Chan HH

References (3)

Title : Polygoni multiflori radix extracts inhibit SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus entry in HEK293T cells and zebrafish larvae - Wang_2022_Phytomedicine_102_154154
Author(s) : Wang X , Lin S , Tang RW , Lee HC , Chan HH , Choi SSA , Leung KW , Webb SE , Miller AL , Tsim KWK
Ref : Phytomedicine , 102 :154154 , 2022
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Globally, COVID-19 has caused millions of deaths and led to unprecedented socioeconomic damage. There is therefore, in addition to vaccination, an urgent need to develop complementary effective treatments and/or protective and preventative therapies against this deadly disease. METHODS: Here, a multi-component testing platform was established to screen a library of herbal extracts from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), to identify potent herbal extracts/phytochemicals as possible therapeutics for COVID-19. We utilized assays for spike protein (S-protein) binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2); the enzymatic inhibition of 3CL protease; and entry of the SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus into cultured HEK293T cells and zebrafish larvae. RESULTS: Over a thousand herbal extracts were screened and approximately 20 positive hits were identified. Among these, we found that the water and ethanol extracts of Polygoni Multiflori Radix (PMR) significantly inhibited S-protein binding to ACE2, 3CL protease activity, and viral entry into the cell and fish models. The water extract was more effective than the ethanol extract, with IC(50) values of 25 to 500 microg/ml. In addition, the polysaccharide-depleted fraction of the former, and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) which was found in both extracts, displayed significant antiviral activity. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the water and ethanol extracts of PMR have an inhibitory effect on SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus host-cell entry. Furthermore, EGCG might be an active component of PMR, which blocks SARS-CoV-2 entry to cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that PMR might be considered as a potential treatment for COVID-19.
ESTHER : Wang_2022_Phytomedicine_102_154154
PubMedSearch : Wang_2022_Phytomedicine_102_154154
PubMedID: 35576740

Title : Neuroprotection against excitotoxic and ischemic insults by bis(12)-hupyridone, a novel anti-acetylcholinesterase dimer, possibly via acting on multiple targets - Zhao_2011_Brain.Res_1421_100
Author(s) : Zhao Y , Dou J , Luo J , Li W , Chan HH , Cui W , Zhang H , Han R , Carlier PR , Zhang X , Han Y
Ref : Brain Research , 1421 :100 , 2011
Abstract : The activation of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors by excessive release of glutamate is involved in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke. Thus the NMDA receptor has become an attractive therapeutic target for the development of neuroprotectants, especially from antagonists with moderate to low affinity. In the current study, NMDA receptor blockage and neuroprotective effects of bis(12)-hupyridone (B12H), a novel dimeric acetylcholinesterase inhibitor derived from a naturally occurring monomeric analog huperzine A, were investigated in vitro and in vivo. In primary rat cerebellar granule neurons, B12H (0.1 nM to 1 muM) prevented glutamate-induced apoptosis in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Receptor-ligand binding analysis showed that B12H competed with [(3)H]MK801 with a K(i) value of 7.7 muM. In the 2-hour middle cerebral artery occlusion rat model, B12H (0.4 and 0.8 mg/kg, 30 min before-ischemia and 15 min post-ischemia, i.p.) significantly attenuated ischemia-induced apoptosis in the penumbra region, improved neurological behavior impairment, and decreased cerebral infarct volume, cerebral edema and neuronal apoptosis in the stroke model. Together, these results showed that B12H moderately blocks NMDA receptors at MK801 site and exerts neuroprotection against excitotoxic and ischemic insults in vitro and in vivo. Combined with our previous publications, we conjecture that B12H might exert neuroprotection via acting on multiple targets.
ESTHER : Zhao_2011_Brain.Res_1421_100
PubMedSearch : Zhao_2011_Brain.Res_1421_100
PubMedID: 21978549

Title : Novel dimeric acetylcholinesterase inhibitor bis7-tacrine, but not donepezil, prevents glutamate-induced neuronal apoptosis by blocking N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors - Li_2005_J.Biol.Chem_280_18179
Author(s) : Li W , Pi R , Chan HH , Fu H , Lee NT , Tsang HW , Pu Y , Chang DC , Li C , Luo J , Xiong K , Li Z , Xue H , Carlier PR , Pang Y , Tsim KWK , Li M , Han Y
Ref : Journal of Biological Chemistry , 280 :18179 , 2005
Abstract : The neuroprotective properties of bis(7)-tacrine, a novel dimeric acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor, on glutamate-induced excitotoxicity were investigated in primary cultured cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs). Exposure of CGNs to 75 mum glutamate resulted in neuronal apoptosis as demonstrated by Hoechst staining, TUNEL, and DNA fragmentation assays. The bis(7)-tacrine treatment (0.01-1 mum) on CGNs markedly reduced glutamate-induced apoptosis in dose- and time-dependent manners. However, donepezil and other AChE inhibitors, even at concentrations of inhibiting AChE to the similar extents as 1 mum bis(7)-tacrine, failed to prevent glutamate-induced excitotoxicity in CGNs; moreover, both atropine and dihydro-beta-erythroidine, the cholinoreceptor antagonists, did not affect the anti-apoptotic properties of bis(7)-tacrine, suggesting that the neuroprotection of bis(7)-tacrine appears to be independent of inhibiting AChE and cholinergic transmission. In addition, ERK1/2 and p38 pathways, downstream signals of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, were rapidly activated after the exposure of glutamate to CGNs. Bis(7)-tacrine inhibited the apoptosis and the activation of these two signals with the same efficacy as the coapplication of PD98059 and SB203580. Furthermore, using fluorescence Ca(2+) imaging, patch clamp, and receptor-ligand binding techniques, bis(7)-tacrine was found effectively to buffer the intracellular Ca(2+) increase triggered by glutamate, to reduce NMDA-activated currents and to compete with [(3)H]MK-801 with an IC(50) value of 0.763 mum in rat cerebellar cortex membranes. These findings strongly suggest that bis(7)-tacrine prevents glutamate-induced neuronal apoptosis through directly blocking NMDA receptors at the MK-801-binding site, which offers a new and clinically significant modality as to how the agent exerts neuroprotective effects.
ESTHER : Li_2005_J.Biol.Chem_280_18179
PubMedSearch : Li_2005_J.Biol.Chem_280_18179
PubMedID: 15710623