Vezzani A

References (6)

Title : Impulse flow dependency of galanin release in vivo in the rat ventral hippocampus - Consolo_1994_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_91_8047
Author(s) : Consolo S , Baldi G , Russi G , Civenni G , Bartfai T , Vezzani A
Ref : Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A , 91 :8047 , 1994
Abstract : Using microdialysis and a sensitive RIA, we have studied the in vivo release of the neuropeptide galanin (GAL) from the ventral hippocampus of freely moving rats. The spontaneous outflow of GAL-like immunoreactivity (GAL-LI) (1.8 +/- 0.3 fmol per ml per 20 min) was dependent on the presence of extracellular Ca2+ and was inhibited by tetrodotoxin. Evoked release induced by infusion of KCl (60 mM) or veratridine (148 microM) was also Ca(2+)-dependent and sensitive to tetrodotoxin. Electrical stimulation of the ventral limb of the diagonal band nuclei induced a frequency-dependent (50-200 Hz) and tetrodotoxin-sensitive overflow of GAL-LI in the hippocampus. In vitro GAL-LI release (1.0 +/- 0.02 fmol per ml per 5 min), studied in slices of rat ventral hippocampus, was also Ca(2+)-dependent and was increased in a concentration-dependent manner by KCl depolarization. This study demonstrates the release of the neuropeptide GAL in the rat central nervous system. The in vivo release is related to the activity of the cholinergic GAL-LI-containing cells in the septal diagonal band nuclei. The results are discussed in relation to the coexistence of GAL and acetylcholine within the septal/diagonal band complex.
ESTHER : Consolo_1994_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_91_8047
PubMedSearch : Consolo_1994_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_91_8047
PubMedID: 7520174

Title : Genetic toxicity of a mixture of fifteen pesticides commonly found in the Italian diet - Dolara_1993_Cell.Biol.Toxicol_9_333
Author(s) : Dolara P , Vezzani A , Caderni G , Coppi C , Torricelli F
Ref : Cell Biol Toxicol , 9 :333 , 1993
Abstract : To determine the toxicological effects of complex mixtures of pesticides, we obtained data on 100 pesticide residues in common foods of central Italy. Fifteen pesticides were more regularly detected at higher levels (dithiocarbamates, benomyl/carbendazim, thiabendazole, diphenylamine, chlorthalonil, procymidone, fenarimol, chlorpropham, vinchlozolin, methidathion, chlorpyriphos-ethyl, parathion-methyl, parathion, chlorfenviphos, pirimiphos-ethyl). Using itemized data on daily food consumption in Italy, we calculated that the average exposure for an adult subject was 716 micrograms/day, ranging from 148 micrograms of dithiocarbamates to 1 microgram of pirimiphos-ethyl. We made a mixture of these 15 pesticides at concentrations proportional to the ratio determined in foods and tested it with the Salmonella-microsome assay, with and without metabolic activation with PCB-induced rat liver S9. No mutagenic activity was observed at concentrations up to 500 micrograms/plate. We also tested the same mixture at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 20 micrograms/ml on human lymphocytes in vitro, and observed a slight but statistically significant increase in sister-chromatid exchanges at 1 microgram/ml. We also administered the mixture in corn oil by gavage to Wistar rats at doses of 1, 10, and 100 micrograms/kg. After 24 hr the ratio between bone marrow polychromatic and normochromatic lymphocytes (a sign of cellular toxicity) was decreased by the exposure, but we did not observe a significant increase in the frequency of micronuclei. We conclude that the pesticide mixture did not have appreciable genotoxic activity in the assays used.
ESTHER : Dolara_1993_Cell.Biol.Toxicol_9_333
PubMedSearch : Dolara_1993_Cell.Biol.Toxicol_9_333
PubMedID: 8039010

Title : Determination of endogenous acetylcholine release in freely moving rats by transstriatal dialysis coupled to a radioenzymatic assay: effect of drugs - Consolo_1987_J.Neurochem_48_1459
Author(s) : Consolo S , Wu CF , Fiorentini F , Ladinsky H , Vezzani A
Ref : Journal of Neurochemistry , 48 :1459 , 1987
Abstract : The technique of intracerebral dialysis in combination with a sensitive and specific radioenzymatic method was used for recovery and quantification of endogenous extracellular acetylcholine from the striata of freely moving rats. A thin dialysis tube was inserted transversally through the caudate nuclei, and the tube was perfused with Ringer solution, pH 6.1, at a constant rate of 2 microliter min-1. The perfusates were collected at 10-min intervals. In the presence of 1 and 10 microM physostigmine, acetylcholine release was 4.5 +/- 0.02 and 7.3 +/- 0.3 pmol/10 min, respectively (not corrected for recovery). The latter concentration of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor was used in all experiments. Under basal conditions, acetylcholine output was stable over at least 4 h. A depolarizing K+ concentration produced a sharp, reversible 87% increase in acetylcholine output. Both the basal and K+-stimulated release were Ca2+ dependent. The choline uptake inhibitor hemicholinium-3 (20 micrograms intracerebroventricularly) reduced striatal acetylcholine output to 35% of the basal value within 90 min. Scopolamine (0.34 mg/kg s.c.) provoked a sharp enhancement of acetylcholine release of approximately 63% over basal values, whereas oxotremorine (0.53 mg/kg i.p.) transiently reduced acetylcholine release by 54%. These results indicate the physiological and pharmacological suitability of transstriatal dialysis for monitoring endogenous acetylcholine release.
ESTHER : Consolo_1987_J.Neurochem_48_1459
PubMedSearch : Consolo_1987_J.Neurochem_48_1459
PubMedID: 3559560

