Marshall RS

References (6)

Title : Time course of cholinesterase inhibition in adult rats treated acutely with carbaryl, carbofuran, formetanate, methomyl, methiocarb, oxamyl or propoxur - Padilla_2007_Toxicol.Appl.Pharmacol_219_202
Author(s) : Padilla S , Marshall RS , Hunter DL , Lowit A
Ref : Toxicol Appl Pharmacol , 219 :202 , 2007
Abstract : To compare the toxicity of seven N-methyl carbamates, time course profiles for brain and red blood cell (RBC) cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition were established for each. Adult, male, Long Evans rats (n=4-5 dose group) were dosed orally with either carbaryl (30 mg/kg in corn oil); carbofuran (0.5 mg/kg in corn oil); formetanate HCl (10 mg/kg in water); methomyl (3 mg/kg in water); methiocarb (25 mg/kg in corn oil); oxamyl (1 mg/kg in water); or propoxur (20 mg/kg in corn oil). This level of dosing produced at least 40% brain ChE inhibition. Brain and blood were taken from 0.5 to 24 h after dosing for analysis of ChE activity using two different methods: (1) a radiometric method which limits the amount of reactivation of ChE activity, and (2) a spectrophotometric method (Ellman method using traditional, unmodified conditions) which may encourage reactivation. The time of peak ChE inhibition was similar for all seven N-methyl carbamate pesticides: 0.5-1.0 h after dosing. By 24 h, brain and RBC ChE activity in all animals returned to normal. The spectrophotometric method underestimated ChE inhibition. Moreover, there was a strong, direct correlation between brain and RBC ChE activity (radiometric assay) for all seven compounds combined (r(2)=0.73, slope 1.1), while the spectrophotometric analysis of the same samples showed a poor correlation (r(2)=0.09). For formetanate, propoxur, methomyl, and methiocarb, brain and RBC ChE inhibitions were not different over time, but for carbaryl, carbofuran and oxamyl, the RBC ChE was slightly more inhibited than brain ChE. These data indicate (1) the radiometric method is superior for analyses of ChE activity in tissues from carbamate-treated animals (2) that animals treated with these N-methyl carbamate pesticides are affected rapidly, and recover rapidly, and (3) generally, assessment of RBC ChE is an accurate predictor of brain ChE inhibition for these seven pesticides.
ESTHER : Padilla_2007_Toxicol.Appl.Pharmacol_219_202
PubMedSearch : Padilla_2007_Toxicol.Appl.Pharmacol_219_202
PubMedID: 17197007

Title : Comparison of acute neurobehavioral and cholinesterase inhibitory effects of N-methylcarbamates in rat - McDaniel_2007_Toxicol.Sci_98_552
Author(s) : McDaniel KL , Padilla S , Marshall RS , Phillips PM , Podhorniak L , Qian Y , Moser VC
Ref : Toxicol Sci , 98 :552 , 2007
Abstract : While the cholinesterase-inhibiting N-methyl carbamate pesticides have been widely used, there are few studies evaluating direct functional and biochemical consequences of exposure. In the present study of the acute toxicity of seven N-methyl carbamate pesticides, we evaluated the dose-response profiles of cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition in brain and erythrocytes (RBCs) as well as motor activity (both horizontally and vertically directed) and clinical signs of overt toxicity. The chemicals tested were carbaryl, carbofuran, formetanate, methiocarb, methomyl, oxamyl, and propoxur. All were administered orally, and rats were tested in 20-min activity sessions beginning 15 min after dosing; tissues were collected immediately after activity sessions. In general, motor activity was a sensitive measure of ChE inhibition for all these carbamate pesticides, and vertical activity showed the greatest magnitude of effect at the highest doses compared to either horizontal activity or ChE inhibition. Brain and RBC ChE activities were generally affected similarly. Pearson correlation coefficients of within-subject data showed good correlation between the behavioral and biochemical end points, with brain ChE inhibition and horizontal activity showing the highest correlation values. Determination of benchmark dose levels for 10% change in each end point also revealed that these two measures produced the lowest estimates. Thus, motor activity decreases are highly predictive of ChE inhibition for N-methyl carbamates, and vice versa.
ESTHER : McDaniel_2007_Toxicol.Sci_98_552
PubMedSearch : McDaniel_2007_Toxicol.Sci_98_552
PubMedID: 17504769

