Nemcsok J

References (13)

Title : Effect of the pesticide Deltamethrin on the Mauthner cells of Lake Balaton fish - Csillik_2000_Neurotoxicol_21_343
Author(s) : Csillik B , Fazakas J , Nemcsok J , Knyihar-Csillik E
Ref : Neurotoxicology , 21 :343 , 2000
Abstract : Deltamethrin, a synthetic pesticide [(S)alpha-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl-(1R)-cis-3-(2.2-dibromovinyl)-2,2-dim ethylcyclopropane-carboxylate] used for extermination of mosquitoes on the shores of lake Balaton, has been found to induce severe impairments of the nervous system of several Lake Balaton fish, such as carp (Cyprinus carpio), goldfish (Carassius auratus gibelis Bloch), eel (Anguilla anguilla) and wels (Silurus glanis). It has been shown that Deltamethrin, in a concentration of 1 microgram/liter in the aquarium water, inhibits acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity of the giant Mauthner's nerve cells as well as of the axon terminals synapsing with these cells. Even more importantly, however, Deltamethrin in a concentration of 10 micrograms per liter, induces blockade of the expression of choline acetyltransferase in the bulbous axon terminals synapsing with the lateral dendrites of the Mauthner cells. Since, under normal conditions, the function of the Mauthner cells is to co-ordinate the C-start reaction, by which fish rapidly leave sites of nociceptive stimulation, it stands for reason to assume that Deltamethrin intoxicated fish may be prone to become victims of various factors which endanger survival of the individual. During the last decade, waves of fish deaths were observed in Lake Balaton, which is the largest fresh-water lake in Europe. Fish death coincided with airborne mosquito-killing campaigns. Results of the enzyme- and immunohistochemical studies described in this paper, together with the deleterious effects of Deltamethrin to the enteric nervous system of fish which has been reported earlier (Lang et al., 1997) suggest that fish death might be caused by the indiscriminate use of Deltamethrin airborne spray in the mosquito-extermination campaigns.
ESTHER : Csillik_2000_Neurotoxicol_21_343
PubMedSearch : Csillik_2000_Neurotoxicol_21_343
PubMedID: 10894124

Title : Effects of synthetic pyrethroids and methidation on activities of some digestive enzymes in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) - Simon_1999_J.Environ.Sci.Health.B_34_819
Author(s) : Simon LM , Laszlo K , Kotorman M , Vertesi A , Bagi K , Nemcsok J
Ref : J Environ Sci Health B , 34 :819 , 1999
Abstract : The effects of pyrethroid pesticides (deltamethrin, permethrin and cypermethrin) and an organophosphate ester (methidation) on the activities of carp trypsin, alpha-chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase A and lipase were studied. The enzymes were isolated from the gastrointestinal tract and the effects of the pesticides were investigated during incubation for 5 min. The activity of trypsin was influenced only slightly by the presence of deltamethrin and methidation, whereas permethrin and cypermethrin caused significant inhibition. The pyrethroid pesticides at lower concentrations resulted in a slight activation of alpha-chymotrypsin. Methidation inhibited the alpha-chymotrypsin activity by about 20%. These pesticides modified the lipase activity to a lesser extent; the highest inhibition was measured with cypermethrin. The carboxypeptidase A activity was inhibited by both pyrethroid pesticides and methidation. The results suggest that these pesticides might interact with the active conformation of the studied hydrolytic enzymes, resulting in changes in their activities.
ESTHER : Simon_1999_J.Environ.Sci.Health.B_34_819
PubMedSearch : Simon_1999_J.Environ.Sci.Health.B_34_819
PubMedID: 10466103