Title : In vivo and in vitro studies on the regulation of cholinergic neurotransmission in striatum, hippocampus and cortex of aged rats - Consolo_1986_Brain.Res_374_212
Author(s) : Consolo S , Wang JX , Fiorentini F , Vezzani A , Ladinsky H
Ref : Brain Research , 374 :212 , 1986
Abstract : Young (3 months) and senescent (23 months) rats were challenged with oxotremorine both in vivo, to determine its effects on acetylcholine content in hemispheric regions, and in vitro, to assess its action on K+-evoked release of ACh from brain synaptosomes. The drug failed to inhibit KCl-induced [3H]ACh release from the P2 fraction of striatal and hippocampal homogenates of the senescent animals, whereas it was less efficient in increasing striatal ACh content. In contrast, oxotremorine was still able to stimulate an increase in ACh in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex of the aged rats to the same extent as it did in the young ones. The [3H]ACh output from striatal synaptosomes was lower in old rats with respect to young ones at low KCl depolarizing concentrations but was equal in the two groups at a high depolarizing concentration. In the hippocampus of the senescent rats, the release was significantly lower at each concentration of KCl used, resulting in a parallel downward-shift in the concentration-release plot. We also measured cholinergic muscarinic receptor binding in rat hemispheric regions using the radioligand [3H]dexetimide, a classical non-selective muscarinic receptor antagonist. It was found, in conformity with some of the literature, that receptor binding was decreased by about 32% in striatum of aged female rats as compared to younger rats. Changes were not observed in cortex and hippocampus. Analysis of the binding data indicated that the observed decrease in specific ligand binding was due to a decrease in the number of binding sites without a change in affinity. The results favor, once again, the cholinergic hypothesis for geriatric dysfunction.
ESTHER : Consolo_1986_Brain.Res_374_212
PubMedSearch : Consolo_1986_Brain.Res_374_212
PubMedID: 3013365

Title : Mode of action of gamma-butyrolactone on the central cholinergic system - Ladinsky_1983_Naunyn.Schmiedebergs.Arch.Pharmacol_322_42
Author(s) : Ladinsky H , Consolo S , Zatta A , Vezzani A
Ref : Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol , 322 :42 , 1983
Abstract : Gamma-butylactone (GBL), a drug depressing the central nervous system, produced marked increases in acetylcholine contents in rat brain hemispheric regions (striatum, hippocampus, cortex) and in striatal choline content without modifying choline acetyltransferase or acetylcholinesterase activities. In the hippocampus GBL also strongly decreased the acetylcholine turnover rate and inhibited the high affinity uptake of choline. Its increase in acetylcholine content was prevented by an acute electrolytic lesion of the medial septum but not by a wide array of drug treatments designed to interfere with neurotransmission in various pathways. The results are taken to indicate that GBL directly depresses the cholinergic septal-hippocampal afferents by interrupting impulse flow. In the striatum, too, GBL markedly depressed the acetylcholine synthesis rate but had no effect on the high affinity choline uptake process. Such dissociation of the two phenomena had previously been observed using other drugs and may denote that acetylcholine synthesis in this region is regulated differently from that in the hippocampus. By comparison, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHBA), an active metabolite which shares with GBL the capacity to produce a somnolent state and depress impulse flow in the dopaminergic nigroneostriatal pathway, had no effect on either striatal acetylcholine content or on hippocampal high affinity choline uptake. The results suggest that GBL can be distinguished from GHBA in its neuropharmacological central cholinergic effects.
ESTHER : Ladinsky_1983_Naunyn.Schmiedebergs.Arch.Pharmacol_322_42
PubMedSearch : Ladinsky_1983_Naunyn.Schmiedebergs.Arch.Pharmacol_322_42
PubMedID: 6843688

Title : Effect of dimethylamino-2-ethoxyimino-2-adamantane (CM 54903), a non-polar dimethylaminoethanol analog, on brain regional cholinergic neurochemical parameters - Vezzani_1982_Biochem.Pharmacol_31_1693
Author(s) : Vezzani A , Zatta A , Ladinsky H , Caccia S , Garattini S , Consolo S
Ref : Biochemical Pharmacology , 31 :1693 , 1982
Abstract : CM 54903, a new psychotropic drug with a particular pharmacological profile, produced a widespread but short-lasting decrease in acetylcholine content in rat brain hemispheric regions but not in the midbrain-hindbrain or cerebellum at the dose of 40 mg/kg, i.p. The decrease was most conspicuous in the striatum. Brian regional choline contents were unaltered as were the acetylcholine turnover rates in the striatum and hippocampus. Neither choline acetyltransferase nor acetylcholinesterase activities were altered after the in vitro incubation or the in vivo administration of high amounts of the drug. CM 54903 was found to be a competitive, reversible inhibitor of the sodium-dependent high affinity uptake of choline by crude hippocampal and striatal synaptosomal preparations showing an IC50 of 10 microM in vitro. Despite the fact that the drug readily crosses the blood-brain barrier and achieves brain concentrations several-fold greater than its in vitro IC50, CM 54903 did not inhibit choline uptake in vivo although it was capable of preventing the pentylenetetrazol-stimulated choline uptake by hippocampal synaptosomes. The changes in striatal acetylcholine content induced by the blockade or the stimulation of muscarinic cholinergic receptors or dopaminergic receptors did not interfere with the effect of CM 54903 on striatal acetylcholine content while pentylenetetrazol completely prevented the decrease. The results taken together indicate that the major effect of CM 54903 on the cholinergic neurons is at the presynaptic level to compete with choline at its uptake sites.
ESTHER : Vezzani_1982_Biochem.Pharmacol_31_1693
PubMedSearch : Vezzani_1982_Biochem.Pharmacol_31_1693
PubMedID: 7104032