Title : Neurobehavioral effects of chronic dietary and repeated high-level spike exposure to chlorpyrifos in rats - Moser_2005_Toxicol.Sci_86_375
Author(s) : Moser VC , Phillips PM , McDaniel KL , Marshall RS , Hunter DL , Padilla S
Ref : Toxicol Sci , 86 :375 , 2005
Abstract : This study aimed to model long-term subtoxic human exposure to an organophosphorus pesticide, chlorpyrifos, and to examine the influence of that exposure on the response to intermittent high-dose acute challenges. Adult Long-Evans male rats were maintained at 350 g body weight by limited access to a chlorpyrifos-containing diet to produce an intake of 0, 1, or 5 mg/kg/day chlorpyrifos. During the year-long exposure, half of the rats in each dose group received bi-monthly challenges (spikes) of chlorpyrifos, and the other half received vehicle. Rats were periodically tested using a neurological battery of evaluations and motor activity to evaluate the magnitude of the acute response (spike days) as well as recovery and ongoing chronic effects (non-spike days). Effects of the spikes differed as a function of dietary level for several endpoints (e.g., tremor, lacrimation), and in general, the high-dose feed groups showed greater effects of the spike doses. Animals receiving the spikes also showed some neurobehavioral differences among treatment groups (e.g., hypothermia, sensory and neuromotor differences) in the intervening months. During the eleventh month, rats were tested in a Morris water maze. There were some cognitive deficits observed, demonstrated by slightly longer latency during spatial training, and decreased preference for the correct quadrant on probe trials. A consistent finding in the water maze was one of altered swim patterning, or search strategy. The high-dose feed groups showed more tendency to swim in the outer annulus or to swim very close to the walls of the tank (thigmotaxic behavior). Overall, dietary exposure to chlorpyrifos produced long-lasting neurobehavioral changes and also altered the response to acute challenges.
ESTHER : Moser_2005_Toxicol.Sci_86_375
PubMedSearch : Moser_2005_Toxicol.Sci_86_375
PubMedID: 15901919

Title : Neurochemical effects of chronic dietary and repeated high-level acute exposure to chlorpyrifos in rats - Padilla_2005_Toxicol.Sci_88_161
Author(s) : Padilla S , Marshall RS , Hunter DL , Oxendine S , Moser VC , Southerland SB , Mailman RB
Ref : Toxicol Sci , 88 :161 , 2005
Abstract : Very little is known about the effects of chronic exposure to relatively low levels of anticholinesterase insecticides or how the effects of chronic exposure compare to those of higher, intermittent exposure. To that end, adult male rats were fed an anticholinesterase insecticide, chlorpyrifos (CPF), for 1 year at three levels of dietary exposure: 0, 1, or 5 mg/kg/day (0+oil, 1+oil, and 5+oil). In addition, half of each of these groups also received a bolus dosage of CPF in corn oil ("spiked" animals; 60 mg/kg initially and 45 mg/kg thereafter) every 2 months (0+CPF, 1+CPF, 5+CPF). Animals were analyzed after 6 or 12 months of dosing, and again 3 months after cessation of dosing (i.e., "recovery" animals-six experimental groups with n = 4-6/group/time point). Cholinesterase (ChE) activity was measured in retina, whole blood, plasma, red blood cells, diaphragm, and brain [pons, striatum, and the rest of the brain (referred to simply as "brain")]. Muscarinic receptor density was assessed in retina, pons, and brain, whereas dopamine transporter density and the levels of dopamine and its metabolites were assessed in striatum. Cholinesterase activity at 6 and 12 months was not different in any of the tissues, indicating that a steady state had been reached prior to 6 months. The 1+oil group animals showed ChE inhibition only in the blood, whereas the 5+oil group exhibited > or = 50% ChE inhibition in all tissues tested. One day after the bolus dose, all three groups (0+CPF, 1+CPF, 5+CPF) showed > or = 70% ChE inhibition in all tissues. Muscarinic receptor density decreased only in the brain of the 5+oil and 5+CPF groups, whereas dopamine transporter density increased only at 6 months in all three spiked groups. Striatal dopamine or dopamine metabolite levels did not change at any time. Three months after CPF dosing ended, all end points had returned to control levels. These data indicate that, although chronic feeding with or without intermittent spiked dosages with CPF produces substantial biochemical changes in a dose- and tissue-related manner, there are no persistent biochemical changes.
ESTHER : Padilla_2005_Toxicol.Sci_88_161
PubMedSearch : Padilla_2005_Toxicol.Sci_88_161
PubMedID: 16081522

