Sullivan DR

References (4)

Title : Changes in lipoprotein-Associated phospholipase A2 activity predict coronary events and partly account for the treatment effect of pravastatin: results from the Long-Term Intervention with Pravastatin in Ischemic Disease study - White_2013_J.Am.Heart.Assoc_2_e000360
Author(s) : White HD , Simes J , Stewart RA , Blankenberg S , Barnes EH , Marschner IC , Thompson P , West M , Zeller T , Colquhoun DM , Nestel P , Keech AC , Sullivan DR , Hunt D , Tonkin A
Ref : J Am Heart Assoc , 2 :e000360 , 2013
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) levels are associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) in healthy individuals and in patients who have had ischemic events. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Long-term Intervention with Pravastatin in Ischemic Disease (LIPID) study randomized 9014 patients with cholesterol levels of 4.0 to 7.0 mmol/L to placebo or pravastatin 3 to 36 months after myocardial infarction or unstable angina and showed a reduction in CHD and total mortality. We assessed the value of baseline and change in Lp-PLA2 activity to predict outcomes over a 6-year follow-up, the effect of pravastatin on Lp-PLA2 levels, and whether pravastatin treatment effect was related to Lp-PLA2 activity change. Lp-PLA2 was measured at randomization and 1 year, and levels were grouped as quartiles. The prespecified end point was CHD death or nonfatal myocardial infarction. Baseline Lp-PLA2 activity was positively associated with CHD events (P < 0.001) but not after adjustment for 23 baseline factors (P = 0.66). In 6518 patients who were event free at 1 year, change in Lp-PLA2 was a significant independent predictor of subsequent CHD events after adjustment for these risk factors, including LDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol changes (P < 0.001). Pravastatin reduced Lp-PLA2 by 16% compared with placebo (P < 0.001). After adjustment for Lp-PLA2 change, the pravastatin treatment effect was reduced from 23% to 10% (P = 0.26), with 59% of the treatment effect accounted for by changes in Lp-PLA2. Similar reductions in treatment effect were seen after adjustment for LDL cholesterol change. CONCLUSION: Reduction in Lp-PLA2 activity during the first year was a highly significant predictor of CHD events, independent of change in LDL cholesterol, and may account for over half of the benefits of pravastatin in the LIPID study.
ESTHER : White_2013_J.Am.Heart.Assoc_2_e000360
PubMedSearch : White_2013_J.Am.Heart.Assoc_2_e000360
PubMedID: 24152981
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-PLA2G7

Title : Refsum's Disease-Use of the Intestinal Lipase Inhibitor, Orlistat, as a Novel Therapeutic Approach to a Complex Disorder - Perera_2011_J.Obes_2011_
Author(s) : Perera NJ , Lewis B , Tran H , Fietz M , Sullivan DR
Ref : J Obes , 2011 : , 2011
Abstract : Refsum's Disease is an inherited metabolic disorder in which a metabolite of branched chain fatty acids accumulates due to lack of appropriate oxidative enzymes. Patients have elevated plasma phytanic acid levels and high concentrations of phytanic acid in a variety of tissues leading to progressive tissue damage. Besides retinal degeneration or retinal dystrophy associated with adult onset retinitis pigmentosa, additional symptoms include chronic polyneuropathy, cerebellar ataxia, sensorineural hearing loss, anosmia, ichthyosis, as well as skeletal, cardiac, hepatic, and renal abnormalities. Current management includes avoidance of dietary sources of branched chain fatty acids and regular plasmapheresis to prevent accumulation of these compounds to ameliorate progressive neurological deficits. Two brothers with Refsum's disease who experienced progressive symptoms despite optimal diet and plasmapheresis were commenced on a novel therapy. We report the effect of the intestinal lipase inhibitor, Orlistat, which led to significant reduction (P-value <0.001 on 2-sample unpaired t-test) of mean preplasmapheresis phytanic acid levels with retardation of the progression of most of their dermatological and neurological symptoms.
ESTHER : Perera_2011_J.Obes_2011_
PubMedSearch : Perera_2011_J.Obes_2011_
PubMedID: 20871815

