Kathayat RS

References (9)

Title : Trypanosoma brucei Acyl-Protein Thioesterase-like (TbAPT-L) Is a Lipase with Esterase Activity for Short and Medium-Chain Fatty Acids but Has No Depalmitoylation Activity - Brown_2022_Pathogens_11_1245
Author(s) : Brown RWB , Sharma AI , Villanueva MR , Li X , Onguka O , Zilbermintz L , Nguyen H , Falk BA , Olson CL , Taylor JM , Epting CL , Kathayat RS , Amara N , Dickinson BC , Bogyo M , Engman DM
Ref : Pathogens , 11 : , 2022
Abstract : Dynamic post-translational modifications allow the rapid, specific, and tunable regulation of protein functions in eukaryotic cells. S-acylation is the only reversible lipid modification of proteins, in which a fatty acid, usually palmitate, is covalently attached to a cysteine residue of a protein by a zDHHC palmitoyl acyltransferase enzyme. Depalmitoylation is required for acylation homeostasis and is catalyzed by an enzyme from the alpha/beta hydrolase family of proteins usually acyl-protein thioesterase (APT1). The enzyme responsible for depalmitoylation in Trypanosoma brucei parasites is currently unknown. We demonstrate depalmitoylation activity in live bloodstream and procyclic form trypanosomes sensitive to dose-dependent inhibition with the depalmitoylation inhibitor, palmostatin B. We identified a homologue of human APT1 in Trypanosoma brucei which we named TbAPT-like (TbAPT-L). Epitope-tagging of TbAPT-L at N- and C- termini indicated a cytoplasmic localization. Knockdown or over-expression of TbAPT-L in bloodstream forms led to robust changes in TbAPT-L mRNA and protein expression but had no effect on parasite growth in vitro, or cellular depalmitoylation activity. Esterase activity in cell lysates was also unchanged when TbAPT-L was modulated. Unexpectedly, recombinant TbAPT-L possesses esterase activity with specificity for short- and medium-chain fatty acid substrates, leading to the conclusion, TbAPT-L is a lipase, not a depalmitoylase.
ESTHER : Brown_2022_Pathogens_11_1245
PubMedSearch : Brown_2022_Pathogens_11_1245
PubMedID: 36364996
Gene_locus related to this paper: tryb2-q7yxi0

Title : Endothelial Palmitoylation Cycling Coordinates Vessel Remodeling in Peripheral Artery Disease - Wei_2020_Circ.Res_127_249
Author(s) : Wei X , Adak S , Zayed M , Yin L , Feng C , Speck SL , Kathayat RS , Zhang Q , Dickinson BC , Semenkovich CF
Ref : Circulation Research , 127 :249 , 2020
Abstract : RATIONALE: Peripheral artery disease, common in metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus, responds poorly to medical interventions and is characterized by chronic vessel immaturity leading to lower extremity amputations. OBJECTIVE: To define the role of reversible palmitoylation at the endothelium in the maintenance of vascular maturity. METHODS AND RESULTS: Endothelial knockout of the depalmitoylation enzyme APT-1 (acyl-protein thioesterase 1) in mice impaired recovery from chronic hindlimb ischemia, a model of peripheral artery disease. Endothelial APT-1 deficiency decreased fibronectin processing, disrupted adherens junctions, and inhibited in vitro lumen formation. In an unbiased palmitoylation proteomic screen of endothelial cells from genetically modified mice, R-Ras, known to promote vessel maturation, was preferentially affected by APT-1 deficiency. R-Ras was validated as an APT-1 substrate, and click chemistry analyses demonstrated increased R-Ras palmitoylation in cells with APT-1 deficiency. APT-1 enzyme activity was decreased in endothelial cells from db/db mice. Hyperglycemia decreased APT-1 activity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells, due, in part, to altered acetylation of the APT-1 protein. Click chemistry analyses demonstrated increased R-Ras palmitoylation in the setting of hyperglycemia. Altered R-Ras trafficking, increased R-Ras palmitoylation, and fibronectin retention were found in diabetes mellitus models. Loss of R-Ras depalmitoylation caused by APT-1 deficiency constrained R-Ras membrane trafficking, as shown by total internal reflection fluorescence imaging. To rescue cellular phenotypes, we generated an R-Ras molecule with an inserted hydrophilic domain to circumvent membrane rigidity caused by defective palmitoylation turnover. This modification corrected R-Ras membrane trafficking, restored fibronectin processing, increased adherens junctions, and rescued defective lumen formation induced by APT-1 deficiency. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that endothelial depalmitoylation is regulated by the metabolic milieu and controls plasma membrane partitioning to maintain vascular homeostasis.
ESTHER : Wei_2020_Circ.Res_127_249
PubMedSearch : Wei_2020_Circ.Res_127_249
PubMedID: 32233916

