Barber D

References (3)

Title : Altered expression of transcripts for alpha-tubulin and an unidentified gene in the spinal cord of phenyl saligenin phosphate treated hens (Gallus gallus) - Fox_2003_J.Biochem.Mol.Toxicol_17_263
Author(s) : Fox JH , Jortner BS , Barber D , Ehrich MF
Ref : J Biochem Mol Toxicol , 17 :263 , 2003
Abstract : Phenyl saligenin phosphate (PSP) induces a central-peripheral distal axonopathy in domestic fowl that develops 7-21 days after a single exposure. Neurotoxic esterase (NTE) is the initial molecular target for this neurotoxicity. PSP has to covalently bind to NTE and chemically "age" for induction of axonopathy. It was hypothesized that exposure to PSP results in early changes in spinal cord gene expression that do not occur with phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, a non-neuropathic compound that also inhibits NTE, or DMSO controls. Targeted display was used to screen approximately 15,000 gel bands. Three candidate genes were identified, but only the transcript designated P1 showed decreased expression following PSP exposure (2 mg/kg i.m.) in subsequent Northern blot and in situ hybridization experiments in samples taken <48 h after exposure. Additional experiments revealed that a approximately 2.5 kb alpha-tubulin transcript had decreased expression at 12-48 h after PSP exposure, with maximum change at 48 h (33%, p = 0.0479). A approximately 4.5 kb alpha-tubulin transcript had increased expression at 12 h (38%, p = 0.0125) and decreased expression at 48 h (28%, p = 0.0576). In situ hybridization on spinal cord revealed neuronal expression of P1 and alpha-tubulin transcripts. Decreased expression of transcripts for P1 and alpha-tubulin was present at 12 and 48 h, respectively. This decrease occurred in all neurons, not just those whose axons degenerate. Results suggest that (1) in PSP-induced OPIDN (organophosphorus-induced delayed neurotoxicity) some gene transcript expression changes are associated with initiation of axonopathy, and (2) PSP modulates spinal cord gene expression in neuronal types that do not undergo axonal degeneration.
ESTHER : Fox_2003_J.Biochem.Mol.Toxicol_17_263
PubMedSearch : Fox_2003_J.Biochem.Mol.Toxicol_17_263
PubMedID: 14595848

Title : Inhibition of calcium-stimulated ATPase in the hen brain P2 synaptosomal fraction by organophosphorus esters: relevance to delayed neuropathy - Barber_2001_J.Toxicol.Environ.Health.A_63_101
Author(s) : Barber D , Hunt J , Ehrich M
Ref : J Toxicol Environ Health A , 63 :101 , 2001
Abstract : Organophosphorus (OP) compounds have been reported to inhibit Ca/Mg-ATPase, but the relevance of this inhibition to organophosphate-induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN) has not been explored. To determine if inhibition of this enzyme was related to the development of OPIDN, neuropathic and nonneuropathic OP compounds were sted for their ability to inhibit Ca-stimulated ATPase activity in the P2 synaptosomal fraction from hen brain. Following in vitro exposure to 10(-3) to 10(-5) M OP compounds, Ca-stimulated ATPase activity was inhibited by chlorpyrifos, chlorpyrifos-oxon, phenyl saligenin phosphate (PSP), and tri-o-tolyl phosphate (TOTP), but not by parathion, paraoxon, or diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP). Further investigation of inhibition induced by chlorpyrifos determined that inhibition was noncompetitive with respect to calcium and ATP. OP compound hydrophobicity was well correlated with in vitro inhibition of Ca-stimulated ATPase, suggesting that OP compounds interact with membrane lipids, and this interaction may contribute to the noncompetitive inhibition of Ca-stimulated ATPase that was observed. Subsequent to in vivo exposure, DFP, but not PSP, produced inhibition of Ca-stimulated ATPase activity in the hen brain P2 synaptosomal fraction. These data indicate that inhibition of Ca-stimulated ATPase activity is not correlated to neuropathic potential and demonstrate that inhibition of Ca/Mg-ATPase is not responsible for OPIDN.
ESTHER : Barber_2001_J.Toxicol.Environ.Health.A_63_101
PubMedSearch : Barber_2001_J.Toxicol.Environ.Health.A_63_101
PubMedID: 11393797

Title : Comparative effectiveness of organophosphorus protoxicant activating systems in neuroblastoma cells and brain homogenates - Barber_1999_J.Toxicol.Environ.Health_57_63
Author(s) : Barber D , Correll L , Ehrich M
Ref : J Toxicol Environ Health , 57 :63 , 1999
Abstract : The ability of bromine and rat liver microsomes (RLM) to convert organophosphorus (OP) protoxicants to esterase inhibitors was determined by measuring acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and neuropathy target esterase (NTE) inhibition. Species specific differences in susceptibility to esterase inhibition were determined by comparing the extent of esterase inhibition observed in human neuroblastoma cells and hen, bovine, and rodent brain homogenates. OP protoxicants examined included tri-o-tolyl phosphate (TOTP), O-ethyl O-p-nitrophenyl phenylphosphonothioate (EPN), leptophos, fenitrothion, fenthion, and malathion. Bromine activation resulted in greater AChE inhibition than that produced by RLM activation for equivalent concentrations of fenitrothion, malathion, and EPN. For EPN and leptophos, bromine activation resulted in greater inhibition of NTE than RLM. Only preincubation with RLM activated TOTP; resultant inhibition of AChE was less in hen brain (13 +/- 3%) than in neuroblastoma cells (73 +/- 1%) at 10(-6) M. In contrast, 10(-6) M RLM-activated TOTP produced more inhibition of hen brain NTE (89 +/- 6%) than NTE of human neuroblastoma cells (72 +/- 7%). Human neuroblastoma cells and brain homogenates from hens, the accepted animal model for study of OP-induced neurotoxicity, were relatively similar in sensitivity to esterase inhibition. Homogenates from hens were more sensitive to NTE inhibition induced by phenyl saligenin phosphate (PSP), an active congener of TOTP, than were homogenates from less susceptible species (mouse, rat, bovine). AChE of hen brain homogenates was also more sensitive than homogenates from other species to malaoxon, the active form of malathion.
ESTHER : Barber_1999_J.Toxicol.Environ.Health_57_63
PubMedSearch : Barber_1999_J.Toxicol.Environ.Health_57_63
PubMedID: 10321902