Mann K

References (4)

Title : Genomic architecture of human neuroanatomical diversity - Toro_2015_Mol.Psychiatry_20_1011
Author(s) : Toro R , Poline JB , Huguet G , Loth E , Frouin V , Banaschewski T , Barker GJ , Bokde A , Buchel C , Carvalho FM , Conrod P , Fauth-Buhler M , Flor H , Gallinat J , Garavan H , Gowland P , Heinz A , Ittermann B , Lawrence C , Lemaitre H , Mann K , Nees F , Paus T , Pausova Z , Rietschel M , Robbins T , Smolka MN , Strohle A , Schumann G , Bourgeron T
Ref : Mol Psychiatry , 20 :1011 , 2015
Abstract : Human brain anatomy is strikingly diverse and highly inheritable: genetic factors may explain up to 80% of its variability. Prior studies have tried to detect genetic variants with a large effect on neuroanatomical diversity, but those currently identified account for <5% of the variance. Here, based on our analyses of neuroimaging and whole-genome genotyping data from 1765 subjects, we show that up to 54% of this heritability is captured by large numbers of single-nucleotide polymorphisms of small-effect spread throughout the genome, especially within genes and close regulatory regions. The genetic bases of neuroanatomical diversity appear to be relatively independent of those of body size (height), but shared with those of verbal intelligence scores. The study of this genomic architecture should help us better understand brain evolution and disease.
ESTHER : Toro_2015_Mol.Psychiatry_20_1011
PubMedSearch : Toro_2015_Mol.Psychiatry_20_1011
PubMedID: 25224261

Title : Galantamine: a cholinergic patch in the treatment of alcoholism: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial - Mann_2006_Psychopharmacology.(Berl)_184_115
Author(s) : Mann K , Ackermann K , Diehl A , Ebert D , Mundle G , Nakovics H , Reker T , Richter G , Schmidt LG , Driessen M , Rettig K , Opitz K , Croissant B
Ref : Psychopharmacology (Berl) , 184 :115 , 2006
Abstract : OBJECTIVES: The involvement of the central cholinergic system in alcohol abuse behavior is well known. It is possible that the reinforcing effects of ethanol are partially mediated by nicotinic receptors, which modulate neurotransmitter release. It was demonstrated that the application of a cholinesterase inhibitor reduces alcohol consumption in alcohol-preferring rats. This suggests that galantamine (GAL), a cholinesterase inhibitor, could be effective when seeking to prolong abstinence in recently detoxified alcoholics. This study represents the first reported clinical trial of a cholinergic drug in alcohol-relapse prevention. PATIENTS AND
METHODS: We investigated the efficacy and safety of GAL by conducting a 24-week randomized, placebo-controlled, multicentric clinical trial on 149 recently detoxified alcoholics. Survival analyses (Kaplan-Meier) were performed to reveal evidence of prolonged abstinence periods in patients who received GAL.
RESULTS: Our findings did not support our hypothesis. GAL did not extend the time to first severe relapse. However, additional post hoc analyses suggest that relapsed patients treated with GAL consume less ethanol per drinking day than patients treated with placebo.
CONCLUSIONS: GAL seems to be ineffective when used in relapse prevention of detoxified alcoholics. It is possible that alcohol needs to be "on board" for GAL to be beneficial. This could explain why our post hoc analysis showed that GAL possibly reduces the alcohol consumption of relapsers. If confirmed, GAL could play a role in the reduction of harmful alcohol use and at-risk consumption.
ESTHER : Mann_2006_Psychopharmacology.(Berl)_184_115
PubMedSearch : Mann_2006_Psychopharmacology.(Berl)_184_115
PubMedID: 16328375

Title : Galantamine reduces smoking in alcohol-dependent patients: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial - Diehl_2006_Int.J.Clin.Pharmacol.Ther_44_614
Author(s) : Diehl A , Nakovics H , Croissant B , Smolka MN , Batra A , Mann K
Ref : Int J Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics , 44 :614 , 2006
Abstract : INTRODUCTION: The high morbidity and mortality caused by smoking highlights the importance of investigating new strategies for smoking cessation or reduction. Galantamine is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor that increases the effect of acetylcholine (ACh). The nicotinic ACh receptor is activated via positive allosteric modulation (APL).
METHODS: We investigated whether galantamine reduces smoking by performing a 24-week randomized, placebo-controlled, multicentric clinical trial in recently detoxified alcohol-dependent patients. We included all study subjects irrespective of an intention or motivation to abstain from nicotine. Specific treatment for cessation or reduction of smoking was not provided. Smoking behavior was assessed by means of patients' diaries. The nicotine metabolite cotinine was measured to verify the number of smoked cigarettes as documented in the patient's diary.
RESULTS: 114 randomized smokers received galantamine (n = 56) or placebo (n = 58) for 12 weeks. Follow-up examinations were terminated after an additional 12 weeks without treatment. Smoking behavior did not differ between both groups at baseline. After treatment, the intention-to-treat analysis revealed significant differences with a 20% lower cumulative number of smoked cigarettes and a 15% lower number of smoking days in the galantamine group compared to placebo. The average number of smoked cigarettes per smoking day as well as the cotinine values decreased about 10%. Cotinine values showed a positive correlation with the number of documented cigarettes, validating the patients' diaries. CONCLUSION: Our tentative data indicate that galantamine reduces smoking behavior even without any additional specific intervention. We suggest introducing the term "substitution therapy" into the treatment of smoking. This result could open up a new treatment approach for groups of patients which usually have a low motivation for change.
ESTHER : Diehl_2006_Int.J.Clin.Pharmacol.Ther_44_614
PubMedSearch : Diehl_2006_Int.J.Clin.Pharmacol.Ther_44_614
PubMedID: 17190371

Title : [Outpatient alcohol detoxification] - Scherle_2003_Nervenarzt_74_219
Author(s) : Scherle T , Croissant B , Heinz A , Mann K
Ref : Nervenarzt , 74 :219 , 2003
Abstract : Increasing significance is being attributed to outpatient detoxification treatment of alcohol-dependent patients. Many patients want to undergo outpatient detoxification or even carry it out without professional supervision. In some Scandinavian countries and in the USA, outpatient detoxification under medical supervision has increased substantially. In these countries,numerous studies describe outpatient alcohol detoxification as a safe and cost-reducing method. These studies vary in many aspects, especially regarding the nature and dose of the withdrawal medication, but also concerning the inclusion criteria of patients. Medications to treat or prevent alcohol withdrawal symptoms are rather heterogeneous. Besides well-known standard medication established in inpatient treatment (e.g.,benzodiazepines and carbamazepine), interesting studies report the application of rather uncommon substances such as physostigmine and psychotropic analgesic nitrous oxide (PAN) for alcohol detoxification. This article provides an overview on outpatient alcohol detoxification and discusses its transfer to practical application.
ESTHER : Scherle_2003_Nervenarzt_74_219
PubMedSearch : Scherle_2003_Nervenarzt_74_219
PubMedID: 12627236