Title : The contribution of a pyrethroid insecticide to the massive eel (Anguilla anguilla) devastation, in Lake Balaton, in 1995 - Nemcsok_1999_Acta.Biol.Hung_50_161
Author(s) : Nemcsok J , Balint T , Fazakas J , Katai F , Kiss I , Hieu LH , Kufcsak O , Lang G , Polyhos C , Szabo I , Szegletes T
Ref : Acta Biologica Hungarica , 50 :161 , 1999
Abstract : In the summer of 1995, 30 tonnes of eel (Anguilla anguilla) died in Lake Balaton, Hungary. An investigation was carried out to find the causes of this ecocatastrophe. During this investigation, certain biochemical parameters, i.e. the blood sugar level, the acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC 3.1.1.7), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, EC 1.1.2.3), glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT, EC 2.6.1.1), and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT, EC 2.6.1.2) activities in the blood serum of the collected surviving and dying eels were examined. Deltamethrin, the active ingredient of the insecticide K-OTHRIN 1 ULV, used against mosquitoes was detected in different animal species, i.e. eel, bream (Abramis brama), pike perch (Stizostedion lucioperca), and the common gull (Larus canus) and in sediment samples from the lake. Additionally, laboratory experiments were carried out to study the effects of deltamethrin on eels. During the investigation in the field it appeared that the AChE activity was significantly lower in the blood serum of the dying eels as compared to that in living animals (P<0.05, Student's t-test). The blood glucose content exhibited a difference, too: it was 2.5 times higher in the dying eels than in the surviving ones. A huge increase in the LDH level was measured in the dying eels. The GOT activities of the serum were twice as high in the dying eels as in the living fish, while the GPT was not significantly changed. Deltamethrin was detected in different tissue samples of the dying eels: 2.70-18.1 microg/kg in the liver, 9.0-31.1 microg/kg in the gill and 3.0 microg/kg wet tissue in the muscle. Deltamethrin residues were found in tissue samples from other animals, in the following concentrations: 0.44 microg/kg in bream, 2.14 microg/kg in pike perch and 1.06 microg/kg wet tissue in dead gulls. The sediment samples collected from the sites of the devastation contained deltamethrin in a concentration of 5.50-30.00 microg/kg wet sediment at the time of the eel deaths, and in a concentration 7.00-8.75 microg/kg wet sediment a month later. Laboratory experiments with the insecticide K-OTHRIN 1 ULV revealed that 1.00 microg/l of its active ingredient, deltamethrin, caused the death of 50% of the eels after an exposure time of 96 h. During this experiments similar trends could be observed in changes of enzyme activities of the treated eels to those that were detected in filed study during the eel devastation in Lake Balaton. At the end of a one-week treatment with the insecticide at the concentration of 0.5 microg/l of its active ingredient the gills of the treated eels contained deltamethrin at 12.6-44.8 microg/kg wet tissue concentration, while at the 24th hour after the treatment (11.2-42.7 microg/kg wet tissue) deltamethrin concentration in the liver of treated eels could be detected. All the above-mentioned changes and the detected deltamethrin residue in the eels appear to demonstrate the contribution of deltamethrin to the severe eel devastation. This information on the ecological risk of pyrethroid insecticides might be useful in their further application.
ESTHER : Nemcsok_1999_Acta.Biol.Hung_50_161
PubMedSearch : Nemcsok_1999_Acta.Biol.Hung_50_161
PubMedID: 10574437

