Brimer L

References (4)

Title : Risk assessment of glycoalkaloids in feed and food, in particular in potatoes and potato-derived products - Schrenk_2020_EFSA.J_18_e06222
Author(s) : Schrenk D , Bignami M , Bodin L , Chipman JK , Del Mazo J , Hogstrand C , Hoogenboom LR , Leblanc JC , Nebbia CS , Nielsen E , Ntzani E , Petersen A , Sand S , Schwerdtle T , Vleminckx C , Wallace H , Brimer L , Cottrill B , Dusemund B , Mulder P , Vollmer G , Binaglia M , Ramos Bordajandi L , Riolo F , Roldan-Torres R , Grasl-Kraupp B
Ref : EFSA J , 18 :e06222 , 2020
Abstract : The European Commission asked EFSA for a scientific opinion on the risks for animal and human health related to the presence of glycoalkaloids (GAs) in feed and food. This risk assessment covers edible parts of potato plants and other food plants containing GAs, in particular, tomato and aubergine. In humans, acute toxic effects of potato GAs (alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine) include gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea. For these effects, the CONTAM Panel identified a lowest-observed-adverse-effect level of 1 mg total potato GAs/kg body weight (bw) per day as a reference point for the risk characterisation following acute exposure. In humans, no evidence of health problems associated with repeated or long-term intake of GAs via potatoes has been identified. No reference point for chronic exposure could be identified from the experimental animal studies. Occurrence data were available only for alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine, mostly for potatoes. The acute dietary exposure to potato GAs was estimated using a probabilistic approach and applying processing factors for food. Due to the limited data available, a margin of exposure (MOE) approach was applied. The MOEs for the younger age groups indicate a health concern for the food consumption surveys with the highest mean exposure, as well as for the P95 exposure in all surveys. For adult age groups, the MOEs indicate a health concern only for the food consumption surveys with the highest P95 exposures. For tomato and aubergine GAs, the risk to human health could not be characterised due to the lack of occurrence data and the limited toxicity data. For horses, farm and companion animals, no risk characterisation for potato GAs could be performed due to insufficient data on occurrence in feed and on potential adverse effects of GAs in these species.
ESTHER : Schrenk_2020_EFSA.J_18_e06222
PubMedSearch : Schrenk_2020_EFSA.J_18_e06222
PubMedID: 32788943

Title : Rapid quantitative assay for acaricidal effects on Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis and Otodectes cynotis - Brimer_2004_Exp.Appl.Acarol_33_81
Author(s) : Brimer L , Bak H , Henriksen SA
Ref : Exp Appl Acarol , 33 :81 , 2004
Abstract : Brimer et al. (Vet. Parasitol. 51: 123-135, 1993 and 59: 249-255, 1995) developed a migration assay for acaricidal effect of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and macrocyclic lactones utilising Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis mites. In contrast to many others, this assay is fully quantitative but quite time-consuming. The aim of the present investigation was to modify this assay to become faster and simpler. As a result accurate determinations can now be obtained within 6h, as opposed to 24h. Furthermore it was demonstrated that also Otodectes cynotis mites can be used with only minor modifications of the procedures. The cholinesterase inhibitor diazinon and the formamide amitraz were used as acaricides. Thus, the mite migration assay now has been proven useful for acaricidal compounds belonging to three chemical groups with different modes of action, namely organophosphorous cholinesterase inhibitors, macrocyclic lactones acting on the glutamanergic/GABAegic motoneurons, and formamide inhibitors of the octopamine systems of arthropods.
ESTHER : Brimer_2004_Exp.Appl.Acarol_33_81
PubMedSearch : Brimer_2004_Exp.Appl.Acarol_33_81
PubMedID: 15285140

Title : Percutaneous absorption of organophosphorus insecticides in pigs--the influence of different vehicles - Gyrd-Hansen_1993_J.Vet.Pharmacol.Ther_16_174
Author(s) : Gyrd-Hansen N , Brimer L , Rasmussen F
Ref : J Vet Pharmacol Ther , 16 :174 , 1993
Abstract : In 40 experiments on 20 pigs three different organophosphorus insecticides (OPs), parathion (n = 6), phoxim (n = 7) and phosmet (n = 7), were administered both intravenously (i.v.) and dermally (d.) as 'pour-ons' in a crossover design in order to determine the dermal bioavailability of the OPs. As percutaneous absorption of drugs may be affected by the vehicle used, three chemically different vehicles--DMSO, 1-octanol and macrogol 400-were used for the dermal administration of each of the OPs. The pharmacokinetic parameters measured showed that 15-30% of dermally applied parathion is absorbed when administered in DMSO or octanol, but only 4-5% when administered in macrogol. Absorption was fastest with DMSO and slowest with macrogol. For the two ectoparasiticides, phoxim and phosmet, only between 0.5 and 3% of the dermal dose was absorbed with little difference in the absorption rate between the three vehicles. On the basis of the very limited dermal bioavailability for these two OPs it seems doubtful whether sufficient concentrations can reach the ectoparasites through the systemic route.
ESTHER : Gyrd-Hansen_1993_J.Vet.Pharmacol.Ther_16_174
PubMedSearch : Gyrd-Hansen_1993_J.Vet.Pharmacol.Ther_16_174
PubMedID: 8345567

Title : Evaluation of an in vitro method for acaricidal effect. Activity of parathion, phosmet and phoxim against Sarcoptes scabiei - Brimer_1993_Vet.Parasitol_51_123
Author(s) : Brimer L , Henriksen SA , Gyrd-Hansen N , Rasmussen F
Ref : Vet Parasitol , 51 :123 , 1993
Abstract : An in vitro test to determine the acaricidal effect of organophosphorous insecticides (OP) is described. The effect of parathion, phoxim and phosmet against the pig mange mite Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis was evaluated. The test is based on the migration ability of mites on the surface of agar gels containing the acaricide. The mite activity is expressed as a migration index (MI) and compared with the OP concentration in the agar. Good dose-response data were obtained for all three OPs tested, although the instability of phosmet required special precautions concerning the analysis of the agar. The test was found to be accurate, sensitive, easy to carry out and applicable for routine determinations. However, the test requires that the actual concentrations of the OPs in the gel batches are determined. For the three OPs used analytical methods were developed. While the lower threshold for acaricidal effect in vitro was approximately 1-2 micrograms g-1 for all three OPs tested, a significant difference in the higher concentration range was seen between the dose-response curve for parathion and the curves for phoxim and phosmet. While the latter curves decreased only slightly at concentrations above 3-6 micrograms g-1 (corresponding to MI values around 5-10), the curve for parathion was linear down to an MI value of 1, corresponding to a parathion concentration of approximately 30 micrograms g-1. This discrepancy was ascribed to different rates of uptake through the cuticula due to differences in the lipophilicity of the OPs.
ESTHER : Brimer_1993_Vet.Parasitol_51_123
PubMedSearch : Brimer_1993_Vet.Parasitol_51_123
PubMedID: 8128575