Title : Butyrylcholinesterase (BCHE) genotyping for post-succinylcholine apnea in an Australian population - Yen_2003_Clin.Chem_49_1297
Author(s) : Yen T , Nightingale BN , Burns JC , Sullivan DR , Stewart PM
Ref : Clinical Chemistry , 49 :1297 , 2003
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Measurement of plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activity and inhibitor-based phenotyping are standard methods for identifying patients who experience post-succinylcholine (SC) apnea attributable to inherited variants of the BChE enzyme. Our aim was to develop PCR-based assays for BCHE mutation detection and implement them for routine diagnostic use at a university teaching hospital.
METHODS: Between 1999 and 2002, we genotyped 65 patients referred after prolonged post-SC apnea. Five BCHE gene mutations were analyzed. Competitive oligo-priming (COP)-PCR was used for flu-1, flu-2, and K-variant and direct DNA sequencing analysis for dibucaine and sil-1 mutations. Additional DNA sequencing of BCHE coding regions was provided when the five-mutation screen was negative or mutation findings were inconsistent with enzyme activity.
RESULTS: Genotyping identified 52 patients with primary hypocholinesterasemia attributable to BCHE mutations, and in 44 individuals the abnormalities were detected by the five-mutation screen (detection rate, 85%). Additional sequencing studies revealed mutations in eight other patients, including five with novel mutations. The most common genotype abnormality was compound homozygous dibucaine and homozygous K-variant mutations. No simple homozygotes were found. Of the remaining 13 patients, 3 had normal BChE activity and gene, and 10 were diagnosed with hypocholinesterasemia unrelated to BCHE gene abnormalities. CONCLUSION: A five-mutation screen for investigation of post-SC apnea identified BCHE gene abnormalities for 80% of a referral population. Six new BCHE mutations were identified by sequencing studies of 16 additional patients.
ESTHER : Yen_2003_Clin.Chem_49_1297
PubMedSearch : Yen_2003_Clin.Chem_49_1297
PubMedID: 12881446

Title : A new molecular defect in the lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) gene associated with fish eye disease - Contacos_1996_J.Lipid.Res_37_35
Author(s) : Contacos C , Sullivan DR , Rye KA , Funke H , Assmann G
Ref : J Lipid Res , 37 :35 , 1996
Abstract : We report a new genetic defect in the lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) gene associated with classical clinical and biochemical features of fish eye disease. The 63-year-old Australian female proband also suffers from non-insulin-dependent (type II) diabetes mellitus. She presented with corneal opacities, markedly reduced HDL-cholesterol (0.1 mmol/L; < 10% of normal controls), and elevated plasma triglycerides. The presence of diabetes did not explain the lipoprotein profile, which differed markedly in comparison to two female hypertriglyceridemic diabetic subjects. Cholesterol esterification in HDL-like particles was minimal but plasma cholesterol esterification was maintained due to LCAT activity in non-HDL-containing lipoprotein fractions. DNA sequence analysis of the proband's LCAT gene showed two C to T transitions resulting in the substitution of Thr123 with Ile and Tyr144 with Cys. Allele-specific PCR amplification procedures were used to confirm the presence of the mutations in this proband and to screen for additional carriers in her family. Three first degree relatives (mother, brother, son) were heterozygous for the Thr123 --> Ile mutation and her daughter had the Tyr144 --> Cys mutation. Apart from a reduction in HDL-cholesterol levels to half the normal concentration and a 20% reduction in apoA-I levels, their plasma lipids were unremarkable. The proband's son and daughter were further investigated. Both had normal cholesterol esterification rates in plasma and VLDL/LDL-depleted plasma, but reduced LCAT activity (50% that of normal). Thus, the biochemical and phenotypic expression for fish eye disease in the heterozygote subjects was similar, irrespective of the underlying LCAT mutation.
ESTHER : Contacos_1996_J.Lipid.Res_37_35
PubMedSearch : Contacos_1996_J.Lipid.Res_37_35
PubMedID: 8820100