Bernard AM

References (4)

Title : Enhanced insulin secretion and improved glucose tolerance in mice lacking CD26 - Marguet_2000_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_97_6874
Author(s) : Marguet D , Baggio L , Kobayashi T , Bernard AM , Pierres M , Nielsen PF , Ribel U , Watanabe T , Drucker DJ , Wagtmann N
Ref : Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A , 97 :6874 , 2000
Abstract : A subset of prolyl oligopeptidases, including dipeptidyl-peptidase IV (DPP IV or CD26, EC ), specifically cleave off N-terminal dipeptides from substrates having proline or alanine in amino acid position 2. This enzyme activity has been implicated in the regulation of the biological activity of multiple hormones and chemokines, including the insulinotropic peptides glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP). Targeted inactivation of the CD26 gene yielded healthy mice that have normal blood glucose levels in the fasted state, but reduced glycemic excursion after a glucose challenge. Levels of glucose-stimulated circulating insulin and the intact insulinotropic form of GLP-1 are increased in CD26(-/-) mice. A pharmacological inhibitor of DPP IV enzymatic activity improved glucose tolerance in wild-type, but not in CD26(-/-), mice. This inhibitor also improved glucose tolerance in GLP-1 receptor(-/-) mice, indicating that CD26 contributes to blood glucose regulation by controlling the activity of GLP-1 as well as additional substrates. These data reveal a critical role for CD26 in physiological glucose homeostasis, and establish it as a potential target for therapy in type II diabetes.
ESTHER : Marguet_2000_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_97_6874
PubMedSearch : Marguet_2000_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_97_6874
PubMedID: 10823914

Title : Structure of the mouse dipeptidyl peptidase IV (CD26) gene - Bernard_1994_Biochemistry_33_15204
Author(s) : Bernard AM , Mattei MG , Pierres M , Marguet D
Ref : Biochemistry , 33 :15204 , 1994
Abstract : Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV, EC 3.4.14.5) is an ectopeptidase whose expression is modulated during thymocyte differentiation and T cell activation. We describe here the organization of the mouse DPP IV gene. This gene, which encompasses more than 90 kb, is composed of 26 exons separated by introns, the lengths of which vary from 100 bp to more than 20 kb. Reverse PCR performed on RNA from different tissues indicated that DPP IV transcripts do not contain alternatively spliced CDS sequences and, therefore, are supposed to yield a single polypeptide. However, two types of specific mRNA have been detected that differ in their 3'UTR sequences. They derive from alternative polyadenylation of the DPP IV primary transcript, since the different 3'UTR sequences are contiguous in the mouse DPP IV gene. Sequence analysis of the gene 5'-flanking region revealed several structural features found in the TATAA-box-less promoters, including a G+C-rich segment, a high frequency of dinucleotide CpG, and an imperfect symmetrical dyad. The DPP IV gene was assigned by in situ hybridization to the mouse [2C2-2D] region, which is syntenic with human chromosome 2. These data indicate that the human Dpp4 locus is located within this synteny region (i.e., 2q14-q37). The genomic organization of the mouse DPP IV gene is compared to that of classical serine proteases and serine hydrolases. As structural and mechanistic conservation in the absence of sequence similarity is the most remarkable feature among alpha/beta hydrolases [Ollis, D. L., et al. (1992) Protein Eng. 5, 197-211], we report the possible evolutionary link between the DPP IV related family and alpha/beta hydrolases.
ESTHER : Bernard_1994_Biochemistry_33_15204
PubMedSearch : Bernard_1994_Biochemistry_33_15204
PubMedID: 7999781
Gene_locus related to this paper: mouse-dpp4

