Zakut H

General

Full name : Zakut Haim

First name : Haim

Mail : The Edith Wolfson Med. Center, Dept. of Obstetrics & Gynecology, P.O.B. 5, 58100 Holon

Zip Code :

City :

Country : Israel

Email :

Phone : (972) 3 5028712

Fax : (972) 3 5014111

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References (49)

Title : Normal and atypical butyrylcholinesterases in placental development, function, and malfunction - Sternfeld_1997_Cell.Mol.Neurobiol_17_315
Author(s) : Sternfeld M , Rachmilewitz J , Loewenstein-Lichtenstein Y , Andres C , Timberg R , Ben-Ari S , Glick C , Soreq H , Zakut H
Ref : Cellular Molecular Neurobiology , 17 :315 , 1997
Abstract : 1. In utero exposure to poisons and drugs (e.g., anticholinesterases, cocaine) is frequently associated with spontaneous absorption and placental malfunction. The major protein interacting with these compounds is butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), which attenuates the effects of such xenobiotics by their hydrolysis or sequestration. Therefore, we studied BuChE expression during placental development. 2. RT-PCR revealed both BuChEmRNA and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) mRNA throughout gestation. However, cytochemical staining detected primarily BuChE activity in first-trimester placenta but AChE activity in term placenta. 3. As the atypical variant of BuChE has a narrower specificity for substrates and inhibitors than the normal enzyme, we investigated its interactions with alpha-solanine and cocaine, and sought a correlation between the occurrence of this variant and placental malfunction. 4. Atypical BuChE of serum or recombinant origin presented > 10-fold weaker affinities than normal BuChE for cocaine and alpha-solanine. However, BuChE in the serum of the heterozygote and a homozygous normal were similar in their drug affinities. Therefore, heterozygous serum or placenta can protect the fetus from drug or poison exposure, unlike homozygous atypical serum or placenta. 5. Genotype analyses revealed that heterozygous carriers of atypical BuChE were threefold less frequent among 49 patients with placental malfunction than among 76 controls of the entire Israeli population. These observations exclude heterozygote carriers of atypical BuChE from being at high risk for placental malfunction under exposure to anticholinesterases.
ESTHER : Sternfeld_1997_Cell.Mol.Neurobiol_17_315
PubMedSearch : Sternfeld_1997_Cell.Mol.Neurobiol_17_315
PubMedID: 9187488

Title : Overlapping drug interaction sites of human butyrylcholinesterase dissected by site-directed mutagenesis - Loewenstein-Lichtenstein_1996_Mol.Pharmacol_50_1423
Author(s) : Loewenstein-Lichtenstein Y , Glick D , Gluzman N , Sternfeld M , Zakut H , Soreq H
Ref : Molecular Pharmacology , 50 :1423 , 1996
Abstract : Butyrylcholinesterase [BCHE (acylcholine acyl hydrolase); EC 3.1.1.8] limits the access of drugs, including tacrine, to other proteins. The "atypical" BCHE variant, in which Asp70 at the rim of the active site gorge is substituted by glycine, displayed a more drastically weakened interaction with tacrine than with cocaine, dibucaine, succinylcholine, BW284c51 [1,5-bis(4-allyldimethylammoniumphenyl)pentan-3-one dibromide], or alpha-solanine. To delineate the protein domains that are responsible for this phenomenon, we mutated residues within the rim of the active site gorge, the region parallel to the peripheral site in the homologous enzyme acetylcholinesterase [AChE (acetylcholine acetyl hydrolase); EC 3.1.1.7], the oxyanion hole, and the choline-binding site. When expressed in microinjected Xenopus laevis oocytes, all mutant DNAs yielded comparable amounts of immunoreactive protein products. Most mutants retained catalytic activity close to that of wild-type BCHE and were capable of binding ligands. However, certain modifications in and around the oxyanion hole caused a dramatic loss in activity. The affinities for tacrine were reduced more dramatically than for all other ligands, including cocaine, in both oxyanion hole and choline-binding site mutants. Modified ligand affinities further demonstrated a peripheral site in residues homologous with those of AChE. BCHE mutations that prevented tacrine interactions also hampered its ability to bind other drugs and inhibitors, which suggests a partial overlap of the binding sites. This predicts that in addition to their genetic predisposition to adverse responses to tacrine, homozygous carriers of "atypical" BCHE will be overly sensitive to additional anticholinesterases and especially so when exposed to several anticholinesterases in combination.
ESTHER : Loewenstein-Lichtenstein_1996_Mol.Pharmacol_50_1423
PubMedSearch : Loewenstein-Lichtenstein_1996_Mol.Pharmacol_50_1423
PubMedID: 8967962
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-BCHE

