Billheimer JT

References (4)

Title : Endothelial lipase mediates efficient lipolysis of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins - Khetarpal_2021_PLoS.Genet_17_e1009802
Author(s) : Khetarpal SA , Vitali C , Levin MG , Klarin D , Park J , Pampana A , Millar JS , Kuwano T , Sugasini D , Subbaiah PV , Billheimer JT , Natarajan P , Rader DJ
Ref : PLoS Genet , 17 :e1009802 , 2021
Abstract : Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) are circulating reservoirs of fatty acids used as vital energy sources for peripheral tissues. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is a predominant enzyme mediating triglyceride (TG) lipolysis and TRL clearance to provide fatty acids to tissues in animals. Physiological and human genetic evidence support a primary role for LPL in hydrolyzing TRL TGs. We hypothesized that endothelial lipase (EL), another extracellular lipase that primarily hydrolyzes lipoprotein phospholipids may also contribute to TRL metabolism. To explore this, we studied the impact of genetic EL loss-of-function on TRL metabolism in humans and mice. Humans carrying a loss-of-function missense variant in LIPG, p.Asn396Ser (rs77960347), demonstrated elevated plasma TGs and elevated phospholipids in TRLs, among other lipoprotein classes. Mice with germline EL deficiency challenged with excess dietary TG through refeeding or a high-fat diet exhibited elevated TGs, delayed dietary TRL clearance, and impaired TRL TG lipolysis in vivo that was rescued by EL reconstitution in the liver. Lipidomic analyses of postprandial plasma from high-fat fed Lipg-/- mice demonstrated accumulation of phospholipids and TGs harboring long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), known substrates for EL lipolysis. In vitro and in vivo, EL and LPL together promoted greater TG lipolysis than either extracellular lipase alone. Our data positions EL as a key collaborator of LPL to mediate efficient lipolysis of TRLs in humans and mice.
ESTHER : Khetarpal_2021_PLoS.Genet_17_e1009802
PubMedSearch : Khetarpal_2021_PLoS.Genet_17_e1009802
PubMedID: 34543263
Gene_locus related to this paper: mouse-Lipg , human-LIPG

Title : The DGA1 gene determines a second triglyceride synthetic pathway in yeast - Oelkers_2002_J.Biol.Chem_277_8877
Author(s) : Oelkers P , Cromley D , Padamsee M , Billheimer JT , Sturley SL
Ref : Journal of Biological Chemistry , 277 :8877 , 2002
Abstract : Diacylglycerol esterification provides an excellent target for the pharmacological reduction of triglyceride accumulation in several human disease states. We have used Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system to study this critical component of triglyceride synthesis. Recent studies of an oleaginous fungus, Mortierella ramanniana, identified a new family of enzymes with in vitro acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase activity. We show here that DGA1, the sole member of this gene family in yeast, has a physiological role in triglyceride synthesis. Metabolic labeling of DGA1 deletion strains with triglyceride precursors detected significant reductions in triglyceride synthesis. Triglyceride synthesis was virtually abolished in four different growth conditions when DGA1 was deleted in concert with LRO1, an enzyme that esterifies diacylglycerol from a phospholipid acyl donor. The relative contributions of the two enzymes depended on growth conditions. The residual synthesis was lost when ARE2, encoding an acyl-CoA:sterol acyltransferase, was deleted. In vitro microsomal assays verified that DGA1 and ARE2 mediate acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase reactions. Three enzymes can thus account for diacylglycerol esterification in yeast. Yeast strains deficient in both diacylglycerol and sterol esterification showed only a slight growth defect indicating that neutral lipid synthesis is dispensable under common laboratory conditions.
ESTHER : Oelkers_2002_J.Biol.Chem_277_8877
PubMedSearch : Oelkers_2002_J.Biol.Chem_277_8877
PubMedID: 11751875
Gene_locus related to this paper: yeast-pdat

