Tilson HA

References (8)

Title : Time course of changes in cholinergic and neurotrophin-related markers after infusion of colchicine into the basal forebrain - Shaughnessy_1998_Brain.Res_781_61
Author(s) : Shaughnessy LW , Mundy WR , Tilson HA , Barone S, Jr.
Ref : Brain Research , 781 :61 , 1998
Abstract : After bilateral infusions of colchicine or vehicle in the rat nucleus basalis magnocellularis, the time course of changes in several cholinergic and neurotrophin-related markers were assessed. Animals were sacrificed at 3, 7, 14, 28, 35 and 84 days post-lesion, and both the NBM and cortical areas were assessed. Sections were stained immunohistochemically for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) or p140trk (trk) or histochemically for acetylcholinesterase (AChE). ChAT activity and neurotrophin protein levels were assessed regionally. The number of ChAT immunoreactive NBM neuronal profiles decreased beginning 3 days post-lesion and reach maximal loss by 28 days post-lesion, with no recovery. Examination of trk-IR around the NBM revealed a time-dependent decrease in trk-IR of magnocellular neuron and an increase in trk-IR of astrocytes at 14 and 28 days post-lesion. The density of AChE-stained cortical fibers was maximally decreased 3 days post-lesion followed by an increase in fiber staining across the remaining time points. Cortical ChAT activity showed the largest decrease at 7 days followed by recovery 84 days after colchicine infusion. There was an increase in NGF in the parietal cortex after colchicine infusion but no change in BDNF level. These patterns of changes in the cholinergic and neurotrophin-related markers suggest an association between NGF and lesion-induced compensatory responses in the basal forebrain cholinergic system.
ESTHER : Shaughnessy_1998_Brain.Res_781_61
PubMedSearch : Shaughnessy_1998_Brain.Res_781_61
PubMedID: 9507066

Title : The impact of dose rate on the neurotoxicity of acrylamide: the interaction of administered dose, target tissue concentrations, tissue damage, and functional effects - Crofton_1996_Toxicol.Appl.Pharmacol_139_163
Author(s) : Crofton KM , Padilla S , Tilson HA , Anthony DC , Raymer JH , MacPhail RC
Ref : Toxicol Appl Pharmacol , 139 :163 , 1996
Abstract : Health agencies are often required to predict the effects of long term low level exposure in humans based on annual data involving short-term high-level exposures. Uncertainties in extrapolation can be, in part, based on potentially different mechanism associated with different exposure scenarios. This study evaluated the adequacy of short-term exposures to acrylamide for predicting neurotoxicity produced by long-term exposures. The neurotoxic effects of acrylamide (ip) were assessed in rats after acute (0-150 mg/kg), 10-day (0-30 mg/kg), 30-day (0-20 mg/kg), and 90-day (0-10 mg/kg) exposures. Behavioral endpoints included motor activity, grip strength, and the acoustic startle response. Histological examination of sciatic nerve and spinal cord was also performed. Internal and target tissue doses were estimated by measurement of the concentration of acrylamide in serum and sciatic nerve. Functional and pathological results demonstrated that the effects of acrylamide depended on the dose rate and that the neurotoxicity of acrylamide was less than that predicted by a strict dose x time relationship. Behavioral endpoints showed both qualitative and quantitative changes as a function of dose rate. Recovery of behavioral function in these studies was independent of the duration of dosing. Because duration of dosing had no impact on the kinetics of acrylamide, these data indicate that the toxicity of acrylamide is not due to an accumulation of acrylamide in the target tissue. The less than strict cumulative toxicity of acrylamide may result from an interaction between administered dose, tissue damage, and repair processes.
ESTHER : Crofton_1996_Toxicol.Appl.Pharmacol_139_163
PubMedSearch : Crofton_1996_Toxicol.Appl.Pharmacol_139_163
PubMedID: 8685900