Title : Genetic Predisposition for Variable Response to Anticholinesterase Therapy Anticipated in Carriers of the Butyrylcholinesterase Atypical Mutation -
Author(s) : Loewenstein Y , Schwarz M , Glick D , Norgaard-Pedersen B , Zakut H , Soreq H
Ref : In Enzyme of the Cholinesterase Family - Proceedings of Fifth International Meeting on Cholinesterases , (Quinn, D.M., Balasubramanian, A.S., Doctor, B.P., Taylor, P., Eds) Plenum Publishing Corp. :471 , 1995
PubMedID:

Title : Antisense Oligonucleotides Suppressing Expression of Cholinesterase Genes Modulate Hematopoiesis in Vivo and ex Vivo -
Author(s) : Soreq H , Lev-Lehman E , Patinkin D , Grifman M , Ehrlich G , Ginzberg D , Eckstein F , Zakut H
Ref : In Enzyme of the Cholinesterase Family - Proceedings of Fifth International Meeting on Cholinesterases , (Quinn, D.M., Balasubramanian, A.S., Doctor, B.P., Taylor, P., Eds) Plenum Publishing Corp. :1 , 1995
PubMedID:

Title : Genetic predisposition to adverse consequences of anti-cholinesterases in 'atypical' BCHE carriers - Loewenstein-Lichtenstein_1995_Nat.Med_1_1082
Author(s) : Loewenstein-Lichtenstein Y , Schwarz M , Glick D , Norgaard-Pedersen B , Zakut H , Soreq H
Ref : Nat Med , 1 :1082 , 1995
Abstract : Normal butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), but not several of its common genetic variants, serves as a scavenger for certain anti-cholinesterases (anti-ChEs). Consideration of this phenomenon becomes urgent in view of the large-scale prophylactic use of the anti-ChE, pyridostigmine, during the 1991 Persian Gulf War, in anticipation of nerve gas attack and of the anti-ChE, tacrine, for improving residual cholinergic neurotransmission in Alzheimer's disease patients. Adverse symptoms were reported for subjects in both groups, but have not been attributed to specific causes. Here, we report on an Israeli soldier, homozygous for 'atypical' BuChE, who suffered severe symptoms following pyridostigmine prophylaxis during the Persian Gulf War. His serum BuChE and recombinant 'atypical' BuChE were far less sensitive than normal BuChE to inhibition by pyridostigmine and several other carbamate anti-ChEs. Moreover, atypical BuChE demonstrated 1/200th the affinity for tacrine of normal BuChE or the related enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Genetic differences among BuChE variants may thus explain at least some of the adverse responses to anti-ChE therapies.
ESTHER : Loewenstein-Lichtenstein_1995_Nat.Med_1_1082
PubMedSearch : Loewenstein-Lichtenstein_1995_Nat.Med_1_1082
PubMedID: 7489367

