Melchert PW

References (5)

Title : An in vitro evaluation of kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) on the catalytic activity of carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) - Melchert_2023_Chem.Biol.Interact__110715
Author(s) : Melchert PW , Zhang Q , Mukhopadhyay S , Kanumuri SRR , McCurdy CR , Markowitz JS
Ref : Chemico-Biological Interactions , :110715 , 2023
Abstract : Kratom, (Mitragyna Speciosa Korth.) is a plant indigenous to Southeast Asia whose leaves are cultivated for a variety of medicinal purposes and mostly consumed as powders or tea in the United States. Kratom use has surged in popularity with the lay public and is currently being investigated for possible therapeutic benefits including as a treatment for opioid withdrawal due to the pharmacologic effects of its indole alkaloids. A wide array of psychoactive compounds are found in kratom, with mitragynine being the most abundant alkaloid. The drug-drug interaction (DDI) potential of mitragynine and related alkaloids have been evaluated for effects on the major cytochrome P450s (CYPs) via in vitro assays and limited clinical investigations. However, no thorough assessment of their potential to inhibit the major hepatic hydrolase, carboxylesterase 1 (CES1), exists. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro inhibitory potential of kratom extracts and its individual major alkaloids using an established CES1 assay and incubation system. Three separate kratom extracts and the major kratom alkaloids mitragynine, speciogynine, speciociliatine, paynantheine, and corynantheidine displayed a concentration-dependent reversible inhibition of CES1. The experimental K(i) values were determined as follows for mitragynine, speciociliatine, paynantheine, and corynantheidine: 20.6, 8.6, 26.1, and 12.5 microM respectively. Speciociliatine, paynantheine, and corynantheidine were all determined to be mixed-type reversible inhibitors of CES1, while mitragynine was a purely competitive inhibitor. Based on available pharmacokinetic data, determined Ki values, and a physiologically based inhibition screen mimicking alkaloid exposures in humans, a DDI mediated via CES1 inhibition appears unlikely across a spectrum of doses (i.e., 2-20g per dose). However, further clinical studies need to be conducted to exclude the possibility of a DDI at higher and extreme doses of kratom and those who are chronic users.
ESTHER : Melchert_2023_Chem.Biol.Interact__110715
PubMedSearch : Melchert_2023_Chem.Biol.Interact__110715
PubMedID: 37716419

Title : Involvement of esterases in the pulmonary metabolism of beclomethasone dipropionate and the potential influence of cannabis use - Qian_2022_Chem.Biol.Interact__110228
Author(s) : Qian Y , Melchert PW , Markowitz JS
Ref : Chemico-Biological Interactions , :110228 , 2022
Abstract : Beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) is an inhaled glucocorticoid used for maintenance treatment of asthma in adults and children. BDP is a prodrug activated in lung when hydrolyzed to its major active metabolite beclomethasone-17-monopropionate (17-BMP), which can be further deactivated to beclomethasone (BOH). The specific hydrolases contributing to these processes have not been identified which warrants an investigation to enable a better assessment of the drug-drug interaction (DDI) liability and a better management of drug efficacy and systemic toxicity. In the present study, the pulmonary metabolism of BDP was investigated using both human lung S9 (HLuS9) and recombinant carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) S9. By employing the relative activity approach, we tested the hypothesis of CES1 being the major enzyme involved. Assessment of other hydrolases were conducted in an assay with selective esterase inhibitors. In addition, the DDI potentials between BDP and delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) were evaluated due to the increasing use of inhaled cannabis both recreationally and medically. The mechanism of DDI was conducted in an in vitro time-dependent inhibition assay, and further interpreted utilizing a proposed model. In HLuS9, BDP was efficiently metabolized almost completely to 17-BMP, which was then converted to BOH at a much lower rate. CES1 was found as a minor contributor accounting for only 1.4% of BDP metabolism in HLuS9, while arylacetamide deacetylase might be the main enzyme involved. Both THC and CBD inhibited the HLuS9 mediated BDP hydrolysis in a reversible manner, with reported IC(50) values estimated as 8.98 and 36.8 microM, respectively. Our proposed model suggested a moderately decreased 17-BMP exposure in lung by concomitant THC from a cannabis cigarette, while the effects from orally taken CBD was expected to be of no clinical relevance.
ESTHER : Qian_2022_Chem.Biol.Interact__110228
PubMedSearch : Qian_2022_Chem.Biol.Interact__110228
PubMedID: 36283465

Title : In vitro inhibition of carboxylesterase 1 by Kava (Piper methysticum) Kavalactones - Melchert_2022_Chem.Biol.Interact__109883
Author(s) : Melchert PW , Qian Y , Zhang Q , Klee BO , Xing C , Markowitz JS
Ref : Chemico-Biological Interactions , :109883 , 2022
Abstract : Kava refers to the extracts from the rhizome of the plant Piper methysticum which is of particular significance to various indigenous cultures in the South Pacific region. Kavalactones are the active constituents of kava products and are associated with sedative and anxiolytic effects. Kavalactones have been evaluated in vitro for their potential to alter the activity of various CYP450 enzymes but have undergone little systematic investigation as to their potential influence on esterases. This study investigated the inhibition effects of kava and its kavalactones on carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) in an in vitro system and established associated kinetic parameters. Kava and its kavalactones were found to produce reversible inhibition of CES1 to varying degrees. Kavain, dihydrokavain, and desmethoxyyangonin displayed competitive type inhibition, while methysticin, dihydromethysticin, and yangonin displayed a mixed competitive-noncompetitive type inhibition. The inhibition constants (K(i)) values for each of the kavalactones were as follows: methysticin (35.2 microM), dihydromethysticin (68.2 microM), kavain (81.6 microM), dihydrokavain (105.3 microM), yangonin (24.9 microM), and desmethoxyyangonin (25.2 microM). With consideration to the in vitro K(i) for each evaluated kavalactone as well as available clinical kavalactone concentrations in blood circulation, co-administration of CES1 substrate medications and kava products at the recommended daily dose is generally free of drug interaction concerns. However, uncertainty around kavalactone exposure in humans has been noted and a clinically relevant CES1 inhibition by kavain, dihydrokavain, and dihydromethysticin is indeed possible if the kavalactone consumption is higher than 1000 mg in the context of over-the-counter usage. Further clinical studies would be required to assess the possibility of clinically significant kava drug-drug interactions with CES1 substrate medications.
ESTHER : Melchert_2022_Chem.Biol.Interact__109883
PubMedSearch : Melchert_2022_Chem.Biol.Interact__109883
PubMedID: 35278473

