Forster J

References (4)

Title : Protection of insect neurons by erythropoietin\/CRLF3-mediated regulation of pro-apoptotic acetylcholinesterase - Knorr_2022_Sci.Rep_12_18565
Author(s) : Knorr DY , Schneider K , Buschgens L , Forster J , Georges NS , Geurten BRH , Heinrich R
Ref : Sci Rep , 12 :18565 , 2022
Abstract : Cytokine receptor-like factor 3 (CRLF3) is a conserved but largely uncharacterized orphan cytokine receptor of eumetazoan animals. CRLF3-mediated neuroprotection in insects can be stimulated with human erythropoietin. To identify mechanisms of CRLF3-mediated neuroprotection we studied the expression and proapoptotic function of acetylcholinesterase in insect neurons. We exposed primary brain neurons from Tribolium castaneum to apoptogenic stimuli and dsRNA to interfere with acetylcholinesterase gene expression and compared survival and acetylcholinesterase expression in the presence or absence of the CRLF3 ligand erythropoietin. Hypoxia increased apoptotic cell death and expression of both acetylcholinesterase-coding genes ace-1 and ace-2. Both ace genes give rise to single transcripts in normal and apoptogenic conditions. Pharmacological inhibition of acetylcholinesterases and RNAi-mediated knockdown of either ace-1 or ace-2 expression prevented hypoxia-induced apoptosis. Activation of CRLF3 with protective concentrations of erythropoietin prevented the increased expression of acetylcholinesterase with larger impact on ace-1 than on ace-2. In contrast, high concentrations of erythropoietin that cause neuronal death induced ace-1 expression and hence promoted apoptosis. Our study confirms the general proapoptotic function of AChE, assigns a role of both ace-1 and ace-2 in the regulation of apoptotic death and identifies the erythropoietin/CRLF3-mediated prevention of enhanced acetylcholinesterase expression under apoptogenic conditions as neuroprotective mechanism.
ESTHER : Knorr_2022_Sci.Rep_12_18565
PubMedSearch : Knorr_2022_Sci.Rep_12_18565
PubMedID: 36329181

Title : Volatile Terpenes and Brain Function: Investigation of the Cognitive and Mood Effects of Mentha x Piperita L. Essential Oil with In Vitro Properties Relevant to Central Nervous System Function - Kennedy_2018_Nutrients_10_
Author(s) : Kennedy D , Okello E , Chazot P , Howes MJ , Ohiomokhare S , Jackson P , Haskell-Ramsay C , Khan J , Forster J , Wightman E
Ref : Nutrients , 10 : , 2018
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Extracts of several members of the monoterpene-rich Lamiaceae sub-family Nepetoideae, including those from the Salvia (sage), Melissa (Lemon balm) and Rosmarinus (rosemary) genera, evince cognitive and mood effects in humans that are potentially related to their effects on cholinergic and GABAergic neurotransmission. To date, despite promising in vitro properties, the cognitive and mood effects of the closely related Mentha spicata (spearmint) and Mentha piperita (peppermint) remain unexplored. This study therefore assessed the human cognitive/mood effects of the M. spicata/piperita essential oil with the most promising, brain-relevant in vitro properties according to pre-trial in vitro screening. Design: Organic spearmint and peppermint (Mentha spicata/piperita) essential oils were pre-screened for neurotransmitter receptor binding and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, balanced cross-over study, 24 participants (mean age 25.2 years) consumed single doses of encapsulated placebo and 50 microl and 100 microl of the most promising essential oil (peppermint with nicotinic/GABAA receptor binding and AChE inhibitory properties, that increased calcium influx in a CAD cell neuronal model). Psychological functioning was assessed with mood scales and a range of standardised, cognitively demanding tasks pre-dose and at 1, 3 and 6 h post-dose. Results: The highest (100 microL) dose of essential oil improved performance on the cognitively demanding Rapid Visual Information Processing task (RVIP) at 1 h and 3 h post-dose and both doses attenuated fatigue and improved performance of the Serial 3 s subtraction task at 3 h post-dose. Conclusion: Peppermint (Mentha piperita) essential oil with high levels of menthol/menthone and characteristic in vitro cholinergic inhibitory, calcium regulatory and GABAA/nicotinic receptor binding properties, beneficially modulated performance on demanding cognitive tasks and attenuated the increase in mental fatigue associated with extended cognitive task performance in healthy adults. Future investigations should consider investigating higher doses.
ESTHER : Kennedy_2018_Nutrients_10_
PubMedSearch : Kennedy_2018_Nutrients_10_
PubMedID: 30087294