Title : HER-2 amplification but not butyrylcholinesterase multability reflects aggressiveness of European-originated ovarian tumors - Dobianer_1995_Gynecol.Oncol_56_200
Author(s) : Dobianer K , Hruza C , Ehrlich G , Sevelda P , Czerwenka K , Soreq H , Spona J , Zakut H
Ref : Gynecologic Oncology , 56 :200 , 1995
Abstract : Tumorigenic roles were variably suggested for HER-2 and INT-2 oncogene amplifications and the "atypical" aspartate to glycine mutability in the butyrylcholinesterase (BCHE) gene in ovarian adenocarcinomas. To examine this notion we searched for correlations between these three phenomena and ovarian tumor classification and aggressiveness, using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP), and direct PCR sequencing. Our findings revealed no alleles carrying the atypical BCHE mutability in 30 European-originated patients with ovarian tumors compared with 11% (2/18) such alleles in Israeli patients with malignant ovarian tumors. This apparently reflected population diversity rather than disease relationship. INT-2 amplification was observed in 14/94 (15%) of the European patients; however, there was no correlation between this phenomenon and clinicopathological indices in the corresponding patients. In contrast, in 94 tumor samples we found that 40% (38/94) of the cases had HER-2 amplification. Moreover, there was a highly significant correlation (P < 0.008) between the over fivefold HER-2 amplification and ovarian tumor severity. These findings demonstrate an informative value for HER-2 amplification tests in tumor DNA, but not for INT-2 amplification or BCHE mutability, for the assessment of treatment.
ESTHER : Dobianer_1995_Gynecol.Oncol_56_200
PubMedSearch : Dobianer_1995_Gynecol.Oncol_56_200
PubMedID: 7896186

Title : Antisense inhibition of acetylcholinesterase gene expression causes transient hematopoietic alterations in vivo - Lev-Lehman_1994_Gene.Ther_1_127
Author(s) : Lev-Lehman E , Ginzberg D , Hornreich G , Ehrlich G , Meshorer A , Eckstein F , Soreq H , Zakut H
Ref : Gene Therapy , 1 :127 , 1994
Abstract : Hematopoietic acetylcholinesterase (ACHE) gene expression and its implication for development were studied by in vivo administration to mice of an antisense phosphorothioate oligonucleotide targetted toward ACHE (AS-ACHE). Hematopoietic alterations were observed by differential cell counts and ACHE mRNA levels determined by quantified RNA polymerase chain reaction (RNA-PCR) and in situ hybridization analyses. In control mice, injected with phosphate-buffered saline and untreated, ACHE mRNA labeling with ACHE [35S]cRNA was about 10-fold higher on megakaryocytes (MK) compared with all other bone marrow cells and increased by 20-fold during MK development, similar to reports for MK actin mRNA. Drastic reductions occurred in the bone marrow lymphocyte and erythroid fractions 12 days following intraperitoneal injection of AS-ACHE (5 micrograms/g weight) into groups of four mice. RNA-PCR revealed over 1000-fold decreases in ACHE mRNA levels in lymph nodes and bone marrow at this time, while actin mRNA levels dropped by 10 and 100-fold in lymph nodes and bone marrow of AS-ACHE treated mice compared with controls. In view of the developmental increase in MK actin, this suggested arrest in MK development as well. By 20 days postinjection, bone marrow actin mRNA was fully restored and the sensitive in situ hybridization technique revealed that ACHE mRNA levels were also restored and reached levels only 2-3-fold lower than in controls in all bone marrow cells of AS-ACHE treated mice. Moreover, lymphocytes and erythroid cells repopulated to levels 25% above normal, and promegakaryocyte and mature MK fractions of the total MK were 3 and 2-fold higher, respectively, than in controls.
ESTHER : Lev-Lehman_1994_Gene.Ther_1_127
PubMedSearch : Lev-Lehman_1994_Gene.Ther_1_127
PubMedID: 7584068

