res.Ther_4_51
PubMedSearch : Davidson_2012_Alzheimers.Res.Ther_4_51
PubMedID: 23217243

Title : Rivastigmine for the prevention of postoperative delirium in elderly patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery--a randomized controlled trial - Gamberini_2009_Crit.Care.Med_37_1762
Author(s) : Gamberini M , Bolliger D , Lurati Buse GA , Burkhart CS , Grapow M , Gagneux A , Filipovic M , Seeberger MD , Pargger H , Siegemund M , Carrel T , Seiler WO , Berres M , Strebel SP , Monsch AU , Steiner LA
Ref : Critical Care Medicine , 37 :1762 , 2009
Abstract : OBJECTIVE: Cardiac surgery is frequently followed by postoperative delirium, which is associated with increased 1-year mortality, late cognitive deficits, and higher costs. Currently, there are no recommendations for pharmacologic prevention of postoperative delirium. Impaired cholinergic transmission is believed to play an important role in the development of delirium. We tested the hypothesis that prophylactic short-term administration of oral rivastigmine, a cholinesterase inhibitor, reduces the incidence of delirium in elderly patients during the first 6 days after elective cardiac surgery. DESIGN: : Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. SETTING: One Swiss University Hospital. PATIENTS: One hundred twenty patients aged 65 or older undergoing elective cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. INTERVENTION: Patients were randomly assigned to receive either placebo or 3 doses of 1.5 mg of oral rivastigmine per day starting the evening before surgery and continuing until the evening of the sixth postoperative day. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The primary predefined outcome was delirium diagnosed with the Confusion Assessment Method within 6 days postoperatively. Secondary outcome measures were the results of daily Mini-Mental State Examinations and clock drawing tests, and the use of a rescue treatment consisting of haloperidol and/or lorazepam in patients with delirium. Delirium developed in 17 of 57 (30%) and 18 of 56 (32%) patients in the placebo and rivastigmine groups, respectively (p = 0.8). There was no treatment effect on the time course of Mini-Mental State Examinations and clock drawing tests (p = 0.4 and p = 0.8, respectively). There was no significant difference in the number of patients receiving haloperidol (18 of 57 and 17 of 56, p = 0.9) or lorazepam (38 of 57 and 35 of 56, p = 0.6) in the placebo and rivastigmine groups, respectively. CONCLUSION: This negative or, because of methodologic issues, possibly failed trial does not support short-term prophylactic administration of oral rivastigmine to prevent postoperative delirium in elderly patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass.
ESTHER : Gamberini_2009_Crit.Care.Med_37_1762
PubMedSearch : Gamberini_2009_Crit.Care.Med_37_1762
PubMedID: 19325490