Title : Fenthion Treatment Produces Tissue-, Dose-, and Time-Dependent Decreases in Muscarinic Second Messenger Response in the Adult Rat CNS -
Author(s) : Tandon P , Pope CN , Barone S, Jr. , Boyes W , Tilson HA , Padilla S
Ref : In Enzyme of the Cholinesterase Family - Proceedings of Fifth International Meeting on Cholinesterases , (Quinn, D.M., Balasubramanian, A.S., Doctor, B.P., Taylor, P., Eds) Plenum Publishing Corp. :396 , 1995

Title : Fenthion produces a persistent decrease in muscarinic receptor function in the adult rat retina - Tandon_1994_Toxicol.Appl.Pharmacol_125_271
Author(s) : Tandon P , Padilla S , Barone S, Jr. , Pope CN , Tilson HA
Ref : Toxicol Appl Pharmacol , 125 :271 , 1994
Abstract : Several reports have suggested that exposure to organophosphate pesticides damages the visual system. The prolonged effects of an acute dose of fenthion (dimethyl 3-methyl-4-methylthiophenyl phosphorothionate) were studied on the cholinergic system of the rat retina. Fenthion was administered in a single dose of 0 or 100 mg/kg (sc, in corn oil) to adult, male, Long-Evans rats. The animals were killed 4, 14, or 56 days after treatment and cholinesterase (ChE) activity as well as muscarinic receptor (mChR) function measured in the retina and frontal cortex. Fenthion produced 89% inhibition of ChE activity in both tissues at 4 days, and, although there was recovery, slight (15%) inhibition of the enzyme activity was still observed at 56 days in both tissues. A long-lasting decrease in carbachol-stimulated inositolphosphate (IP) release was observed following fenthion treatment in the retina: IP release was depressed at 4 days and this depression persisted up to 56 days after dosing. The density of mChR in the retina as well as in the cortex was decreased by 14-20% at 4 days and returned to control levels by 56 days. Fenthion had no effect on the metabolism of phospholipids in the retina following intraocular injections of labeled precursors [3H]myo-inositol, [methyl-14C]choline, or [2-3H]glycerol 4 days after fenthion treatment. These prolonged effects of fenthion on mChR function (signal transduction) appear to be specific to the retina as the cortex showed no change in receptor-stimulated IP release even in the presence of significant mChR down-regulation and ChE inhibition. This dose of fenthion did not produce overt morphological changes in the retina or in the cortex, as observed with light microscopy, although an increase in glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactivity (GFAP IR) extending from the internal limiting membrane to the external limiting membrane of the retina was noted. This increase in GFAP IR was observed at 14 days and persisted as long as 56 days post-treatment in the retina, but was not noted in the cortex at any of the time points studied. Thus, this long-lasting perturbation in the retinal cholinergic second messenger system induced by fenthion may occur independently of depressed ChE activity and down-regulation of mChR.
ESTHER : Tandon_1994_Toxicol.Appl.Pharmacol_125_271
PubMedSearch : Tandon_1994_Toxicol.Appl.Pharmacol_125_271
PubMedID: 8171435