Title : Antisense oligonucleotide inhibition of acetylcholinesterase gene expression induces progenitor cell expansion and suppresses hematopoietic apoptosis ex vivo - Soreq_1994_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_91_7907
Author(s) : Soreq H , Patinkin D , Lev-Lehman E , Grifman M , Ginzberg D , Eckstein F , Zakut H
Ref : Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A , 91 :7907 , 1994
Abstract : To examine the role of acetylcholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.7) in hematopoietic cell proliferation and differentiation, we administered a 15-mer phosphorothioate oligonucleotide, antisense to the corresponding ACHE gene (AS-ACHE), to primary mouse bone marrow cultures. Within 2 hr of AS-ACHE addition to the culture, ACHE mRNA levels dropped by approximately 90%, as compared with those in cells treated with the "sense" oligomer, S-ACHE. Four days after AS-ACHE treatment, ACHE mRNA increased to levels 10-fold higher than in S-ACHE cultures or in fresh bone marrow. At this later time point, differential PCR display revealed significant differences between cellular mRNA transcripts in bone marrow and those in AS-ACHE- or S-ACHE-treated cultures. These oligonucleotide-triggered effects underlay considerable alterations at the cellular level: AS-ACHE but not S-ACHE increased cell counts, reflecting enhanced proliferation. In the presence of erythropoietin it also enhanced colony counts, reflecting expansion of progenitors. AS-ACHE further suppressed apoptosis-related fragmentation of cellular DNA in the progeny cells, and it diverted hematopoiesis toward production of primitive blasts and macrophages in a dose-dependent manner promoted by erythropoietin. These findings suggest that the hematopoietic role of acetylcholinesterase, anticipated to be inverse to the observed antisense effects, is to reduce proliferation of the multipotent stem cells committed to erythropoiesis and megakaryocytopoiesis and macrophage production and to promote apoptosis in their progeny. Moreover, these findings may explain the tumorigenic association of perturbations in ACHE gene expression with leukemia.
ESTHER : Soreq_1994_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_91_7907
PubMedSearch : Soreq_1994_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_91_7907
PubMedID: 8058733

Title : Antisense inhibition of butyrylcholinesterase gene expression predicts adverse hematopoietic consequences to cholinesterase inhibitors - Patinkin_1994_Cell.Mol.Neurobiol_14_459
Author(s) : Patinkin D , Lev-Lehman E , Zakut H , Eckstein F , Soreq H
Ref : Cellular Molecular Neurobiology , 14 :459 , 1994
Abstract : 1. To investigate the possibility that cholinesterase inhibitors may cause adverse hematopoietic effects, we employed antisense oligodeoxynucleotides selectively inhibiting butyrylcholinesterase gene expression (AS-BCHE). Complementary sense (S) oligonucleotides served as controls. 2. In primary bone marrow cell cultures grown with interleukin 3 (IL-3), AS-BCHE but not S-BCHE reduced growth of megakaryocyte colony-forming units (CFU-MK) in a dose-dependent manner at the micromolar range. 3. In cultures grown with IL-3, transferrin, and erythropoietin (Epo), cell counts increased up to twofold, yet colony counts (CFU-GEMM) remained unchanged under AS-BCHE treatment. 4. Electrophoretic measurements of DNA ladder as an apoptotic index revealed that the above oligonucleotide effects were not due to nonspecific induction of programmed cell death. 5. Differential cell counts demonstrated increased myeloidogenesis and reduced levels of early megakaryocytes in CFU-GEMM under AS-BCHE, suggesting requirement of the BCHE protein for megakaryopoiesis. 6. In vivo injection of AS-BCHE reduced BCHE mRNA levels in both young and mature megakaryocytes for as long as 20 days, as shown by in situ hybridization. 7. Ex vivo growth of primary bone marrow cells revealed a twofold reduction in CFU-MK colonies grown from the AS-BCHE- but not the S-BCHE-injected mice, 15 days posttreatment. 8. These findings demonstrate that deficient butyrylcholinesterase expression, and hence interference with this enzyme's activity through treatment with or exposure to cholinesterase inhibitors, may cause hematopoietic differences in treated patients.
ESTHER : Patinkin_1994_Cell.Mol.Neurobiol_14_459
PubMedSearch : Patinkin_1994_Cell.Mol.Neurobiol_14_459
PubMedID: 7621507

