Kitur S

References (4)

Title : Structure-Activity Relationships Reveal Beneficial Selectivity Profiles of Inhibitors Targeting Acetylcholinesterase of Disease-Transmitting Mosquitoes - Vidal-Albalat_2023_J.Med.Chem__
Author(s) : Vidal-Albalat A , Kindahl T , Rajeshwari R , Lindgren C , Forsgren N , Kitur S , Tengo LS , Ekstrom F , Kamau L , Linusson A
Ref : Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , : , 2023
Abstract : Insecticide resistance jeopardizes the prevention of infectious diseases such as malaria and dengue fever by vector control of disease-transmitting mosquitoes. Effective new insecticidal compounds with minimal adverse effects on humans and the environment are therefore urgently needed. Here, we explore noncovalent inhibitors of the well-validated insecticidal target acetylcholinesterase (AChE) based on a 4-thiazolidinone scaffold. The 4-thiazolidinones inhibit AChE1 from the mosquitoes Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti at low micromolar concentrations. Their selectivity depends primarily on the substitution pattern of the phenyl ring; halogen substituents have complex effects. The compounds also feature a pendant aliphatic amine that was important for activity; little variation of this group is tolerated. Molecular docking studies suggested that the tight selectivity profiles of these compounds are due to competition between two binding sites. Three 4-thiazolidinones tested for in vivo insecticidal activity had similar effects on disease-transmitting mosquitoes despite a 10-fold difference in their in vitro activity.
ESTHER : Vidal-Albalat_2023_J.Med.Chem__
PubMedSearch : Vidal-Albalat_2023_J.Med.Chem__
PubMedID: 37094110

Title : Genetic markers associated with insecticide resistance and resting behaviour in Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes in selected sites in Kenya - Mwagira-Maina_2021_Malar.J_20_461
Author(s) : Mwagira-Maina S , Runo S , Wachira L , Kitur S , Nyasende S , Kemei B , Ochomo E , Matoke-Muhia D , Mbogo C , Kamau L
Ref : Malar J , 20 :461 , 2021
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Molecular diagnostic tools have been incorporated in insecticide resistance monitoring programmes to identify underlying genetic basis of resistance and develop early warning systems of vector control failure. Identifying genetic markers of insecticide resistance is crucial in enhancing the ability to mitigate potential effects of resistance. The knockdown resistance (kdr) mutation associated with resistance to DDT and pyrethroids, the acetylcholinesterase-1 (ace-1(R)) mutation associated with resistance to organophosphates and carbamates and 2La chromosomal inversion associated with indoor resting behaviour, were investigated in the present study. METHODS: Anopheles mosquitoes sampled from different sites in Kenya and collected within the context of malaria vector surveillance were analysed. Mosquitoes were collected indoors using light traps, pyrethrum spray and hand catches between August 2016 and November 2017. Mosquitoes were identified using morphological keys and Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) mosquitoes further identified into sibling species by the polymerase chain reaction method following DNA extraction by alcohol precipitation. Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles arabiensis were analysed for the presence of the kdr and ace-1(R) mutations, while 2La inversion was only screened for in An. gambiae where it is polymorphic. Chi-square statistics were used to determine correlation between the 2La inversion karyotype and kdr-east mutation. RESULTS: The kdr-east mutation occurred at frequencies ranging from 0.5 to 65.6% between sites. The kdr-west mutation was only found in Migori at a total frequency of 5.3% (n = 124). No kdr mutants were detected in Tana River. The ace-1(R) mutation was absent in all populations. The 2La chromosomal inversion screened in An. gambiae occurred at frequencies of 87% (n = 30), 80% (n = 10) and 52% (n = 50) in Baringo, Tana River and Migori, respectively. A significant association between the 2La chromosomal inversion and the kdr-east mutation was found. CONCLUSION: The significant association between the 2La inversion karyotype and kdr-east mutation suggests that pyrethroid resistant An. gambiae continue to rest indoors regardless of the presence of treated bed nets and residual sprays, a persistence further substantiated by studies documenting continued mosquito abundance indoors. Behavioural resistance by which Anopheles vectors prefer not to rest indoors may, therefore, not be a factor of concern in this study's malaria vector populations.
ESTHER : Mwagira-Maina_2021_Malar.J_20_461
PubMedSearch : Mwagira-Maina_2021_Malar.J_20_461
PubMedID: 34903240