Title : Similarities and differences between the massive eel (Anguilla anguilla L.) devastations that occurred in Lake Balaton in 1991 and 1995 - Balint_1997_Ecotoxicol.Environ.Saf_37_17
Author(s) : Balint T , Ferenczy J , Katai F , Kiss I , Kraczer L , Kufcsak O , Lang G , Polyhos C , Szabo I , Szegletes T , Nemcsok J
Ref : Ecotoxicology & Environmental Safety , 37 :17 , 1997
Abstract : In the past few years, two massive eel (Anguilla anguilla L.) devastations occurred in Lake Balaton, Hungary. In 1991, 300 tons of eel perished in the western basin of the lake, while in the summer of 1995 30 tons of eel died in the eastern part of the lake. Investigations carried out to find the causes of these ecocatastrophes included measurements of certain biochemical parameters: the blood sugar level, and the acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC 3.1.1.7), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, EC 1.1.2.3), glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT, EC 2.6.1.1) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT, EC 2.6.1.2) activities in the blood serum of the collected eels. In both 1991 and 1995, deltamethrin (DM), the active ingredient of the insecticide K-OTHRIN 1 ULV used against mosquitoes, was detected in the eels; in 1995 it was demonstrated in several other animal species, i.e., bream (Abramis brama L.), pike perch (Stizostedion lucioperca L.), and the common gull (Larus canus), and in sediment samples from the lake. Additionally, laboratory experiments were carried out to study the effects of DM on eels. In 1991, eels were collected from the western (the site of the devastation) and eastern basins of the lake. The eels from the eastern basin were used as controls. At that time, the AChE activity in the blood serum of the eels from the western basin was significantly inhibited compared to that in animals from the eastern basin (P < 0.05, Student t test). Eels from the western part of the lake had GOT and GPT levels 20 and 100%, respectively, higher than those of eels from the eastern part of the lake. The blood glucose level was much higher in the eels from the affected area of the lake as compared to those from the eastern part. The brain and liver of the eels contained DM residues at 20 micrograms/kg wet tissue (Gnczy, 1992). Gnczy suspected that one of the causes of the massive eel loss in 1991 was the presence of DM in the fish. In 1995, when the eel devastation occurred in the eastern basin, moribund and surviving eels were collected from this part of the lake. The AChE activity was significantly inhibited in the blood serum of the dying eels as compared to that in surviving animals (P < 0.05, Student t test). The blood glucose content exhibited a difference too: it was 2.5 times higher in the dying eels than in the surviving ones. A huge increase in the LDH level was measured in the dying eels, indicating damage to different muscle tissues to an extent never observed previously. The GOT activities of the serum were twice as high in the dying eels as in the living fish. The GPT was not significantly changed in the serum of dying eels as compared to the surviving animals. DM was detected in different tissue samples of the dying eels: 2.7-18.5 micrograms/kg in the liver, 9.0-31.1 micrograms/kg in the gill, and 3.0 micrograms/kg wet tissue in the muscle. DM residues were found in tissue samples from other animals, in the following concentrations: 0.4 micrograms/kg in bream, 2.1 micrograms/kg in pike perch, 1.1 micrograms/kg wet tissue in dead gulls. The sediment samples collected from different places and at different times contained DM in a concentration of 5.5-30.0 micrograms/kg wet sediment at the time of the eel deaths, while the sediment samples collected from the same places a month later still contained DM at 7.0-8.8 micrograms/kg wet sediment. Laboratory experiments with the insecticide K-OTHRIN 1 ULV revealed that 1.0 microgram/liter of its active ingredient, DM, caused the death of 50% of the eels after an incubation time of 96 hr. In the liver of the dead eels, DM was detected at 2.9-20.0 micrograms/kg wet tissue. All the above-mentioned changes and the DM residue detected in the eels appear to demonstrate the contribution of DM in the severe eel devastation. This finding on the ecological risk of such types of insecticides might be useful in their further application.
ESTHER : Balint_1997_Ecotoxicol.Environ.Saf_37_17
PubMedSearch : Balint_1997_Ecotoxicol.Environ.Saf_37_17
PubMedID: 9212331

Title : Quantitative distributions of different cholinesterases and inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by metidathion and paraquat in alimentary canal of common carp - Lang_1997_Gen.Pharmacol_29_55
Author(s) : Lang G , Kufcsak O , Szegletes T , Nemcsok J
Ref : General Pharmacology , 29 :55 , 1997
Abstract : 1. The cholinesterases play an important role in the innervation of organs. The ratio of solubilized to membrane-bound cholinesterase and the quantitative distributions of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase were measured in different segments of the gut of carp (Cyprinus carpio) connected with different types of nerve-muscle synapses in different parts of the alimentary tract. 2. The inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.7.) by the herbicide paraquat and the insecticide metidathion was measured in different parts of the gut of carp. 3. Metidathion and paraquat significantly decreased the activity of acetylcholinesterase in different segments of the alimentary tract of common carp, in a concentration-dependent manner.
ESTHER : Lang_1997_Gen.Pharmacol_29_55
PubMedSearch : Lang_1997_Gen.Pharmacol_29_55
PubMedID: 9195193

Title : Study of the effects of brief exposure to an organophosphorous insecticide (methidathion) on blood characteristics of carp (Cyprinus carpio) - Hughes_1997_Acta.Biol.Hung_48_157
Author(s) : Hughes GM , Szegletes T , Nemcsok J
Ref : Acta Biologica Hungarica , 48 :157 , 1997
Abstract : 1. Carp with the dorsal aorta cannulated have been used to study the effects of a 5 hour exposure to methidathion at concentrations of 2 or 6 mg/litre. Blood samples taken during control, exposed and recovery periods were used to determine plasma acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, haematocrit value, mean cell volume, total plasma protein, and filtration time through Nucleopore filters containing pores of 8 microns. 2. A drastic inhibition of AChE activity was observed and this continued during the recovery for at least 5 days. Changes in other blood parameters were less marked and recovered soon after fish were returned to non-polluted water. The increased haematocrit and decrease in filtration time suggests some impairment of gas transfer during exposure but the depletion of AChE activity and associated muscular and neural disturbances are more serious results of pollution with this organophosphate insecticide.
ESTHER : Hughes_1997_Acta.Biol.Hung_48_157
PubMedSearch : Hughes_1997_Acta.Biol.Hung_48_157
PubMedID: 9404539