Title : ABHD10 is an S-depalmitoylase affecting redox homeostasis through peroxiredoxin-5 - Cao_2019_Nat.Chem.Biol_15_1232
Author(s) : Cao Y , Qiu T , Kathayat RS , Azizi SA , Thorne AK , Ahn D , Fukata Y , Fukata M , Rice PA , Dickinson BC
Ref : Nat Chemical Biology , 15 :1232 , 2019
Abstract : S-Palmitoylation is a reversible lipid post-translational modification that has been observed on mitochondrial proteins, but both the regulation and functional consequences of mitochondrial S-palmitoylation are poorly understood. Here, we show that perturbing the 'erasers' of S-palmitoylation, acyl protein thioesterases (APTs), with either pan-active inhibitors or a mitochondrial-targeted APT inhibitor, diminishes the antioxidant buffering capacity of mitochondria. Surprisingly, this effect was not mediated by the only known mitochondrial APT, but rather by a resident mitochondrial protein with no known endogenous function, ABHD10. We show that ABHD10 is a member of the APT family of regulatory proteins and identify peroxiredoxin-5 (PRDX5), a key antioxidant protein, as a target of ABHD10 S-depalmitoylase activity. We then find that ABHD10 regulates the S-palmitoylation status of the nucleophilic active site residue of PRDX5, providing a direct mechanistic connection between ABHD10-mediated S-depalmitoylation of PRDX5 and its antioxidant capacity.
ESTHER : Cao_2019_Nat.Chem.Biol_15_1232
PubMedSearch : Cao_2019_Nat.Chem.Biol_15_1232
PubMedID: 31740833
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-ABHD10 , mouse-abhda

Title : Activity-Based Sensing of S-Depalmitoylases: Chemical Technologies and Biological Discovery - Azizi_2019_Acc.Chem.Res_52_3029
Author(s) : Azizi SA , Kathayat RS , Dickinson BC
Ref : Acc Chem Res , 52 :3029 , 2019
Abstract : While lipids were first appreciated as a critical hydrophobic barrier, our understanding of their roles at the cellular and organismal levels continues to grow. Not only are they important independent operators, providing a platform for both static and dynamic organization and communication within the cell, they also exert significant effects via the chemical modification of proteins. Addition of a lipid post-translational modification (PTM) alters protein hydrophobicity and behavior, with distinct consequences for subcellular trafficking, localization, intra- and intermolecular interactions, and stability. One of the most abundant and widespread protein lipidation events is S-acylation, installation of a long-chain lipid to the thiol of a cysteine side chain through a thioester linkage. S-Acylation is often referred to as S-palmitoylation, due to the prevalence of palmitate as the lipid modification. Unlike many lipid PTMs, S-acylation is enzymatically reversible, enabling the cell to tune proteome-wide properties through dynamic alterations in protein lipidation status. While much has been uncovered about the molecular effects of S-acylation and its implications for physiology, current biochemical and chemical methods only assess substrate lipidation levels or steady-state levels of enzyme activity. Yet, the writer protein acyl transferases (PATs) and eraser acyl protein thioesterases (APTs) are dynamically active, responsible for sometimes-rapid changes in S-palmitoylation status of target proteins. Thus, to understand the full scope, significance, and subtlety of S-deacylation and its regulation in the cell, it is necessary to observe the timing and cellular geography of regulatory enzyme activities. In this Account, we review the chemical tools developed by our group to selectively visualize and perturb the activity of APTs in live cells, highlighting the biological insights gained from their application. To visualize APT activity, we masked fluorogenic molecules with thioacylated, peptide-based APT substrate mimetics; APT activity and thus thiol deprotection releases a fluorescent product in the turn-on depalmitoylation probes (DPPs), while in ratiometric depalmitoylation probes (RDPs) the emission of the parent fluorophore is altered. Application of these probes in live cells reveals that APT activity is sensitive to cell signaling events and metabolic disturbances. Additionally, as indicated above, the location of regulatory enzymes is critical in lipid signaling, and one organelle of particular interest, due to its role in maintaining cellular homeostasis and its legion of lipidated proteins, is the mitochondria. Therefore, we developed a class of spatially constrained mitoDPPs to visualize mitochondrial APT activity as well as a selective inhibitor of mitochondrial deacylation activity, mitoFP. With these tools, we identify two mitochondrial S-depalmitoylases and connect mitochondrial S-depalmitoylation to redox buffering capacity. Moreover, some of the changes in activity observed are specific to the mitochondria, confirming spatial as well as temporal regulation of eraser protein activity. Overall, this chemical toolkit for S-depalmitoylase activity, imaging reagents and a targeted inhibitor, will continue to illuminate the regulatory mechanisms and roles of S-depalmitoylation within the complex homeostatic networks of the cell.
ESTHER : Azizi_2019_Acc.Chem.Res_52_3029
PubMedSearch : Azizi_2019_Acc.Chem.Res_52_3029
PubMedID: 31577124

