White T

References (3)

Title : Acute effects of acephate and methamidophos on acetylcholinesterase activity, endocrine system and amino acid concentrations in rats - Spassova_2000_Comp.Biochem.Physiol.C.Toxicol.Pharmacol_126_79
Author(s) : Spassova D , White T , Singh AK
Ref : Comparative Biochemistry & Physiology C Toxicol Pharmacol , 126 :79 , 2000
Abstract : Acute effects of acephate (Ace) and methamidophos (Met) on acetylcholinesterase activity, endocrine system and amino acid concentrations were studied in rats. The rats were injected intraperitoneally with Ace (500 mg/kg) or Met (5 mg/kg) and then sacrificed at 15 or 60 min after the injection (A15 and A60 for Ace and M15 and M60 for Met). The primary aim of this study was to determine whether the mammalian toxicity of Ace is solely due to its conversion to Met or the protection of Ace against Met-inhibited AChE is also an important factor. The second aim of this study was to study the effects of Ace and Met on the endocrine system and amino acid concentrations and whether or not these effects correlate with AChE inhibition and Met accumulation. The Ace or Met injected animals did not exhibit the signs of organophosphate (OP) poisoning within 15 min after the injection, but exhibited tremors at 45 min after the injection. Blood and brain AChE activity in A15 and M15 rats exhibited 55 to 75% inhibition while the enzyme activity in A60 and M60 rats exhibited 80 to 95% inhibition. Ace was metabolized to Met in rats both in vivo and in vitro. A 5 rats had significantly higher Met concentration in their liver, brain and adrenal glands compared to M 5 rats, and A60 rats had significantly higher Met concentrations in their blood, liver, brain and adrenal glands compared to M60 rats. Thus, tissue Met concentrations in Ace-treated rats were significantly higher than in Met-treated rats and the inhibition of AChE activity was not consistent with the amount of metabolically formed Met, supporting the hypothesis that the Ace protection plays a role in the overall toxicity. Ace and Met both impaired circulating blood hormone and amino acid concentrations in rats. The endocrine effects of Ace and Met differed from their cholinergic effects, and were not proportional to the amount of Met present in different tissues obtained from the treatment groups. Plasma ACTH concentration was elevated in M60 rats but not in A60 rats. Thus, Ace may indirectly protect the pituitary against the toxic effects of Met. Unlike plasma ACTH levels, serum corticosterone and aldosterone levels were elevated in both A60 and M60 rats. Therefore, the effect of Met on the adrenal cortex may be mediated by the pituitary gland, while the effect of Ace may be due to direct Ace-gland interaction. The decrease in the levels of some of the serum amino acids showed an increase in the energy demands in the treatment groups.
ESTHER : Spassova_2000_Comp.Biochem.Physiol.C.Toxicol.Pharmacol_126_79
PubMedSearch : Spassova_2000_Comp.Biochem.Physiol.C.Toxicol.Pharmacol_126_79
PubMedID: 11048668

Title : Physicochemical, molecular-orbital and electronic properties of acephate and methamidophos - Singh_1998_Comp.Biochem.Physiol.C.Pharmacol.Toxicol.Endocrinol_119_107
Author(s) : Singh AK , White T , Spassova D , Jiang Y
Ref : Comparative Biochemistry & Physiology C Pharmacology Toxicology & Endocrinology , 119 :107 , 1998
Abstract : Methamidophos (Me) and its N-acetylated derivative, acephate (Ac), are water soluble insecticides that have similar insecticidal potency, but different mammalian toxicity. Me is a potent inhibitor, while Ac is a poor inhibitor of mammalian AChE (mAChE). At physiological pH, both insecticides exhibit similar accumulation in RBC, while Ac exhibits greater binding to plasma proteins than Me. These differential effects of Ac and Me are attributed to the differences in their physicochemical, molecular-orbital and electronic properties. Ac and Me are freely soluble in aqueous solution, moderately soluble in ethyl-acetate (EtAct) and insoluble in n-hexane. The solubility of these insecticides in aqueous solution and the partitioning of these insecticides from aqueous solution into EtAct are independent of the pH of the aqueous solution. At pH 8, Me did not react with o-phthalaldehyde (a NH2 selective dye), but gamma-amino-butyric acid (pKa 10) did. Thus, despite the presence of an amino group, Ac and Me do not exhibit pH dependent solubility in aqueous and in organic solvents. Ac has two O atoms with non-bonding electrons (P = O delta- and C = O delta-) where P = O and C = O point in opposite directions. Me has only one O atom with non-bonding electrons (P = O delta-). However, because of charge translocation, the C = O group of Ac exists as C = O- and the P-NH3+ group of Me exists as P = NH2+ at a pH lower than their pKa. The P-N bond of Me, but not of Ac, is hydrolyzed at pH 2. Thus, the presence of an electron rich domain stabilizes Ac's P-N bond. The CH3S-P bond of both insecticides is similarly hydrolyzed at pH 11. This indicates that the two compounds are considerably similar except that Ac has an additional electron rich domain. At physiological pH, therefore, the functional differences between these insecticides may be due to the differences in their electronic structure. We propose that, similar to a previous model for cationic inhibitors of AChE (13), the P = O delta- group of Me forms hydrogen bonds within the oxyanion-hole causing the leaving group (-SCH3) to orient towards the "gorge" opening. This orientation allows the P atom of Me to interact with Ser200, resulting in the phosphorylation of the enzyme. For acephate, either P = O or C = O, but not both, interact within the oxyanion-hole. This destabilizes the binding of Ac to the active center, resulting in reduced AChE phosphorylation.
ESTHER : Singh_1998_Comp.Biochem.Physiol.C.Pharmacol.Toxicol.Endocrinol_119_107
PubMedSearch : Singh_1998_Comp.Biochem.Physiol.C.Pharmacol.Toxicol.Endocrinol_119_107
PubMedID: 9568380

Title : Depolarisation-induced release of ATP from cortical synaptosomes is not associated with acetylcholine release -
Author(s) : White T , Potter P , Wonnacott S
Ref : Journal of Neurochemistry , 34 :1109 , 1980
PubMedID: 6246199