Title : In vivo effects of deltamethrin exposure on activity and distribution of molecular forms of carp AChE - Szegletes_1995_Ecotoxicol.Environ.Saf_31_258
Author(s) : Szegletes T , Balint T , Szegletes Z , Nemcsok J
Ref : Ecotoxicology & Environmental Safety , 31 :258 , 1995
Abstract : The in vivo effects of the insecticide deltamethrin (DM) on the activity and molecular forms of acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC 3.1.1.7) were examined in different organs (brain, blood serum, heart, liver, and skeletal muscle) of carp. The chosen exposure conditions were a DM concentration of 2 micrograms/liter in the water (12 +/- 1 degrees C) for 3 days. All the treated fish survived the experiment, though the effects of the treatment were very visible: the fish always turned on their side, and the skin/scales became infected during the exposure to DM. DM did not result in a significant change in the AChE activity in any of the studied organs except the blood plasma, where the exposure resulted in an AChE activity decrease of as much as 20%. The ratio of membrane-bound to salt-soluble AChE forms was determined in the control fish. This ratio increased in the sequence heart, skeletal muscle, liver, and brain. The distribution of the AChE molecular forms was studied in the above tissues. The brain and liver contained forms G1, G4, and A12, the heart and skeletal muscle G4, A4, and A12, and the blood serum G1 and G4. The exposure to 2 micrograms/liter DM for 3 days caused hardly any changes in the pattern of the different AChE molecular forms. A small, but significant (P < 0.05) increase in the proportion of the G4 form was observed in the liver, while G1 and A12 decreased by a few percent (but insignificantly). No other tissues investigated exhibited any changes in the distribution of the AChE molecular forms.
ESTHER : Szegletes_1995_Ecotoxicol.Environ.Saf_31_258
PubMedSearch : Szegletes_1995_Ecotoxicol.Environ.Saf_31_258
PubMedID: 7498065

Title : Changes Caused by Methidathion in Activity and Distribution of Molecular Forms of Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) AChE - Szegletes_1995_Pestic.Biochem.Physiol_52_71
Author(s) : Szegletes T , Balint T , Szegletes Z , Nemcsok J
Ref : Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology , 52 :71 , 1995
Abstract : The activity and molecular forms of acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC 3.1.1.7) were characterized in the heart and skeletal muscle of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) exposed to 2 mg/liter of the insecticide methidathion (MD; S-2,3-dihydro-5-methoxy-2-oxo-1,3,4-thiodiazol-3-yl-methyl-O,O-dimethyl phosphodithioate) for 5 days at a water temperature of 12 +/- 1degC. The specific activity of the heart AChE (4.78 +/- 2.14 10-2 U/mg protein) was higher than that of the muscle AChE (2.53 +/- 0.75 10-2 U/mg protein) in control carp. The solubility properties and molecular forms of the AChE in the two tissues were studied by extraction in high-salt medium (1 and 0.4 M NaCl) with and without Triton X-100. The ratio of membrane-bound to salt-soluble forms of AChE was higher in the muscle than in the heart. Velocity sedimentation centrifugation revealed that the skeletal muscle and the heart contained three molecular forms: G4, A4, and A12. After the in vivo exposure of fish to MD, the AChE activity decreased significantly (77-92%) in the tissues investigated. Furthermore, the relative distribution of the AChE molecular forms differed somewhat from that in the control fish. Form Gl became detectable after the treatment, but could not be measured in the control tissues. The proportions of the other forms decreased by a few percentages. The accumulation of MD was studied in seven organs: the brain, heart, intestine, kidney, liver, muscle, and roe. The liver and roe had the highest MD contents, and the heart and muscle had the lowest. This study shows the MD not only blocks the activity of AChE, but also modifies the distribution of its molecular forms.
ESTHER : Szegletes_1995_Pestic.Biochem.Physiol_52_71
PubMedSearch : Szegletes_1995_Pestic.Biochem.Physiol_52_71
PubMedID:

Title : Investigation of Effects of Pesticides on Molecular Forms of AChE in Alimentary Canals of Carp - Kufcsak_1994_Pestic.Biochem.Physiol_49_155
Author(s) : Kufcsak O , Szegletes T , Lang G , Halasy K , Benedeczky I , Nemcsok J
Ref : Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology , 49 :155 , 1994
Abstract : All parts of the carp intestine contain three different molecular forms of acetylcholinesterase (AChE): G1, G4 and A12. After paraquat treatment there were no significant changes in AChE activity, whereas after CuSO4 treatment there was a slight increase in activity. During exposure of carp to 2 ppm methidathion in vivo, the AChE activity in the tissues investigated decreased significantly. Moreover, the relative distribution of the molecular forms of AChE changed relative to that in the control animals. The results suggest that an investigation of the molecular forms of fish AChE could contribute to an understanding of fish AChE at a molecular level and emphasize the importance of in vivo and in vitro approaches in assessing chemical effects and their potential hazards in the aquatic environment.
ESTHER : Kufcsak_1994_Pestic.Biochem.Physiol_49_155
PubMedSearch : Kufcsak_1994_Pestic.Biochem.Physiol_49_155
PubMedID:

