McCarver_2002_J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther_300_361

Reference

Title : The ontogeny of human drug-metabolizing enzymes: phase II conjugation enzymes and regulatory mechanisms - McCarver_2002_J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther_300_361
Author(s) : McCarver DG , Hines RN
Ref : Journal of Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics , 300 :361 , 2002
Abstract :

Changes in phase II drug-metabolizing enzyme expression during development, as well as the balance between phase I and phase II enzymes, can significantly alter the pharmacokinetics for a given drug or toxicant. Although our knowledge is incomplete, many of the phase II enzymes are expressed early in development. There is evidence for glutathione S-transferase A1/A2 (GSTA1/A2), GSTM, and GSTP1 in fetal liver, lung and kidney, although tissue-specific patterns and changes with time are observed. N-Acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) activity also has been reported throughout gestation in fetal liver, adrenal glands, lung, kidney, and intestine. Only postnatal changes in NAT1 expression were apparent. Nothing is known about human NAT2 developmental expression. Some UDP-glucuronosyltransferase and sulfotransferase isoforms also are detectable in fetal liver and other tissues by the first or second trimester, and substantial changes in isoform expression patterns, as well as overall expression levels, are observed with increasing maturity. Finally, expression of both epoxide hydrolases 1 and 2 (EPHX1 and EPHX2) is observed in fetal liver, and for the former, increased expression with time has been documented. Less is known about ontogenic molecular control mechanisms. Limited data suggest that the hepatocyte nuclear factor and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein families are critical for fetal liver drug-metabolizing enzyme expression whereas D element binding protein and related factors may regulate postnatal hepatic expression. There is a paucity of data regarding mechanisms for the onset of extrahepatic fetal expression or specific mechanisms determining temporal switches, such as those observed within the CYP3A and flavin-containing monooxygenase families.

PubMedSearch : McCarver_2002_J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther_300_361
PubMedID: 11805192

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Citations formats

McCarver DG, Hines RN (2002)
The ontogeny of human drug-metabolizing enzymes: phase II conjugation enzymes and regulatory mechanisms
Journal of Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics 300 :361

McCarver DG, Hines RN (2002)
Journal of Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics 300 :361