Melchert_2023_Chem.Biol.Interact__110715

Reference

Title : An in vitro evaluation of kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) on the catalytic activity of carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) - Melchert_2023_Chem.Biol.Interact__110715
Author(s) : Melchert PW , Zhang Q , Mukhopadhyay S , Kanumuri SRR , McCurdy CR , Markowitz JS
Ref : Chemico-Biological Interactions , :110715 , 2023
Abstract : Kratom, (Mitragyna Speciosa Korth.) is a plant indigenous to Southeast Asia whose leaves are cultivated for a variety of medicinal purposes and mostly consumed as powders or tea in the United States. Kratom use has surged in popularity with the lay public and is currently being investigated for possible therapeutic benefits including as a treatment for opioid withdrawal due to the pharmacologic effects of its indole alkaloids. A wide array of psychoactive compounds are found in kratom, with mitragynine being the most abundant alkaloid. The drug-drug interaction (DDI) potential of mitragynine and related alkaloids have been evaluated for effects on the major cytochrome P450s (CYPs) via in vitro assays and limited clinical investigations. However, no thorough assessment of their potential to inhibit the major hepatic hydrolase, carboxylesterase 1 (CES1), exists. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro inhibitory potential of kratom extracts and its individual major alkaloids using an established CES1 assay and incubation system. Three separate kratom extracts and the major kratom alkaloids mitragynine, speciogynine, speciociliatine, paynantheine, and corynantheidine displayed a concentration-dependent reversible inhibition of CES1. The experimental K(i) values were determined as follows for mitragynine, speciociliatine, paynantheine, and corynantheidine: 20.6, 8.6, 26.1, and 12.5 microM respectively. Speciociliatine, paynantheine, and corynantheidine were all determined to be mixed-type reversible inhibitors of CES1, while mitragynine was a purely competitive inhibitor. Based on available pharmacokinetic data, determined Ki values, and a physiologically based inhibition screen mimicking alkaloid exposures in humans, a DDI mediated via CES1 inhibition appears unlikely across a spectrum of doses (i.e., 2-20g per dose). However, further clinical studies need to be conducted to exclude the possibility of a DDI at higher and extreme doses of kratom and those who are chronic users.
ESTHER : Melchert_2023_Chem.Biol.Interact__110715
PubMedSearch : Melchert_2023_Chem.Biol.Interact__110715
PubMedID: 37716419

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Citations formats

Melchert PW, Zhang Q, Mukhopadhyay S, Kanumuri SRR, McCurdy CR, Markowitz JS (2023)
An in vitro evaluation of kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) on the catalytic activity of carboxylesterase 1 (CES1)
Chemico-Biological Interactions :110715

Melchert PW, Zhang Q, Mukhopadhyay S, Kanumuri SRR, McCurdy CR, Markowitz JS (2023)
Chemico-Biological Interactions :110715

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    [paper] => Melchert_2023_Chem.Biol.Interact__110715
    [author] => Melchert PW || Zhang Q || Mukhopadhyay S || Kanumuri SRR || McCurdy CR || Markowitz JS
    [year] => 2023
    [title] => An in vitro evaluation of kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) on the catalytic activity of carboxylesterase 1 (CES1)
    [journal] => Chemico-Biological Interactions
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    [page] => 110715
    [medline] => 37716419
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            [content] => Kratom, (Mitragyna Speciosa Korth.) is a plant indigenous to Southeast Asia whose leaves are cultivated for a variety of medicinal purposes and mostly consumed as powders or tea in the United States. Kratom use has surged in popularity with the lay public and is currently being investigated for possible therapeutic benefits including as a treatment for opioid withdrawal due to the pharmacologic effects of its indole alkaloids. A wide array of psychoactive compounds are found in kratom, with mitragynine being the most abundant alkaloid. The drug-drug interaction (DDI) potential of mitragynine and related alkaloids have been evaluated for effects on the major cytochrome P450s (CYPs) via in vitro assays and limited clinical investigations. However, no thorough assessment of their potential to inhibit the major hepatic hydrolase, carboxylesterase 1 (CES1), exists. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro inhibitory potential of kratom extracts and its individual major alkaloids using an established CES1 assay and incubation system. Three separate kratom extracts and the major kratom alkaloids mitragynine, speciogynine, speciociliatine, paynantheine, and corynantheidine displayed a concentration-dependent reversible inhibition of CES1. The experimental K(i) values were determined as follows for mitragynine, speciociliatine, paynantheine, and corynantheidine: 20.6, 8.6, 26.1, and 12.5 microM respectively. Speciociliatine, paynantheine, and corynantheidine were all determined to be mixed-type reversible inhibitors of CES1, while mitragynine was a purely competitive inhibitor. Based on available pharmacokinetic data, determined Ki values, and a physiologically based inhibition screen mimicking alkaloid exposures in humans, a DDI mediated via CES1 inhibition appears unlikely across a spectrum of doses (i.e., 2-20g per dose). However, further clinical studies need to be conducted to exclude the possibility of a DDI at higher and extreme doses of kratom and those who are chronic users.
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