Title : The Ile198Thr and Ala379Val variants of plasmatic PAF-acetylhydrolase impair catalytical activities and are associated with atopy and asthma - Kruse_2000_Am.J.Hum.Genet_66_1522
Author(s) : Kruse S , Mao XQ , Heinzmann A , Blattmann S , Roberts MH , Braun S , Gao PS , Forster J , Kuehr J , Hopkin JM , Shirakawa T , Deichmann KA
Ref : American Journal of Human Genetics , 66 :1522 , 2000
Abstract : The platelet-activating factor (PAF) represents a phospholipid with complex biological functions, including involvement in inflammatory processes. The degrading enzyme PAF acetylhydrolase (PAFAH) represents a candidate for asthma and other atopic diseases. Two loss-of-function mutations of PAFAH are associated with severe asthma in Japanese individuals. Our aim was to look for further PAFAH variants in white populations, their possible association with atopic and asthmatic phenotypes, and their functional importance. We picked up three common variants in the PAFAH gene: Arg92His (exon 4), Ile198Thr (exon 7), and Ala379Val (exon 11). The known loss-of-function mutations were not seen. The variant allele Thr198 was found to be highly associated with total IgE concentrations in an atopic population (P=.009) and with "atopic asthma" in an asthmatic population (P=.008). The variant allele Val379 was found to be highly associated with "specific sensitization" in the atopic population (P=.002) and with "asthma" in the asthmatic population (P=.003). By use of recombinant PAFAH enzymes, the variant Val379 showed increased (14 microM) and Thr198 markedly increased (42 microM) KM values compared to the wild type (7 microM); furthermore, Vmax of Val379 was highly increased (132%). Thr198 and Val379 influence plasmatic PAFAH toward lower substrate affinities and therefore are very likely to prolong the activities of PAF. At the same time, they are associated with an increased risk to develop asthma and atopy. Thus, two PAFAH variants seem to play a key role in atopic and asthmatic processes in Caucasian populations.
ESTHER : Kruse_2000_Am.J.Hum.Genet_66_1522
PubMedSearch : Kruse_2000_Am.J.Hum.Genet_66_1522
PubMedID: 10733466
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-PLA2G7

Title : Studies on linkage and association of atopy with the chromosomal region 12q13-24 - Heinzmann_2000_Clin.Exp.Allergy_30_1555
Author(s) : Heinzmann A , Grotherr P , Jerkic SP , Lichtenberg A , Braun S , Kruse S , Forster J , Kuehr J , Deichmann KA
Ref : Clin Exp Allergy , 30 :1555 , 2000
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown linkage of bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis and total serum IgE concentration to the chromosomal region 12q13-24 in ethnical diverse populations. This region harbours a number of candidate genes for asthma and atopy, including stem cell factor (SCF), leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H), thyroid receptor 2 (TR2), and signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6). However, the same region was shown as well to be linked to other diseases with inflammatory character. So far no variants in any of these genes have been published which would allow association studies and confirm the pathogenicity of any of these genes. OBJECTIVE: We wanted to test for linkage of the chromosomal region 12q13-24 with the atopic phenotype without regard to clinical manifestations. Furthermore we screened for common nucleotide polymorphisms in candidate genes to enable association studies.
METHODS: We employed sib-pair linkage analysis and transmission disequilibrium testing with regard to four highly polymorphic microsatellite markers in 12q13-24 in atopic nuclear families. In addition, we looked for polymorphisms in the genes coding for SCF, LTA4H, TR2 and STAT6 performing SSCP-analysis and direct genomic sequencing.
RESULTS: We found no evidence for linkage of the genomic region 12q13-24 to elevated total serum IgE levels, specific sensitization to common inhalant allergens or atopy. Furthermore we identified three nucleotide polymorphisms including one common variant in the gene coding for SCF. No association of this polymorphism and any of the atopic phenotypes was seen. CONCLUSION: We conclude from our data that genes in the chromosomal region 12q13-24 and in particular SCF are unlikely to exert a major effect on the induction of the atopic phenotype in our Caucasian population. However, we did not focus on the asthmatic and thereby inflammatory aspect of atopy which might explain these results in contradiction to previous studies.
ESTHER : Heinzmann_2000_Clin.Exp.Allergy_30_1555
PubMedSearch : Heinzmann_2000_Clin.Exp.Allergy_30_1555
PubMedID: 11069563