Title : Repeated spike exposure to the insecticide chlorpyrifos interferes with the recovery of visual sensitivity in rats - Geller_2005_Doc.Ophthalmol_110_79
Author(s) : Geller AM , Sutton LD , Marshall RS , Hunter DL , Madden V , Peiffer RL
Ref : Doc Ophthalmol , 110 :79 , 2005
Abstract : Reports from Japan and India and data submissions to the US EPA indicate that exposure to cholinesterase (ChE)-inhibiting organophosphorous insecticides (OP) can produce ocular toxicity, in particular long-lasting changes in retinal physiology and anatomy. We have examined the effects of a 1 year dietary exposure to the OP chlorpyrifos (CPF) on retinal structure and function. Adult male Long-Evans rats were fed CPF in their diet at the rate of 0, 1 (low), or 5 (high) mg/kg body weight/day. In addition, half of each feeding group received an oral (spike) dose of CPF in corn oil (45 mg/kg) or corn oil (VEH) alone every 2 months, resulting in six exposure groups: Control-VEH, Control-CPF, Low-VEH, Low-CPF, High-VEH, and High-CPF. Dark-adapted electroretinograms (ERG) were measured 3-5 months (n= 15-18/group) after the completion of dosing. There were no significant differences between dose or spike groups in a-wave, b-wave, or oscillatory potential amplitudes or implicit times. In addition, the time course of dark adaptation were measured in a subset of these rats (6-8/group) eight months after the completion of dosing by determining the flash intensity needed to elicit a 40 microV b-wave at selected intervals after bleaching 90% of the photopigment. Rats receiving the episodic oral spike of CPF showed a slowed recovery of dark-adapted sensitivity compared to rats receiving the corn oil VEH across chronic dosing conditions. No effects were seen on retinal morphology. This result suggests that episodic high dose exposures to CPF may result in altered retinal function. This effect, akin to effects seen in aging humans and humans exposed to other ChE-inhibiting compounds, may reflect alterations in the photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) complex necessary for regenerating photopigment.
ESTHER : Geller_2005_Doc.Ophthalmol_110_79
PubMedSearch : Geller_2005_Doc.Ophthalmol_110_79
PubMedID: 16249959

Title : Automated measurement of acetylcholinesterase activity in rat peripheral tissues - Lassiter_2003_Toxicology_186_241
Author(s) : Lassiter TL , Marshall RS , Jackson LC , Hunter DL , Vu JT , Padilla S
Ref : Toxicology , 186 :241 , 2003
Abstract : The accepted mechanism of toxicity of many organophosphorous and carbamate insecticides is inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity. In mammals, part of the toxicity assessment usually includes monitoring blood and/or brain acetylcholinesterase inhibition. Other tissues, however, contain cholinesterase activity (i.e. acetyl- and butyryl-cholinesterase), and the inhibition of that activity may be informative for a full appraisal of the toxicity profile. The present group of studies first optimized the variables for extraction and solubilization of cholinesterase activity from various rat tissues and then refined an existing automated method, in order to differentially assess acetyl and butyrylcholinesterase activity in those tissues. All these studies were conducted using tissues from untreated, Long-Evans, adult rats. The first studies determined the effect of Triton X-100 or salt (NaCl) on the extraction and solubilization of cholinesterase activity from retina, brain, striated muscle, diaphragm, and heart: phosphate buffer plus detergent (1% Triton X-100) yielded the highest activity for most tissues. For striated muscle, however, slightly more activity was extracted if the phosphate buffer contained both 1% Triton X-100 and 0.5 M NaCl. It was also noted that the degree of homogenization of some tissues (e.g. striated muscle) must be increased for maximal solubilization of all cholinesterase activity. Subsequent studies developed a method for assessing the level of acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase and total cholinesterase activity in these tissues using an automated analyzer. In conclusion, automated assay of acetylcholinesterase activity in cholinergically innervated tissues in the rat (other than brain) is achievable and relatively convenient.
ESTHER : Lassiter_2003_Toxicology_186_241
PubMedSearch : Lassiter_2003_Toxicology_186_241
PubMedID: 12628316