Paus T

References (5)

Title : Brain networks. Correlated gene expression supports synchronous activity in brain networks - Richiardi_2015_Science_348_1241
Author(s) : Richiardi J , Altmann A , Milazzo AC , Chang C , Chakravarty MM , Banaschewski T , Barker GJ , Bokde AL , Bromberg U , Buchel C , Conrod P , Fauth-Buhler M , Flor H , Frouin V , Gallinat J , Garavan H , Gowland P , Heinz A , Lemaitre H , Mann KF , Martinot JL , Nees F , Paus T , Pausova Z , Rietschel M , Robbins TW , Smolka MN , Spanagel R , Strohle A , Schumann G , Hawrylycz M , Poline JB , Greicius MD
Ref : Science , 348 :1241 , 2015
Abstract : During rest, brain activity is synchronized between different regions widely distributed throughout the brain, forming functional networks. However, the molecular mechanisms supporting functional connectivity remain undefined. We show that functional brain networks defined with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging can be recapitulated by using measures of correlated gene expression in a post mortem brain tissue data set. The set of 136 genes we identify is significantly enriched for ion channels. Polymorphisms in this set of genes significantly affect resting-state functional connectivity in a large sample of healthy adolescents. Expression levels of these genes are also significantly associated with axonal connectivity in the mouse. The results provide convergent, multimodal evidence that resting-state functional networks correlate with the orchestrated activity of dozens of genes linked to ion channel activity and synaptic function.
ESTHER : Richiardi_2015_Science_348_1241
PubMedSearch : Richiardi_2015_Science_348_1241
PubMedID: 26068849

Title : Genomic architecture of human neuroanatomical diversity - Toro_2015_Mol.Psychiatry_20_1011
Author(s) : Toro R , Poline JB , Huguet G , Loth E , Frouin V , Banaschewski T , Barker GJ , Bokde A , Buchel C , Carvalho FM , Conrod P , Fauth-Buhler M , Flor H , Gallinat J , Garavan H , Gowland P , Heinz A , Ittermann B , Lawrence C , Lemaitre H , Mann K , Nees F , Paus T , Pausova Z , Rietschel M , Robbins T , Smolka MN , Strohle A , Schumann G , Bourgeron T
Ref : Mol Psychiatry , 20 :1011 , 2015
Abstract : Human brain anatomy is strikingly diverse and highly inheritable: genetic factors may explain up to 80% of its variability. Prior studies have tried to detect genetic variants with a large effect on neuroanatomical diversity, but those currently identified account for <5% of the variance. Here, based on our analyses of neuroimaging and whole-genome genotyping data from 1765 subjects, we show that up to 54% of this heritability is captured by large numbers of single-nucleotide polymorphisms of small-effect spread throughout the genome, especially within genes and close regulatory regions. The genetic bases of neuroanatomical diversity appear to be relatively independent of those of body size (height), but shared with those of verbal intelligence scores. The study of this genomic architecture should help us better understand brain evolution and disease.
ESTHER : Toro_2015_Mol.Psychiatry_20_1011
PubMedSearch : Toro_2015_Mol.Psychiatry_20_1011
PubMedID: 25224261

Title : Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy predicts drug use via externalizing behavior in two community-based samples of adolescents - Lotfipour_2014_Addiction_109_1718
Author(s) : Lotfipour S , Ferguson E , Leonard G , Miettunen J , Perron M , Pike GB , Richer L , Seguin JR , Veillette S , Jarvelin MR , Moilanen I , Maki P , Nordstrom T , Pausova Z , Veijola J , Paus T
Ref : Addiction , 109 :1718 , 2014
Abstract : BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking (PEMCS) is associated with a higher probability of substance use in adolescence. We explore if externalizing behavior mediates this relationship, while controlling for a number of potential covariates of this mediation process.
METHODS: We used data obtained in two geographically distinct community samples of adolescents. The first (cross-sectional) sample consisted of 996 adolescents (12-18 years of age) recruited from the Saguenay Youth Study (SYS) in Canada (47% with PEMCS). The second (longitudinal) sample consisted of 1141 adolescents (49% with PEMCS) from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort (NFBC1986). In both samples, externalizing behavior and substance use were assessed during adolescence. In the NFBC1986 cohort, externalizing behavior was also assessed in childhood.
RESULTS: In both populations, PEMCS is associated with a higher likelihood of adolescent drug experimentation. In the NFBC1986 cohort, exposed (versus non-exposed) adolescents experiment with an extra 1.27 [B = 0.24, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 0.15, 0.33 P < 0.001] drugs. In the SYS cohort, a clear protective effect of not being exposed is shown: non-exposed (versus exposed) adolescents are 1.5 times [B = -0.42, 95% CI = -0.75, -0.09, P = 0.013] less likely to take drugs. These associations between PEMCS and drug experimentation remain in the multivariate and mediational analyses.
CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking appears to be associated with a higher probability of experimenting with drugs during adolescence, both directly and indirectly via externalizing behavior and the number of peers reported as using drugs.
ESTHER : Lotfipour_2014_Addiction_109_1718
PubMedSearch : Lotfipour_2014_Addiction_109_1718
PubMedID: 24942256

Title : Prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking interacts with a polymorphism in the alpha6 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene to influence drug use and striatum volume in adolescence -
Author(s) : Lotfipour S , Leonard G , Perron M , Pike B , Richer L , Seguin JR , Toro R , Veillette S , Pausova Z , Paus T
Ref : Mol Psychiatry , 15 :6 , 2010
PubMedID: 20029407

Title : Orbitofrontal cortex and drug use during adolescence: role of prenatal exposure to maternal smoking and BDNF genotype - Lotfipour_2009_Arch.Gen.Psychiatry_66_1244
Author(s) : Lotfipour S , Ferguson E , Leonard G , Perron M , Pike B , Richer L , Seguin JR , Toro R , Veillette S , Pausova Z , Paus T
Ref : Arch Gen Psychiatry , 66 :1244 , 2009
Abstract : CONTEXT: Prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking (PEMCS) may affect brain development and behavior in adolescent offspring. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the involvement of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in mediating the relationship between PEMCS and substance use. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analyses from the Saguenay Youth Study aimed at evaluating the effects of PEMCS on brain development and behavior among adolescents. Nonexposed adolescents were matched with adolescents exposed prenatally to cigarette smoking by maternal educational level. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: A French Canadian founder population of the Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean region of Quebec, Canada. The behavioral data set included 597 adolescents (275 sibships; 12-18 years of age), half of whom were exposed in utero to maternal cigarette smoking. Analysis of cortical thickness and genotyping were performed using available data from 314 adolescents. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The likelihood of substance use was assessed with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Predictive Scales. The number of different drugs tried by each adolescent was assessed using another questionnaire. Thickness of the OFC was estimated from T1-weighted magnetic resonance images using FreeSurfer software.
RESULTS: Prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking is associated with an increased likelihood of substance use. Among exposed adolescents, the likelihood of drug experimentation correlates with the degree of OFC thinning. In nonexposed adolescents, the thickness of the OFC increases as a function of the number of drugs tried. The latter effect is moderated by a brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) genotype (Val66Met).
CONCLUSIONS: We speculate that PEMCS interferes with the development of the OFC and, in turn, increases the likelihood of drug use among adolescents. In contrast, we suggest that, among nonexposed adolescents, drug experimentation influences the OFC thickness via processes akin to experience-induced plasticity.
ESTHER : Lotfipour_2009_Arch.Gen.Psychiatry_66_1244
PubMedSearch : Lotfipour_2009_Arch.Gen.Psychiatry_66_1244
PubMedID: 19884612