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References (5)

Title : Contribution of mutations in low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) genes to familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL): A reappraisal by using a resequencing approach - Minicocci_2015_Atherosclerosis_242_618
Author(s) : Minicocci I , Prisco C , Montali A , Di Costanzo A , Ceci F , Pigna G , Arca M
Ref : Atherosclerosis , 242 :618 , 2015
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Defective low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) alleles have been implicated in familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL). However, their contribution might have been influenced by diagnostic criteria. This study was aimed to reassess the frequency of rare and common variants in LDLR and LPL in FCHL individuals classified with stringent criteria.
METHODS: LDLR and LPL were resequenced in 208 FHCL and 171 controls. Variants were classified as loss- (LOF) or gain-of-function (GOF) based upon in silico prediction, familial segregation and available functional data.
RESULTS: Eight LOF variants were detected in LDLR, 6 of which were missense and 2 were predicted to disrupt normal splicing; all were present at heterozygous state. They were found in 10 FCHL but not in controls, thus indicating that 4.8% of FCHL individuals should be reclassified as FH. LDL-C (positive) and BMI (negative) were the strongest predictors of LDLR mutations with LDL-C 181 mg/dl being the best threshold for diagnosing the presence of dysfunctional LDLR alleles. The cumulative prevalence of definite LPL defective alleles (1 rare and 2 common heterozygous missense variants) was comparable between FCHL and controls (10.1% vs. 10.5%). Conversely, the LPL GOF variant p.Ser474* showed a lower frequency in FCHL than in controls (13.5% vs. 24.0%, p = 0.008). Overall, LOF LPL variants did not show a TG-modulating effect.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that, in well characterized FCHL individuals, variants in LDLR and LPL provide a small contribution to this dyslipidemia, thus limiting the need for such genetic testing.
ESTHER : Minicocci_2015_Atherosclerosis_242_618
PubMedSearch : Minicocci_2015_Atherosclerosis_242_618
PubMedID: 26342331

Title : Genetic variants in adipose triglyceride lipase influence lipid levels in familial combined hyperlipidemia - Nanni_2010_Atherosclerosis_213_206
Author(s) : Nanni L , Quagliarini F , Megiorni F , Montali A , Minicocci I , Campagna F , Pizzuti A , Arca M
Ref : Atherosclerosis , 213 :206 , 2010
Abstract : OBJECTIVE: Familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL) has been associated with abnormalities in fatty acid metabolism. The adipose triglyceride lipase (PNPLA2) plays a pivotal role in the turnover of fatty acids in adipose tissue and liver. This study was designed to evaluate whether selected PNPLA2 variants may influence the susceptibility to FCHL or its lipid-related traits. METHODS: Four SNPs within the PNPLA2 gene (rs7925131, rs7942159, rs66460720 and the nonsynonymous P481L) were selected based on previous association with decreased plasma levels of free fatty acids (FFA) and total triglycerides (TG) and their high frequency (MAF>0.25). These SNPs were genotyped in 214 FCHL individuals from 83 families and in 103 controls and the corresponding haplotypes were reconstructed. RESULTS: No association between individual SNPs and the FCHL trait was observed. However, two PNPLA2 haplotypes were associated with lower risk of FCHL (P<0.004 after Bonferroni's correction). Compared to the others, these haplotypes were related to lower TG (118.9 +/- 66.8 vs. 197.1 +/- 114.7 mg/dl; P=0.001) and higher HDL-C (62.3 +/- 15.8 vs. 51.0 +/- 15.0 mg/dl; P<0.005). In a subgroup of studied subjects (n=63) protective haplotypes were also associated with lower FFA levels (0.33 +/- 0.11 vs. 0.46 +/- 0.18 mEq/L; P<0.05). These effects were independent from age, BMI and HOMA(IR). CONCLUSION: These data demonstrate that variants within PNPLA2 may modulate the TG component of FCHL trait, thus implicating PNPLA2 as modifier gene in this lipid disorder. They also suggest a potential role of PNPLA2 in the metabolism of TG-rich lipoproteins.
ESTHER : Nanni_2010_Atherosclerosis_213_206
PubMedSearch : Nanni_2010_Atherosclerosis_213_206
PubMedID: 20832801

Title : The molecular basis of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency syndromes: a comprehensive study of molecular and biochemical findings in 13 unrelated Italian families - Calabresi_2005_Arterioscler.Thromb.Vasc.Biol_25_1972
Author(s) : Calabresi L , Pisciotta L , Costantin A , Frigerio I , Eberini I , Alessandrini P , Arca M , Bon GB , Boscutti G , Busnach G , Frasca G , Gesualdo L , Gigante M , Lupattelli G , Montali A , Pizzolitto S , Rabbone I , Rolleri M , Ruotolo G , Sampietro T , Sessa A , Vaudo G , Cantafora A , Veglia F , Calandra S , Bertolini S , Franceschini G
Ref : Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol , 25 :1972 , 2005
Abstract : OBJECTIVE: To better understand the role of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) in lipoprotein metabolism through the genetic and biochemical characterization of families carrying mutations in the LCAT gene. METHODS AND
RESULTS: Thirteen families carrying 17 different mutations in the LCAT gene were identified by Lipid Clinics and Departments of Nephrology throughout Italy. DNA analysis of 82 family members identified 15 carriers of 2 mutant LCAT alleles, 11 with familial LCAT deficiency (FLD) and 4 with fish-eye disease (FED). Forty-four individuals carried 1 mutant LCAT allele, and 23 had a normal genotype. Plasma unesterified cholesterol, unesterified/total cholesterol ratio, triglycerides, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and pre-beta high-density lipoprotein (LDL) were elevated, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-I, apolipoprotein A-II, apolipoprotein B, LpA-I, LpA-I:A-II, cholesterol esterification rate, LCAT activity and concentration, and LDL and HDL3 particle size were reduced in a gene-dose-dependent manner in carriers of mutant LCAT alleles. No differences were found in the lipid/lipoprotein profile of FLD and FED cases, except for higher plasma unesterified cholesterol and unesterified/total cholesterol ratio in the former.
CONCLUSIONS: In a large series of subjects carrying mutations in the LCAT gene, the inheritance of a mutated LCAT genotype causes a gene-dose-dependent alteration in the plasma lipid/lipoprotein profile, which is remarkably similar between subjects classified as FLD or FED.
ESTHER : Calabresi_2005_Arterioscler.Thromb.Vasc.Biol_25_1972
PubMedSearch : Calabresi_2005_Arterioscler.Thromb.Vasc.Biol_25_1972
PubMedID: 15994445

