Shemer A

References (2)

Title : Dicer Deficiency Differentially Impacts Microglia of the Developing and Adult Brain - Varol_2017_Immunity_46_1030
Author(s) : Varol D , Mildner A , Blank T , Shemer A , Barashi N , Yona S , David E , Boura-Halfon S , Segal-Hayoun Y , Chappell-Maor L , Keren-Shaul H , Leshkowitz D , Hornstein E , Fuhrmann M , Amit I , Maggio N , Prinz M , Jung S
Ref : Immunity , 46 :1030 , 2017
Abstract : Microglia seed the embryonic neuro-epithelium, expand and actively sculpt neuronal circuits in the developing central nervous system, but eventually adopt relative quiescence and ramified morphology in the adult. Here, we probed the impact of post-transcriptional control by microRNAs (miRNAs) on microglial performance during development and adulthood by generating mice lacking microglial Dicer expression at these distinct stages. Conditional Dicer ablation in adult microglia revealed that miRNAs were required to limit microglial responses to challenge. After peripheral endotoxin exposure, Dicer-deficient microglia expressed more pro-inflammatory cytokines than wild-type microglia and thereby compromised hippocampal neuronal functions. In contrast, prenatal Dicer ablation resulted in spontaneous microglia activation and revealed a role for Dicer in DNA repair and preservation of genome integrity. Accordingly, Dicer deficiency rendered otherwise radio-resistant microglia sensitive to gamma irradiation. Collectively, the differential impact of the Dicer ablation on microglia of the developing and adult brain highlights the changes these cells undergo with time.
ESTHER : Varol_2017_Immunity_46_1030
PubMedSearch : Varol_2017_Immunity_46_1030
PubMedID: 28636953

Title : Neural networks within multi-core optic fibers - Cohen_2016_Sci.Rep_6_29080
Author(s) : Cohen E , Malka D , Shemer A , Shahmoon A , Zalevsky Z , London M
Ref : Sci Rep , 6 :29080 , 2016
Abstract : Hardware implementation of artificial neural networks facilitates real-time parallel processing of massive data sets. Optical neural networks offer low-volume 3D connectivity together with large bandwidth and minimal heat production in contrast to electronic implementation. Here, we present a conceptual design for in-fiber optical neural networks. Neurons and synapses are realized as individual silica cores in a multi-core fiber. Optical signals are transferred transversely between cores by means of optical coupling. Pump driven amplification in erbium-doped cores mimics synaptic interactions. We simulated three-layered feed-forward neural networks and explored their capabilities. Simulations suggest that networks can differentiate between given inputs depending on specific configurations of amplification; this implies classification and learning capabilities. Finally, we tested experimentally our basic neuronal elements using fibers, couplers, and amplifiers, and demonstrated that this configuration implements a neuron-like function. Therefore, devices similar to our proposed multi-core fiber could potentially serve as building blocks for future large-scale small-volume optical artificial neural networks.
ESTHER : Cohen_2016_Sci.Rep_6_29080
PubMedSearch : Cohen_2016_Sci.Rep_6_29080
PubMedID: 27383911