Title : Developmental changes in carbachol-stimulated inositolphosphate release in pigmented rat retina - Tandon_1993_Curr.Eye.Res_12_439
Author(s) : Tandon P , Pope C , Padilla S , Tilson HA , Harry GJ
Ref : Current Eye Research , 12 :439 , 1993
Abstract : Carbachol-stimulated release of inositolphosphates (IP) was studied in the whole retina from Long-Evans rats of different ages (day 5, 10, 15, 20, adult) following in vitro incorporation of [3H]myo-inositol. Unlike the albino rat retina, the pigmented retina was highly light-sensitive, making it necessary to dark adapt the animals and perform retinal dissections under low illumination to prevent light-induced IP release. Retinae from postnatal day 10 rats showed the highest amount of carbachol-stimulated IP released. This response to carbachol decreased with age until postnatal day 20 when it reached adult levels. The pigmented rat retina showed a sharp fall in the degree of carbachol (1 mM)-stimulated IP released at the time of eye-opening (450% above basal in retinae from 10 day old animals, as compared to 230% above basal in 15 day old retinae). Basal release of IP was not altered in the retina during development. Muscarinic cholinergic receptor density was, however, found to increase 5 fold with age, reaching adult levels by PND 20. Retinal weight and protein per retina also increased (four fold) from day 5 to adult; however, the in vitro incorporation of [3H]myo-inositol into phosphoinositides (calculated as per mg protein) did not change during development. Thus, in animals prior to eye opening, a much higher proportion of phosphoinositides appears to be hydrolyzed upon muscarinic receptor stimulation. During retinal development a change in sensitivity to the agonist-sensitive pool(s) of phosphoinositides may occur and/or there may be alterations in the efficacy of receptor coupling to the second messenger system resulting in the disassociation observed between the drastic increase in receptor number and the apparent decrease in receptor-stimulated release of IP.
ESTHER : Tandon_1993_Curr.Eye.Res_12_439
PubMedSearch : Tandon_1993_Curr.Eye.Res_12_439
PubMedID: 8344068

Title : Correlation of the anticholinesterase activity of a series of organophosphates with their ability to compete with agonist binding to muscarinic receptors - Ward_1993_Toxicol.Appl.Pharmacol_122_300
Author(s) : Ward TR , Ferris DJ , Tilson HA , Mundy WR
Ref : Toxicology & Applied Pharmacology , 122 :300 , 1993
Abstract : Some compounds that inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity compete directly with quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) binding, a muscarinic antagonist which binds to all subtypes equally, and with cis-methyldioxolane (CD), an agonist that binds with high affinity to the M2 subtype of muscarinic receptors. The relationship between inhibition of AChE activity and the capability to affect muscarinic receptors directly has not been systematically explored. The interaction of eight organophosphates with muscarinic receptors was compared to their ability to inhibit AChE activity in vitro in tissue homogenates from rat hippocampus and frontal cortex, two cholinergically enriched areas of the brain. Of the compounds tested only echothiophate competed for [3H]QNB binding and only at concentrations greater than 100 microM. The anticholinesterase compounds were also tested for their ability to compete with a muscarinic receptor agonist, [3H]CD, which binds with high affinity (approximate KD = 3.5 nM) to 10 and 3% of the muscarinic receptors in the frontal cortex and hippocampus, respectively. The anticholinesterase compounds inhibited high-affinity [3H]CD binding up to 80% and the effects were similar in both tissues. Echothiophate and DFP were potent inhibitors of [3H]CD binding, as were the active "oxon" forms of parathion, malathion, and disulfoton. The parent "thio" forms of these insecticides, however, were much less effective in competing for [3H]CD binding. A similar pattern of potency was observed for the inhibition of brain AChE activity. A strong correlation was found between the ability of a compound to inhibit AChE activity and the ability to compete with [3H]CD binding. These data suggest that the biological effects of cholinesterase-inhibiting compounds may be due to more than their ability to inhibit AChE.
ESTHER : Ward_1993_Toxicol.Appl.Pharmacol_122_300
PubMedSearch : Ward_1993_Toxicol.Appl.Pharmacol_122_300
PubMedID: 8212012