Title : A Fluorescent Probe with Improved Water Solubility Permits the Analysis of Protein S-Depalmitoylation Activity in Live Cells - Qiu_2018_Biochemistry_57_221
Author(s) : Qiu T , Kathayat RS , Cao Y , Beck MW , Dickinson BC
Ref : Biochemistry , 57 :221 , 2018
Abstract : S-Palmitoylation is an abundant lipid post-translational modification that is dynamically installed on and removed from target proteins to regulate their activity and cellular localization. A dearth of tools for studying the activities and regulation of protein S-depalmitoylases, thioesterase "erasers" of protein cysteine S-palmitoylation, has contributed to an incomplete understanding of the role of dynamic S-palmitoylation in regulating proteome lipidation. Recently, we developed "depalmitoylation probes" (DPPs), small molecule probes that become fluorescent upon S-depalmitoylase enzymatic activity. To be suitable for application in live cells, the first-generation DPPs relied on a shorter lipid substrate (C8 vs naturally occurring C16), which enhanced solubility and cell permeability. However, the use of an unnatural lipid substrate on the probes potentially limits the utility of the approach. Herein, we present a new member of the DPP family, DPP-5, which features an anionic carboxylate functional group that increases the probe water solubility. The enhanced water solubility of DPP-5 permits the use of a natural, palmitoylated substrate (C16), rather than a surrogate lipid. We show that DPP-5 is capable of monitoring endogenous S-depalmitoylases in live mammalian cells and that it can reveal changes in S-depalmitoylation levels due to lipid stress. DPP-5 should prove to be a useful new tool for probing the regulation of proteome lipidation through dynamic S-depalmitoylation.
ESTHER : Qiu_2018_Biochemistry_57_221
PubMedSearch : Qiu_2018_Biochemistry_57_221
PubMedID: 29023093

Title : Wnt5a signaling induced phosphorylation increases APT1 activity and promotes melanoma metastatic behavior - Sadeghi_2018_Elife_7_
Author(s) : Sadeghi RS , Kulej K , Kathayat RS , Garcia BA , Dickinson BC , Brady DC , Witze ES
Ref : Elife , 7 : , 2018
Abstract : Wnt5a has been implicated in melanoma progression and metastasis, although the exact downstream signaling events that contribute to melanoma metastasis are poorly understood. Wnt5a signaling results in acyl protein thioesterase 1 (APT1) mediated depalmitoylation of pro-metastatic cell adhesion molecules CD44 and MCAM, resulting in increased melanoma invasion. The mechanistic details that underlie Wnt5a-mediated regulation of APT1 activity and cellular function remain unknown. Here, we show Wnt5a signaling regulates APT1 activity through induction of APT1 phosphorylation and we further investigate the functional role of APT1 phosphorylation on its depalmitoylating activity. We found phosphorylation increased APT1 depalmitoylating activity and reduced APT1 dimerization. We further determined APT1 phosphorylation increases melanoma invasion in vitro, and also correlated with increased tumor grade and metastasis. Our results further establish APT1 as an important regulator of melanoma invasion and metastatic behavior. Inhibition of APT1 may represent a novel way to treat Wnt5a driven cancers.
ESTHER : Sadeghi_2018_Elife_7_
PubMedSearch : Sadeghi_2018_Elife_7_
PubMedID: 29648538