Title : A lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase-like gene mediates diacylglycerol esterification in yeast - Oelkers_2000_J.Biol.Chem_275_15609
Author(s) : Oelkers P , Tinkelenberg A , Erdeniz N , Cromley D , Billheimer JT , Sturley SL
Ref : Journal of Biological Chemistry , 275 :15609 , 2000
Abstract : The terminal step in triglyceride biosynthesis is the esterification of diacylglycerol. To study this reaction in the model eukaryote, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we investigated five candidate genes with sequence conservation to mammalian acyltransferases. Four of these genes are similar to the recently identified acyl-CoA diacylglycerol acyltransferase and, when deleted, resulted in little or no decrease in triglyceride synthesis as measured by incorporation of radiolabeled oleate or glycerol. By contrast, deletion of LRO1, a homolog of human lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase, resulted in a dramatic reduction in triglyceride synthesis, whereas overexpression of LRO1 yielded a significant increase in triglyceride production. In vitro microsomal assays determined that Lro1 mediated the esterification of diacylglycerol using phosphatidylcholine as the acyl donor. The residual triglyceride biosynthesis that persists in the LRO1 deletion strain is mainly acyl-CoA-dependent and mediated by a gene that is structurally distinct from the previously identified mammalian diacylglycerol acyltransferase. These mechanisms may also exist in mammalian cells.
ESTHER : Oelkers_2000_J.Biol.Chem_275_15609
PubMedSearch : Oelkers_2000_J.Biol.Chem_275_15609
PubMedID: 10747858
Gene_locus related to this paper: yeast-pdat

Title : Impaired Ca2+-induced tyrosine phosphorylation and defective lipid scrambling in erythrocytes from a patient with Scott syndrome: a study using an inhibitor for scramblase that mimics the defect in Scott syndrome - Dekkers_1998_Blood_91_2133
Author(s) : Dekkers DW , Comfurius P , Vuist WM , Billheimer JT , Dicker I , Weiss HJ , Zwaal RF , Bevers EM
Ref : Blood , 91 :2133 , 1998
Abstract : Scott syndrome is an hereditary bleeding disorder characterized by a deficiency in platelet procoagulant activity. Unlike normal blood cells, Scott platelets, as well as erythrocytes and lymphocytes, are strongly impaired in their ability to scramble their membrane phospholipids when challenged with Ca2+. In normal cells this collapse of membrane asymmetry leads to surface exposure of phosphatidylserine. Here we report that Scott erythrocytes show an apparent defect in tyrosine phosphorylation on treatment with Ca2+-ionophore. Diminished tyrosine phosphorylation was also apparent in activated Scott platelets, but much less pronounced than observed in red blood cells. On the other hand, tyrosine phosphorylation profiles observed in Scott red blood cell ghosts after sealing in the presence of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) were indistinguishable from those obtained from normal ghosts. Several observations argue in favor of a mechanism in which tyrosine phosphorylation in red blood cells is facilitated by, rather than required for scrambling of membrane lipids. Staurosporin blocks tyrosine phosphorylation in normal red blood cells, but does not inhibit the lipid scrambling process. White ghosts from normal erythrocytes, resealed in the absence of ATP, exhibit Ca2+-induced lipid scrambling without tyrosine phosphorylation. A selective inhibitor of Ca2+-induced lipid scrambling also showed an apparent inhibition of tyrosine phosphorylation in ionophore-treated normal red blood cells, similar to that observed in Scott erythrocytes. While this inhibitor also suppressed Ca2+-induced lipid scrambling in ghosts that were sealed in the presence of ATP, it did not inhibit tyrosine kinase activity. We conclude that the apparent deficiency in tyrosine phosphorylation in Scott cells is an epiphenomenon, possibly associated with a defect in phospholipid scrambling, but not causal to this defect.
ESTHER : Dekkers_1998_Blood_91_2133
PubMedSearch : Dekkers_1998_Blood_91_2133
PubMedID: 9490700