Title : In vitro evaluation of the impact of Covid-19 therapeutic agents on the hydrolysis of the antiviral prodrug remdesivir - Zhang_2022_Chem.Biol.Interact_365_110097
Author(s) : Zhang Q , Melchert PW , Markowitz JS
Ref : Chemico-Biological Interactions , 365 :110097 , 2022
Abstract : Remdesivir (RDV, Veklury(a)) is an FDA-approved prodrug for the treatment of hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Recent in vitro studies have indicated that human carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) is the major metabolic enzyme catalyzing RDV activation. COVID-19 treatment for hospitalized patients typically also involves a number of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs. Further, individuals who are carriers of a CES1 variant (polymorphism in exon 4 codon 143 [G143E]) may experience impairment in their ability to metabolize therapeutic agents which are CES1 substrates. The present study assessed the potential influence of nine therapeutic agents (hydroxychloroquine, ivermectin, erythromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin, trimethoprim, ciprofloxacin, vancomycin, and dexamethasone) commonly used in treating COVID-19 and 5 known CES1 inhibitors on the metabolism of RDV. Additionally, we further analyzed the mechanism of inhibition of cannabidiol (CBD), as well as the impact of the G143E polymorphism on RDV metabolism. An in vitro S9 fraction incubation method and in vitro to in vivo pharmacokinetic scaling were utilized. None of the nine therapeutic agents evaluated produced significant inhibition of RDV hydrolysis; CBD was found to inhibit RDV hydrolysis by a mixed type of competitive and noncompetitive partial inhibition mechanism. In vitro to in vivo modeling suggested a possible reduction of RDV clearance and increase of AUC when coadministration with CBD. The same scaling method also suggested a potentially lower clearance and higher AUC in the presence of the G143E variant. In conclusion, a potential CES1-mediated DDI between RDV and the nine assessed medications appears unlikely. However, a potential CES1-mediated DDI between RDV and CBD may be possible with sufficient exposure to the cannabinoid. Patients carrying the CES1 G143E variant may exhibit a slower biotransformation and clearance of RDV. Further clinical studies would be required to evaluate and characterize the clinical significance of a CBD-RDV interaction.
ESTHER : Zhang_2022_Chem.Biol.Interact_365_110097
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2022_Chem.Biol.Interact_365_110097
PubMedID: 35964681

Title : The Influence of Cannabidiol on the Pharmacokinetics of Methylphenidate in Healthy Subjects - Markowitz_2022_Med.Cannabis.Cannabinoids_5_199
Author(s) : Markowitz JS , De Faria L , Zhang Q , Melchert PW , Frye RF , Klee BO , Qian Y
Ref : Med Cannabis Cannabinoids , 5 :199 , 2022
Abstract : INTRODUCTION: Cannabidiol (CBD) is a widely utilized nonpsychoactive cannabinoid available as an over-the-counter supplement, a component of medical cannabis, and a prescriptive treatment of childhood epilepsies. In vitro studies suggest CBD may inhibit a number of drug-metabolizing enzymes, including carboxylesterase 1 (CES1). The aim of this study was to evaluate effect of CBD on the disposition of the CES1 substrate methylphenidate (MPH). METHODS: In a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study, 12 subjects ingested 750 mg of CBD solution, or alternatively, a placebo solution twice daily for a 3-day run-in period followed by an additional CBD dose (or placebo) and a single 10 mg dose of MPH and completed serial blood sampling for pharmacokinetic analysis. MPH and CBD concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS: The C(max) (mean +/- CV) for the CBD group and placebo group was 13.5 +/- 43.7% ng/mL and 12.2 +/- 36.4% ng/mL, respectively. AUC(inf) (ng/mL*h) for the CBD group and placebo group was 70.7 +/- 32.5% and 63.6 +/- 25.4%, respectively. The CBD AUC(0-8h) (mean +/- CV) was 1,542.2 +/- 32% ng/mL*h, and C(max) was 389.2 +/- 39% ng/mL. When compared to MPH only, the geometric mean ratio (CBD/control, 90% CI) for AUC(inf) and C(max) with CBD co-administration was 1.09 (0.89, 1.32) and 1.08 (0.85, 1.37), respectively. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: Although the upper bound of bioequivalence was not met, the mean estimates of AUC and C(max) ratios were generally small and unlikely to be of clinical significance.
ESTHER : Markowitz_2022_Med.Cannabis.Cannabinoids_5_199
PubMedSearch : Markowitz_2022_Med.Cannabis.Cannabinoids_5_199
PubMedID: 36467779