Title : Noncovalent Inhibitors of Mosquito Acetylcholinesterase 1 with Resistance-Breaking Potency - Knutsson_2018_J.Med.Chem_61_10545
Author(s) : Knutsson S , Engdahl C , Kumari R , Forsgren N , Lindgren C , Kindahl T , Kitur S , Wachira L , Kamau L , Ekstrom F , Linusson A
Ref : Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 61 :10545 , 2018
Abstract : Resistance development in insects significantly threatens the important benefits obtained by insecticide usage in vector control of disease-transmitting insects. Discovery of new chemical entities with insecticidal activity is highly desired in order to develop new insecticide candidates. Here, we present the design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of phenoxyacetamide-based inhibitors of the essential enzyme acetylcholinesterase 1 (AChE1). AChE1 is a validated insecticide target to control mosquito vectors of, e.g., malaria, dengue, and Zika virus infections. The inhibitors combine a mosquito versus human AChE selectivity with a high potency also for the resistance-conferring mutation G122S; two properties that have proven challenging to combine in a single compound. Structure-activity relationship analyses and molecular dynamics simulations of inhibitor-protein complexes have provided insights that elucidate the molecular basis for these properties. We also show that the inhibitors demonstrate in vivo insecticidal activity on disease-transmitting mosquitoes. Our findings support the concept of noncovalent, selective, and resistance-breaking inhibitors of AChE1 as a promising approach for future insecticide development.
ESTHER : Knutsson_2018_J.Med.Chem_61_10545
PubMedSearch : Knutsson_2018_J.Med.Chem_61_10545
PubMedID: 30339371
Gene_locus related to this paper: mouse-ACHE

Title : N-Aryl-N'-ethyleneaminothioureas effectively inhibit acetylcholinesterase 1 from disease-transmitting mosquitoes - Knutsson_2017_Eur.J.Med.Chem_134_415
Author(s) : Knutsson S , Kindahl T , Engdahl C , Nikjoo D , Forsgren N , Kitur S , Ekstrom F , Kamau L , Linusson A
Ref : Eur Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 134 :415 , 2017
Abstract : Vector control of disease-transmitting mosquitoes by insecticides has a central role in reducing the number of parasitic- and viral infection cases. The currently used insecticides are efficient, but safety concerns and the development of insecticide-resistant mosquito strains warrant the search for alternative compound classes for vector control. Here, we have designed and synthesized thiourea-based compounds as non-covalent inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase 1 (AChE1) from the mosquitoes Anopheles gambiae (An. gambiae) and Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti), as well as a naturally occurring resistant-conferring mutant. The N-aryl-N'-ethyleneaminothioureas proved to be inhibitors of AChE1; the most efficient one showed submicromolar potency. Importantly, the inhibitors exhibited selectivity over the human AChE (hAChE), which is desirable for new insecticides. The structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis of the thioureas revealed that small changes in the chemical structure had a large effect on inhibition capacity. The thioureas showed to have different SAR when inhibiting AChE1 and hAChE, respectively, enabling an investigation of structure-selectivity relationships. Furthermore, insecticidal activity was demonstrated using adult and larvae An. gambiae and Ae. aegypti mosquitoes.
ESTHER : Knutsson_2017_Eur.J.Med.Chem_134_415
PubMedSearch : Knutsson_2017_Eur.J.Med.Chem_134_415
PubMedID: 28433681
Gene_locus related to this paper: anoga-ACHE1