Title : Anticholinesterase insecticide retrospective - Casida_2013_Chem.Biol.Interact_203_221
Author(s) : Casida JE , Durkin KA
Ref : Chemico-Biological Interactions , 203 :221 , 2013
Abstract :

The anticholinesterase (antiChE) organophosphorus (OP) and methylcarbamate (MC) insecticides have been used very effectively as contact and systemic plant protectants for seven decades. About 90 of these compounds are still in use - the largest number for any insecticide chemotype or mode of action. In both insects and mammals, AChE inhibition and acetylcholine accumulation leads to excitation and death. The cholinergic system of insects is located centrally (where it is protected from ionized OPs and MCs) but not at the neuromuscular junction. Structural differences between insect and mammalian AChE are also evident in their genomics, amino acid sequences and active site conformations. Species selectivity is determined in part by inhibitor and target site specificity. Pest population selection with OPs and MCs has resulted in a multitude of modified AChEs of altered inhibitor specificity some conferring insecticide resistance and others enhancing sensitivity. Much of the success of antiChE insecticides results from a suitable balance of bioactivation and detoxification by families of CYP450 oxidases, hydrolases, glutathione S-transferases and others. Known inhibitors for these enzymes block detoxification and enhance potency which is particularly important in resistant strains. The current market for OPs and MCs of 19% of worldwide insecticide sales is only half of that of 10years ago for several reasons: there have been no major new compounds for 30years; resistance has eroded their effectiveness; human toxicity problems are still encountered; the patents have expired reducing the incentive to update registration packages; alternative chemotypes or control methods have been developed. Despite this decline, they still play a major role in pest control and the increasing knowledge on their target sites and metabolism may make it possible to redesign the inhibitors for insensitive AChEs and to target new sites in the cholinergic system. The OPs and MCs are down but not out.

PubMedSearch : Casida_2013_Chem.Biol.Interact_203_221
PubMedID: 22926007

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Citations formats

Casida JE, Durkin KA (2013)
Anticholinesterase insecticide retrospective
Chemico-Biological Interactions 203 :221

Casida JE, Durkin KA (2013)
Chemico-Biological Interactions 203 :221