Miles JW

References (2)

Title : The toxicological properties of impurities in malathion - Aldridge_1979_Arch.Toxicol_42_95
Author(s) : Aldridge WN , Miles JW , Mount DL , Verschoyle RD
Ref : Archives of Toxicology , 42 :95 , 1979
Abstract : During a malaria eradication programme in Pakistan in 1976, out of 7,500 spraymen, 2,800 became poisoned and 5 died. The major determinant of this poisoning has been identified as isomalathion present as an impurity in the malathion. It seems almost certain that the isomalathion was produced during storage of the formulated malathion. The quantitative correlation found between isomalathion content and toxicity of many field samples of malathion has been confirmed by an examination of mixtures of pure compounds. Addition of known amounts of isomalathion to technical malathion indicates that other active substances are present. These impurities have been identified (trimethyl phosphorothioates) and have been shown to behave like isomalathion in potentiating the toxicity of malathion. Some preliminary work on their toxicological properties is reported. The mechanisms involved in the potentiation of the toxicity of malathion are discussed.
ESTHER : Aldridge_1979_Arch.Toxicol_42_95
PubMedSearch : Aldridge_1979_Arch.Toxicol_42_95
PubMedID: 755464

Title : Epidemic malathion poisoning in Pakistan malaria workers - Baker_1978_Lancet_1_31
Author(s) : Baker EL, Jr. , Warren M , Zack M , Dobbin RD , Miles JW , Miller S , Alderman L , Teeters WR
Ref : Lancet , 1 :31 , 1978
Abstract : In 1976, epidemic organophosphate insecticide poisoning due to malathion occurred among 7500 field workers in the Pakistan malaria control programme. In July, the peak month of the epidemic, it is estimated that there were about 2800 cases. In field studies low red-cell cholinesterase activities were associated with the signs and symptoms of organophosphate insecticide intoxication. Toxicity was seen with 3 different formulations of the insecticide and was greatest with the products containing increased amounts of isomalathion, a toxic malathion degradation product. Poor work practices, which had developed when D.D.T. was the primary insecticide for malaria control, resulted in excessive skin contact with and percutaneous absorption of the pesticide. Airborne malathion concentrations were very low. Implementation of good work practices and proscription of use of the 2 pesticide formulations most contaminated with isomalathion halted the epidemic in September. An extensive training programme and surveillance system for pesticide toxicity preceded 1977 spraying operations.
ESTHER : Baker_1978_Lancet_1_31
PubMedSearch : Baker_1978_Lancet_1_31
PubMedID: 74508