Title : Common variants in the lipoprotein lipase gene, but not those in the insulin receptor substrate-1, the beta3-adrenergic receptor, and the intestinal fatty acid binding protein-2 genes, influence the lipid phenotypic expression in familial combined hyperlipidemia - Campagna_2002_Metabolism_51_1298
Author(s) : Campagna F , Montali A , Baroni MG , Maria AT , Ricci G , Antonini R , Verna R , Arca M
Ref : Metabolism , 51 :1298 , 2002
Abstract : Familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL) is a common, atherogenic lipid disorder characterized by a variable phenotypic expression of hyperlipidemia. Variations in genes regulating fatty acid metabolism must be considered in the search for factors affecting the lipid phenotypic expression of FCHL. Therefore, we have evaluated the association of the common variants in the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) (D9N, N291S, and S447X), insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) (G972R), fatty acid binding protein-2 (FABP-2) (A54T), and beta3-adrenergic receptor (beta3-AR) (W64R) genes with lipid and lipoprotein levels in 30 Italian FCHL families (195 individuals). The transmission disequilibriun test (TDT) was used to evaluate the association between these variants and the FCHL trait. No significant differences were observed in the frequencies of the common LPL variants between affected and nonaffected FCHL family members. A significantly lower frequency of the LPL447X allele was noted only when members of the FCHL families were compared with normolipemic controls (.06 v.142, respectively; P <.01) suggesting a reduced representation of this LPL variant in FCHL families. The frequencies of variants in the IRS-1, FABP-2, and beta3-AR genes were not significantly different between affected and nonaffected FCHL family members and normolipemic controls. The TDT did not demonstrate any significant association of these gene variants with the FCHL trait. FCHL individuals carrying the LPL N291S gene showed higher plasma lipids and apolipoprotein B (apoB) levels compared with affected noncarriers. Only a marginal effect of the LPL D9N and S447X variants on lipid levels in FCHL individuals was observed. Conversely, the variants in the IRS-1, FABP2, and beta3-AR genes did not show any major influence on lipid and lipoprotein levels in FCHL family members. In conclusion, these results confirmed that none of the investigated genes were major loci for FCHL. Nevertheless, variations in genes affecting the removal rate of triglycerides (TG) from plasma, such as the LPL gene, significantly influence the lipid phenotypic expression of FCHL. Conversely, genetic variants in the IRS-1, FABP-2, and the beta3-AR gene appear not to have a major role as modifier genes in FCHL.
ESTHER : Campagna_2002_Metabolism_51_1298
PubMedSearch : Campagna_2002_Metabolism_51_1298
PubMedID: 12370850

Title : The common mutations in the lipoprotein lipase gene in Italy: effects on plasma lipids and angiographically assessed coronary atherosclerosis - Arca_2000_Clin.Genet_58_369
Author(s) : Arca M , Campagna F , Montali A , Barilla F , Mangieri E , Tanzilli G , Seccareccia F , Campa PP , Ricci G , Pannitteri G
Ref : Clin Genet , 58 :369 , 2000
Abstract : The present study evaluated the role of the common lipoprotein lipase (LPL) mutations on the risk of dyslipidemia and coronary atherosclerosis in an Italian population. Cohorts of 632 patients undergoing coronary angiography, as well as 191 healthy controls, were screened by a combination of PCR and restriction enzyme digestion. In the pooled population, the frequencies of LPL D9N and N291S were 4.1%, with no homozygous carriers, whereas that of LPL S447X was 21% with 19.6% heterozygous and 1.4% homozygous carriers. Compared to non-carriers, LPL N291S carriers showed higher plasma triglycerides (TG) (p < 0.03) and increased risk of high TG phenotype (odds ratio [OR] 2.49, 95% Cl 1.06-5.81; p < 0.03). When this LPL mutation was associated with high body mass index (BMI) ( > 25 Kg/m2) or fasting, plasma insulin (> 10.6 mU ml(-1)) significantly reduced HDL-C levels were also observed. Carriers of the S447X mutation presented with higher HDL-C concentrations (p < 0.05) as compared to non-carriers; they also showed a significantly reduced risk of high TG/low HDL-C dyslipidemia (OR 0.34, 95%, Cl 0.12-0.99; p < 0.05). The favourable effect of the LPL S447X variant was even more pronounced in lean subjects and in those with low insulin levels. No significant influence on plasma lipids by the LPL D9N was observed. None of LPL variants was a significant predictor of angiographically assessed coronary atherosclerosis. At most, the risk was borderline, increased in N291S carriers and possibly decreased in S447X carriers.
ESTHER : Arca_2000_Clin.Genet_58_369
PubMedSearch : Arca_2000_Clin.Genet_58_369
PubMedID: 11140837