Title : Active and dynamic mitochondrial S-depalmitoylation revealed by targeted fluorescent probes - Kathayat_2018_Nat.Commun_9_334
Author(s) : Kathayat RS , Cao Y , Elvira PD , Sandoz PA , Zaballa ME , Springer MZ , Drake LE , Macleod KF , van der Goot FG , Dickinson BC
Ref : Nat Commun , 9 :334 , 2018
Abstract : The reversible modification of cysteine residues by thioester formation with palmitate (S-palmitoylation) is an abundant lipid post-translational modification (PTM) in mammalian systems. S-palmitoylation has been observed on mitochondrial proteins, providing an intriguing potential connection between metabolic lipids and mitochondrial regulation. However, it is unknown whether and/or how mitochondrial S-palmitoylation is regulated. Here we report the development of mitoDPPs, targeted fluorescent probes that measure the activity levels of "erasers" of S-palmitoylation, acyl-protein thioesterases (APTs), within mitochondria of live cells. Using mitoDPPs, we discover active S-depalmitoylation in mitochondria, in part mediated by APT1, an S-depalmitoylase previously thought to reside in the cytosol and on the Golgi apparatus. We also find that perturbation of long-chain acyl-CoA cytoplasm and mitochondrial regulatory proteins, respectively, results in selective responses from cytosolic and mitochondrial S-depalmitoylases. Altogether, this work reveals that mitochondrial S-palmitoylation is actively regulated by "eraser" enzymes that respond to alterations in mitochondrial lipid homeostasis.
ESTHER : Kathayat_2018_Nat.Commun_9_334
PubMedSearch : Kathayat_2018_Nat.Commun_9_334
PubMedID: 29362370
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-LYPLA1

Title : Michael addition-based probes for ratiometric fluorescence imaging of protein S-depalmitoylases in live cells and tissues - Beck_2017_Chem.Sci_8_7588
Author(s) : Beck MW , Kathayat RS , Cham CM , Chang EB , Dickinson BC
Ref : Chem Sci , 8 :7588 , 2017
Abstract : The reversible modification of cysteine residues through thioester formation with palmitate (protein S-palmitoylation) is a prevalent chemical modification that regulates the function, localization, and stability of many proteins. Current methods for monitoring the "erasers" of S-palmitoylation, acyl-protein thioesterases (APTs), rely on destructive proteomic methods or "turn-on" probes, precluding deployment in heterogeneous samples such as primary tissues. To address these challenges, we present the design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of Ratiometric Depalmitoylation Probes (RDPs). RDPs respond to APTs with a robust ratiometric change in fluorescent signal both in vitro and in live cells. Moreover, RDPs can monitor endogenous APT activities in heterogeneous primary human tissues such as colon organoids, presaging the utility of these molecules in uncovering novel roles for APTs in metabolic regulation.
ESTHER : Beck_2017_Chem.Sci_8_7588
PubMedSearch : Beck_2017_Chem.Sci_8_7588
PubMedID: 29568422

Title : A fluorescent probe for cysteine depalmitoylation reveals dynamic APT signaling - Kathayat_2017_Nat.Chem.Biol_13_150
Author(s) : Kathayat RS , Elvira PD , Dickinson BC
Ref : Nat Chemical Biology , 13 :150 , 2017
Abstract : Hundreds of human proteins are modified by reversible palmitoylation of cysteine residues (S-palmitoylation), but the regulation of depalmitoylation is poorly understood. Here, we develop 'depalmitoylation probes' (DPPs), small-molecule fluorophores, to monitor the endogenous activity levels of 'erasers' of S-palmitoylation, acylprotein thioesterases (APTs). Live-cell analysis with DPPs reveals rapid growth-factor-mediated inhibition of the depalmitoylation activity of APTs, exposing a novel regulatory mechanism of dynamic lipid signaling.
ESTHER : Kathayat_2017_Nat.Chem.Biol_13_150
PubMedSearch : Kathayat_2017_Nat.Chem.Biol_13_150
PubMedID: 27992880