van Doremalen N

References (4)

Title : Adaptive Evolution of MERS-CoV to Species Variation in DPP4 - Letko_2018_Cell.Rep_24_1730
Author(s) : Letko M , Miazgowicz K , McMinn R , Seifert SN , Sola I , Enjuanes L , Carmody A , van Doremalen N , Munster V
Ref : Cell Rep , 24 :1730 , 2018
Abstract : Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) likely originated in bats and passed to humans through dromedary camels; however, the genetic mechanisms underlying cross-species adaptation remain poorly understood. Variation in the host receptor, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), can block the interaction with the MERS-CoV spike protein and form a species barrier to infection. To better understand the species adaptability of MERS-CoV, we identified a suboptimal species-derived variant of DPP4 to study viral adaption. Passaging virus on cells expressing this DPP4 variant led to accumulation of mutations in the viral spike which increased replication. Parallel passages revealed distinct paths of viral adaptation to the same DPP4 variant. Structural analysis and functional assays showed that these mutations enhanced viral entry with suboptimal DPP4 by altering the surface charge of spike. These findings demonstrate that MERS-CoV spike can utilize multiple paths to rapidly adapt to novel species variation in DPP4.
ESTHER : Letko_2018_Cell.Rep_24_1730
PubMedSearch : Letko_2018_Cell.Rep_24_1730
PubMedID: 30110630

Title : Mapping the Specific Amino Acid Residues That Make Hamster DPP4 Functional as a Receptor for Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus - van Doremalen_2016_J.Virol_90_5499
Author(s) : van Doremalen N , Miazgowicz KL , Munster VJ
Ref : J Virol , 90 :5499 , 2016
Abstract : UNLABELLED: The novel emerging coronavirus Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) binds to its receptor, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), via 14 interacting amino acids. We previously showed that if the five interacting amino acids which differ between hamster and human DPP4 are changed to the residues found in human DPP4, hamster DPP4 does act as a receptor. Here, we show that the functionality of hamster DPP4 as a receptor is severely decreased if less than 4 out of 5 amino acids are changed. IMPORTANCE: The novel emerging coronavirus MERS-CoV has infected >1,600 people worldwide, and the case fatality rate is approximately 36%. In this study, we show that by changing 4 amino acids in hamster DPP4, this protein functions as a receptor for MERS-CoV. This work is vital in the development of new small-animal models, which will broaden our understanding of MERS-CoV and be instrumental in the development of countermeasures.
ESTHER : van Doremalen_2016_J.Virol_90_5499
PubMedSearch : van Doremalen_2016_J.Virol_90_5499
PubMedID: 27030263
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-DPP4

Title : Animal models of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection - van Doremalen_2015_Antiviral.Res_122_28
Author(s) : van Doremalen N , Munster VJ
Ref : Antiviral Res , 122 :28 , 2015
Abstract : The emergence of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012 marked the second time that a new, highly pathogenic coronavirus has emerged in the human population in the 21st century. In this review, we discuss the current state of knowledge of animal models of MERS-CoV infection. Commonly used laboratory animal species such as Syrian hamsters, mice and ferrets are not susceptible to MERS-CoV, due to differences in the MERS-CoV receptor dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4). The initially developed animal models comprise two nonhuman primate species, the rhesus macaque and the common marmoset. Rhesus macaques develop a mild to moderate respiratory disease upon inoculation, reminiscent of milder MERS cases, whereas marmosets develop a moderate to severe respiratory disease, recapitulating the severe disease observed in some patients. Dromedary camels, considered to be the reservoir for MERS-CoV, develop a mild upper respiratory tract infection with abundant viral shedding. Although normal mice are not susceptible to MERS-CoV, expression of the human DPP4 (hDPP4) overcomes the lack of susceptibility. Transgenic hDPP4 mice develop severe and lethal respiratory disease upon inoculation with MERS-CoV. These hDPP4 transgenic mice are potentially the ideal first line animal model for efficacy testing of therapeutic and prophylactic countermeasures. Further characterization of identified countermeasures would ideally be performed in the common marmoset model, due to the more severe disease outcome. This article forms part of a symposium in Antiviral Research on "From SARS to MERS: research on highly pathogenic human coronaviruses."
ESTHER : van Doremalen_2015_Antiviral.Res_122_28
PubMedSearch : van Doremalen_2015_Antiviral.Res_122_28
PubMedID: 26192750

Title : Host species restriction of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus through its receptor, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 - van Doremalen_2014_J.Virol_88_9220
Author(s) : van Doremalen N , Miazgowicz KL , Milne-Price S , Bushmaker T , Robertson S , Scott D , Kinne J , McLellan JS , Zhu J , Munster VJ
Ref : J Virol , 88 :9220 , 2014
Abstract : UNLABELLED: Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) emerged in 2012. Recently, the MERS-CoV receptor dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) was identified and the specific interaction of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of MERS-CoV spike protein and DPP4 was determined by crystallography. Animal studies identified rhesus macaques but not hamsters, ferrets, or mice to be susceptible for MERS-CoV. Here, we investigated the role of DPP4 in this observed species tropism. Cell lines of human and nonhuman primate origin were permissive of MERS-CoV, whereas hamster, ferret, or mouse cell lines were not, despite the presence of DPP4. Expression of human DPP4 in nonsusceptible BHK and ferret cells enabled MERS-CoV replication, whereas expression of hamster or ferret DPP4 did not. Modeling the binding energies of MERS-CoV spike protein RBD to DPP4 of human (susceptible) or hamster (nonsusceptible) identified five amino acid residues involved in the DPP4-RBD interaction. Expression of hamster DPP4 containing the five human DPP4 amino acids rendered BHK cells susceptible to MERS-CoV, whereas expression of human DPP4 containing the five hamster DPP4 amino acids did not. Using the same approach, the potential of MERS-CoV to utilize the DPP4s of common Middle Eastern livestock was investigated. Modeling of the DPP4 and MERS-CoV RBD interaction predicted the ability of MERS-CoV to bind the DPP4s of camel, goat, cow, and sheep. Expression of the DPP4s of these species on BHK cells supported MERS-CoV replication. This suggests, together with the abundant DPP4 presence in the respiratory tract, that these species might be able to function as a MERS-CoV intermediate reservoir. IMPORTANCE: The ongoing outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has caused 701 laboratory-confirmed cases to date, with 249 fatalities. Although bats and dromedary camels have been identified as potential MERS-CoV hosts, the virus has so far not been isolated from any species other than humans. The inability of MERS-CoV to infect commonly used animal models, such as hamster, mice, and ferrets, indicates the presence of a species barrier. We show that the MERS-CoV receptor DPP4 plays a pivotal role in the observed species tropism of MERS-CoV and subsequently identified the amino acids in DPP4 responsible for this restriction. Using a combined modeling and experimental approach, we predict that, based on the ability of MERS-CoV to utilize the DPP4 of common Middle East livestock species, such as camels, goats, sheep, and cows, these form a potential MERS-CoV intermediate host reservoir species.
ESTHER : van Doremalen_2014_J.Virol_88_9220
PubMedSearch : van Doremalen_2014_J.Virol_88_9220
PubMedID: 24899185