Title : Identification of serine 624, aspartic acid 702, and histidine 734 as the catalytic triad residues of mouse dipeptidyl-peptidase IV (CD26). A member of a novel family of nonclassical serine hydrolases - David_1993_J.Biol.Chem_268_17247
Author(s) : David F , Bernard AM , Pierres M , Marguet D
Ref : Journal of Biological Chemistry , 268 :17247 , 1993
Abstract : Dipeptidyl-peptidase IV (DPP IV, CD26, EC 3.4.14.5), a multifunctional ectoenzyme, is involved not only in the proteolytic cleavage of X-Pro from the NH2 terminus of a variety of biologically active peptides, but also in activation signal transduction and cell matrix adherence processes. We recently characterized mouse DPP IV cDNA and identified the serine protease Gly-X-Ser-X-Gly consensus motif in its extracellular domain. Mouse DPP IV does not exhibit sequence similarity with any of the classical members of this enzyme family (e.g. chymotrypsin and subtilisin) but shares a conserved structural domain of approximately 200 amino acids with several nonclassical serine hydrolases. In this study, analysis of the similarity of secondary structures and amino acid sequences between these enzymes led us to identify several conserved residues likely to be involved in the catalytic site of these DPP IV-related enzymes. These amino acids (Ser624, Asp702, and His734) were found to be arranged in a novel sequential order as compared with that of archetypal serine proteases (e.g. nucleophile (Ser)-acid-His versus His-acid-nucleophile (Ser), respectively). To directly explore the involvement of these residues in the catalytic function of these enzymes, we performed in vitro site-directed mutagenesis on mouse DPP IV cDNA. Our results indicate that although conservative or non-conservative permutations at these positions do not significantly alter the surface expression and biochemical properties of the mutant molecules, they completely impair their DPP IV enzymatic function. In contrast, mutagenesis of two other aspartic residues (Asp599 and Asp657), also conserved between these DPP IV-related enzymes, did not affect the enzymatic properties of the mouse enzyme. These data provide evidence that DPP IV and its related enzymes belong to a novel family that displays a catalytic triad distinct from that of the classical serine proteases.
ESTHER : David_1993_J.Biol.Chem_268_17247
PubMedSearch : David_1993_J.Biol.Chem_268_17247
PubMedID: 8102366

Title : cDNA cloning for mouse thymocyte-activating molecule. A multifunctional ecto-dipeptidyl peptidase IV (CD26) included in a subgroup of serine proteases - Marguet_1992_J.Biol.Chem_267_2200
Author(s) : Marguet D , Bernard AM , Vivier I , Darmoul D , Naquet P and
Ref : Journal of Biological Chemistry , 267 :2200 , 1992
Abstract : Thymocyte-activating molecule (THAM) was initially characterized as a developmentally regulated, dimeric cell-surface molecule capable of activating mouse thymocytes and T lymphocytes upon monoclonal antibody (mAb)-mediated cross-linking. We recently obtained structural evidence indicating that this molecule is the mouse homologue of the human T cell-activating ectoenzyme CD26 (dipeptidyl peptidase IV, DPP IV). We describe here the cloning and the characterization of THAM cDNA. Two clones (3.3 and 2.8 kilobases) were isolated. THAM-3.3 cDNA contains an open reading frame of 2,280 nucleotides that encodes a protein of 760 amino acids having a calculated size of 87,500 Da. Complete N-glycosylation at each of the nine potential sites would result in a mature 110,000-Da molecule. Protein sequence comparisons revealed a significant homology (in particular in the COOH-terminal domain) between THAM and the rat or human DPP IV or the yeast dipeptidyl aminopeptidase B molecules (92, 85, and 30% sequence identity, respectively). Structural comparison of serine proteases (i.e. acyl-amino acid hydrolase or prolyl endopeptidase) with the most conserved domain of THAM identified a stretch of 200 amino acids containing a putative catalytic triad arranged in a novel topological order (Ser-624, Asp-702, and His-734) thereby defining a subfamily of nonclassical serine proteases. Expression of THAM during thymus ontogeny was found to be mainly regulated at the transcriptional level as determined by RNase protection assay. To investigate directly some of the functions which have been ascribed to DPP IV, we transfected an ovalbumin/Aq-reactive, THAM- T hybridoma cell line with THAM-3.3 cDNA. The resultant transfectants acquired (i) DPP IV enzymatic activity that precisely paralleled the density of surface-expressed THAM; (ii) an Mr = 115,000 (reduced) and 110,000/128,000 (nonreduced) molecule that could be immunoprecipitated by the THAM-specific mAb H194-112; and (iii) the capacity of being triggered by this mAb to release interleukin-2. These data indicate that a single cDNA species can encode a multifunctional molecule (e.g. activation signal-transducing structure and ectopeptidase), the heterodimeric state of which very likely results from a differential post-translational modification of the same protein core.
ESTHER : Marguet_1992_J.Biol.Chem_267_2200
PubMedSearch : Marguet_1992_J.Biol.Chem_267_2200
PubMedID: 1370813
Gene_locus related to this paper: mouse-dpp4