Title : The effect of pesticides on carp (Cyprinus carpio L). Acetylcholinesterase and its biochemical characterization - Szabo_1992_Ecotoxicol.Environ.Saf_23_39
Author(s) : Szabo A , Nemcsok J , Asztalos B , Rakonczay Z , Kasa P , Hieu LH
Ref : Ecotoxicology & Environmental Safety , 23 :39 , 1992
Abstract : The activity and molecular forms of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were characterized in tissues of the carp (Cyprinus carpio). Tissue AChE activity was determined in response to specific inhibitors (ethopropazine, BW 284 C51) or pesticides (CuSO4, paraquat (PQ), methidathion (MD)). The highest AChE activity was found in the serum (878 +/- 100 U/liter), followed by the brain (113 +/- 12 U/liter), heart (89 +/- 6 U/liter), and trunk muscle (35 +/- 5 U/liter). Experiments with specific choline esterase inhibitors revealed a very low amount of pseudocholinesterase in all tissues studied. The ratio of the membrane-bound to the cytoplasmic-free AChE molecular forms was increased in the order of brain, trunk muscle, and heart. In sera of fish treated with MD (2 ppm) there was an 80% inhibition of AChE lasting for 2 weeks. Treatment with CuSO4 or PQ (both 5 ppm) led to a 50% decrease in the serum AChE activity followed by a transient increase over the control level. After 2 weeks of chronic treatment, AChE activity in fish exposed to CuSO4 returned to the control level, whereas in fish treated with PQ an elevated level (130% when compared to the control level) of enzyme activity was found. Our present experimental data indicate that pesticides occurring in natural waters not only inhibit AChE activity in fish but may influence the resynthesis of the enzyme as well.
ESTHER : Szabo_1992_Ecotoxicol.Environ.Saf_23_39
PubMedSearch : Szabo_1992_Ecotoxicol.Environ.Saf_23_39
PubMedID: 1375147

Title : Effects of methidathion on distribution of molecular forms of acetylcholinesterase in carp, as revealed by density gradient centrifugation - Nemcsok_1990_Pestic.Biochem.Physiol_37_140
Author(s) : Nemcsok J , Rakonczay Z , Kasa P , Asztalos B , Szabo A
Ref : Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology , 37 :140 , 1990
Abstract : The effects of the insecticide methidathion (MD) (S-2,3-dihydro-5-methoxy-2-oxo-1,3,4-thiodiazol-3-yl-methyl-O,O-dimethyl-phosphodithioate) were studied on the molecular forms of acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC 3.1.1.7) in the brain and liver in carp. Both organs contain three different molecular forms: G1, G4, and A12. During exposure of fish to 2 ppm MD in vivo, the enzyme activity decreased significantly in the tissues investigated. Moreover, the relative distribution of the AChE molecular forms changed compared to that in the control animals. There was a significant decrease in the G1 form and an increase in the G4 form in the brain, while in the liver there was a decrease in the G4 form and an increase of about 50% in the G1 form. The results suggest that the investigation of fish AChE molecular forms could contribute to an understanding of fish AChE at a molecular level and emphasize the importance of in vivo and in vitro approaches in assessing chemical effects and their potential hazards in the aquatic environment.
ESTHER : Nemcsok_1990_Pestic.Biochem.Physiol_37_140
PubMedSearch : Nemcsok_1990_Pestic.Biochem.Physiol_37_140
PubMedID:

Title : Accumulation of pesticides in the organs of carp, Cyprinus carpio L., at 4 degrees and 20 degrees C -
Author(s) : Nemcsok J , Orban L , Asztalos B , Vig E
Ref : Bulletin of Environmental Contamination & Toxicology , 39 :370 , 1987
PubMedID: 3663990

Title : [Physiopathologic data on the action of selected fungicides and herbicides in carp] -
Author(s) : Vig E , Orban L , Nemcsok J , Asztalos B
Ref : Archiv Exp Veterinarmed , 41 :491 , 1987
PubMedID: 3675117