Hayes MA

References (3)

Title : Hip To Be Square: Oxetanes as Design Elements To Alter Metabolic Pathways - Toselli_2019_J.Med.Chem_62_7383
Author(s) : Toselli F , Fredenwall M , Svensson P , Li XQ , Johansson A , Weidolf L , Hayes MA
Ref : Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 62 :7383 , 2019
Abstract : Oxetane-containing ring systems are increasingly used in medicinal chemistry programs to modulate druglike properties. We have shown previously that oxetanes are hydrolyzed to diols by human microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH). Mapping the enzymes that contribute to drug metabolism is important since an exaggerated dependence on one specific isoenzyme increases the risk of drug-drug interactions with co-administered drugs. Herein, we illustrate that mEH-catalyzed hydrolysis is an important metabolic pathway for a set of more structurally diverse oxetanes and the degree of hydrolysis is modulated by minor structural modifications. A homology model based on the Bombyx mori EH crystal structure was used to rationalize substrate binding. This study shows that oxetanes can be used as drug design elements for directing metabolic clearance via mEH, thus potentially decreasing the dependence on cytochromes P450. Metabolism by mEH should be assessed early in the design process to understand the complete metabolic fate of oxetane-containing compounds, and further study is required to allow accurate pharmacokinetic predictions of its substrates.
ESTHER : Toselli_2019_J.Med.Chem_62_7383
PubMedSearch : Toselli_2019_J.Med.Chem_62_7383
PubMedID: 31310524

Title : Oxetane Substrates of Human Microsomal Epoxide Hydrolase - Toselli_2017_Drug.Metab.Dispos_45_966
Author(s) : Toselli F , Fredenwall M , Svensson P , Li XQ , Johansson A , Weidolf L , Hayes MA
Ref : Drug Metabolism & Disposition: The Biological Fate of Chemicals , 45 :966 , 2017
Abstract : Oxetanyl building blocks are increasingly used in drug discovery because of the improved drug-like properties they confer on drug candidates, yet little is currently known about their biotransformation. A series of oxetane-containing analogs was studied and we provide the first direct evidence of oxetane hydrolysis by human recombinant microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH). Incubations with human liver fractions and hepatocytes were performed with and without inhibitors of cytochrome P450 (P450), mEH and soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). Reaction dependence on NADPH was investigated in subcellular fractions. A full kinetic characterization of oxetane hydrolysis is presented, in both human liver microsomes and human recombinant mEH. In human liver fractions and hepatocytes, hydrolysis by mEH was the only oxetane ring-opening metabolic route, with no contribution from sEH or from cytochrome P450-catalyzed oxidation. Minimally altering the structural elements in the immediate vicinity of the oxetane can greatly modulate the efficiency of hydrolytic ring cleavage. In particular, higher pKa in the vicinity of the oxetane and an increased distance between the oxetane ring and the benzylic nitrogen improve reaction rate, which is further enhanced by the presence of methyl groups near or on the oxetane. This work defines oxetanes as the first nonepoxide class of substrates for human mEH, which was previously known to catalyze the hydrolytic ring opening of electrophilic and potentially toxic epoxide-containing drugs, drug metabolites, and exogenous organochemicals. These findings will be of value for the development of biologically active oxetanes and may be exploited for the biocatalytic generation of enantiomerically pure oxetanes and diols.
ESTHER : Toselli_2017_Drug.Metab.Dispos_45_966
PubMedSearch : Toselli_2017_Drug.Metab.Dispos_45_966
PubMedID: 28600384

Title : Discovery of a Novel Microsomal Epoxide Hydrolase-Catalyzed Hydration of a Spiro Oxetane - Li_2016_Drug.Metab.Dispos_44_1341
Author(s) : Li XQ , Hayes MA , Gronberg G , Berggren K , Castagnoli N, Jr. , Weidolf L
Ref : Drug Metabolism & Disposition: The Biological Fate of Chemicals , 44 :1341 , 2016
Abstract : Oxetane moieties are increasingly being used by the pharmaceutical industry as building blocks in drug candidates because of their pronounced ability to improve physicochemical parameters and metabolic stability of drug candidates. The enzymes that catalyze the biotransformation of the oxetane moiety are, however, not well studied. The in vitro metabolism of a spiro oxetane-containing compound AZD1979 [(3-(4-(2-oxa-6-azaspiro[3.3]heptan-6-ylmethyl)phenoxy)azetidin-1-yl)(5-(4-ethoxy phenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)methanone] was studied and one of its metabolites, M1, attracted our interest because its formation was NAD(P)H independent. The focus of this work was to elucidate the structure of M1 and to understand the mechanism(s) of its formation. We established that M1 was formed via hydration and ring opening of the oxetanyl moiety of AZD1979. Incubations of AZD1979 using various human liver subcellular fractions revealed that the hydration reaction leading to M1 occurred mainly in the microsomal fraction. The underlying mechanism as a hydration, rather than an oxidation reaction, was supported by the incorporation of (18)O from H2 (18)O into M1. Enzyme kinetics were performed probing the formation of M1 in human liver microsomes. The formation of M1 was substantially inhibited by progabide, a microsomal epoxide hydrolase inhibitor, but not by trans-4-[4-(1-adamantylcarbamoylamino)cyclohexyloxy]benzoic acid, a soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor. On the basis of these results, we propose that microsomal epoxide hydrolase catalyzes the formation of M1. The substrate specificity of microsomal epoxide hydrolase should therefore be expanded to include not only epoxides but also the oxetanyl ring system present in AZD1979.
ESTHER : Li_2016_Drug.Metab.Dispos_44_1341
PubMedSearch : Li_2016_Drug.Metab.Dispos_44_1341
PubMedID: 27256986
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-EPHX1