Title : Colchicine administered into the area of the nucleus basalis decreases cortical nicotinic cholinergic receptors labelled by [3H]-acetylcholine - Tilson_1989_Neuropharmacol_28_855
Author(s) : Tilson HA , Schwartz RD , Ali SF , McLamb RL
Ref : Neuropharmacology , 28 :855 , 1989
Abstract : Lesions in the nucleus basalis in the rat are known to decrease presynaptic markers for acetylcholine, including levels of cholineacetyltransferase (CHAT), high affinity uptake of choline and levels of acetylcholinesterase. Effects of lesions of the nucleus basalis on populations of nicotinic and muscarinic receptors are less well understood. After bilateral injection of the neurotoxic agent, colchicine into the nucleus basalis in the rat, levels of CHAT in the cerebral cortex were reduced 44%. Muscarinic cholinergic [( 3H]QNB) and dopaminergic [( 3H]spiroperidol) binding was not changed in the cortex, hippocampus or striatum. However, significant decreases in nicotinic binding sites, labelled by [( 3H]acetylcholine), were observed in the frontal cortex of nucleus basalis treated animals; scatchard plot analysis indicated a significant decrease in the number, but not affinity, of nicotinic binding sites. Colchicine injected into the nucleus basalis had no effect on the binding of [3H]acetylcholine in the hippocampus, but decreased binding of [3H]acetylcholine in the striatum. Subsequent experiments, in which colchicine was administered into the striatum at a site above the nucleus basalis had no significant effect on nicotinic binding in the striatum or frontal cortex. These results support the hypothesis that degeneration of the nucleus-basalis-cortical cholinergic pathway results in a loss of presynaptic nicotinic binding sites in the cortex as well as in the striatum (through transsynaptic degeneration of the cortico-striatal pathway).
ESTHER : Tilson_1989_Neuropharmacol_28_855
PubMedSearch : Tilson_1989_Neuropharmacol_28_855
PubMedID: 2779754

Title : AF64A, a cholinergic neurotoxin, selectively depletes acetylcholine in hippocampus and cortex, and produces long-term passive avoidance and radial-arm maze deficits in the rat - Walsh_1984_Brain.Res_321_91
Author(s) : Walsh TJ , Tilson HA , DeHaven DL , Mailman RB , Fisher A , Hanin I
Ref : Brain Research , 321 :91 , 1984
Abstract : The behavioral and biochemical effects of AF64A, a presynaptic cholinergic neurotoxin, were investigated. Bilateral administration of this compound into the lateral cerebral ventricles produced transient and dose-related effects on sensorimotor function and long-term impairments of cognitive behavior. Male Fischer-F344 rats dosed with either 15 or 30 nmol of AF64A reacted 29-62% faster than CSF-injected controls in a hot-plate test 14 (but not 1, 7, 21 or 28) days following dosing. The group administered 15 nmol of AF64A was also significantly more active (41%) than controls 28 days following dosing. The activity level of this group was comparable to that of controls at other times and hyperactivity was never observed in the 30 nmol group. Retention of a step-through passive avoidance task, assessed 35 days after dosing, was impaired in both the 15 and the 30 nmol groups. Their step-through latencies were significantly shorter than the control latencies, and they exhibited more partial entries during the 24-h retention test. Radial-arm maze performance, measured 60-80 days following treatment, was markedly impaired in the treated groups. Animals treated with AF64A made fewer correct responses in their first 8 choices, required more total selections to complete the task, and had an altered pattern of spatial responding in the maze. The neurochemical changes produced by AF64A, determined 120 days after dosing, were specific to the cholinergic system and consisted of decreases of ACh in both the hippocampus (15 and 30 nmol groups) and the frontal cortex (30 nmol group). The concentrations of catecholamines, indoleamines, their metabolites and choline in various brain regions were not affected by AF64A. Furthermore, histological analysis revealed that the doses of AF64A used in the present study did not damage the hippocampus, the fimbria-fornix, the septum or the caudate nucleus. These data support the contention that cholinergic processes in the hippocampus and/or frontal cortex play an important role in learning and memory processes. Furthermore, based upon the behavioral and biochemical data presented, it is suggested that AF64A could be a useful pharmacological tool for examining the neurobiological substrates of putative cholinergic disorders such as senile dementia of the Alzheimer's type.
ESTHER : Walsh_1984_Brain.Res_321_91
PubMedSearch : Walsh_1984_Brain.Res_321_91
PubMedID: 6548653