Title : Testicular amplification and impaired transmission of human butyrylcholinesterase cDNA in transgenic mice - Beeri_1994_Hum.Reprod_9_284
Author(s) : Beeri R , Gnatt A , Lapidot-Lifson Y , Ginzberg D , Shani M , Soreq H , Zakut H
Ref : Hum Reprod , 9 :284 , 1994
Abstract : Gene amplification occurs frequently in tumour tissues yet is, in general, non-inheritable. To study the molecular mechanisms conferring this restraint, we created transgenic mice carrying a human butyrylcholinesterase (BCHE) coding sequence, previously found to be amplified in a father and son. Blot hybridization of tail DNA samples revealed somatic transgene amplifications with variable restriction patterns and intensities, suggesting the occurrence of independent amplification events, in 31% (11/35) of mice from the FII generation but in only 3.5% (2/58) of the FIII and FIV generations. In contrast, > 10-fold amplifications of the BCHE transgene and the endogenous acetylcholinesterase and c-raf genes appeared in both testis and epididymis DNA from > 80% of FIII mice. Drastic, selective reductions in testis BCHEmRNA but not in actin mRNA were detected by the PCR amplification of testis cDNA from the transgenic mice, and apparently resulted in the limited transmission of amplified genes. The testicular amplification of the BCHE transgene may potentially represent a general phenomenon with clinical implications in human infertility.
ESTHER : Beeri_1994_Hum.Reprod_9_284
PubMedSearch : Beeri_1994_Hum.Reprod_9_284
PubMedID: 8027285

Title : Expression of three alternative acetylcholinesterase messenger RNAs in human tumor cell lines of different tissue origins - Karpel_1994_Exp.Cell.Res_210_268
Author(s) : Karpel R , Ben-Aziz-Aloya R , Sternfeld M , Ehrlich G , Ginzberg D , Tarroni P , Clementi F , Zakut H , Soreq H
Ref : Experimental Cell Research , 210 :268 , 1994
Abstract : To study the molecular mechanisms underlying the intensive expression of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in different tumor types, we characterized levels and composition of its messenger RNA (mRNA) sequences in heterologous tumor cell lines, primary tumor biopsies, and normal fetal and adult tissues and determined their exon-intron origin within the corresponding ACHE gene. Reverse transcription followed by polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed three alternatively spliced ACHE mRNAs in NT2/D1 teratocarcinoma, NCI-N-592 small cell lung carcinoma, TE671 medulloblastoma, K-562 erythroleukemia, and 293 transformed embryonal kidney cells. The three ACHE mRNAs include the principal species expressed in brain and muscle and two additional transcripts containing insertions of 751 or 829 residues downstream from the exon 4 domain. The inserted region, which represents an intron in brain and muscle, is expressed in the tumor cell lines either as a "readthrough" form or with 78 residues deleted from its 5' end. A major band of 2.5 kb was labeled with ACHE cDNA in poly(A)+ RNA blots from medulloblastoma cells or brain tissue, whereas a PCR-amplified probe from the inserted domain labeled a 3.4-kb band but not the 2.5-kb band in poly(A)+ RNA from small cell lung carcinoma. The ACHE mRNAs including the alternative insertions were found only in cell lines with levels of the principal ACHE mRNA species equal to or higher than those in brain (1-10 molecules/cell), determined by following the kinetics of mRNA PCR amplification. Genomic DNA sequencing revealed that the inserted domains in the ACHE mRNAs expressed in the tumor cell lines encode C-terminal peptides of 40 and 14 residues. These include a free cysteine, terminate with the consensus HG element, and continue by a 29-residue-long C-terminal hydrophobic cleavable peptide, properties characteristic of precursors to phosphoinositide (PI)-linked proteins. In extension of the reported expression of PI-linked AChE in hemopoietic cells including K-562, our findings demonstrate the existence of ACHE mRNAs with the potential to encode one hydrophilic and two PI-linked forms of AChE in tumor cells from both hemopoietic and nonhemopoietic origins.
ESTHER : Karpel_1994_Exp.Cell.Res_210_268
PubMedSearch : Karpel_1994_Exp.Cell.Res_210_268
PubMedID: 8299725

Title : Population diversity and distinct haplotype frequencies associated with ACHE and BCHE genes of Israeli Jews from trans-Caucasian Georgia and from Europe - Ehrlich_1994_Genomics_22_288
Author(s) : Ehrlich G , Ginzberg D , Loewenstein Y , Glick D , Kerem B , Ben-Ari S , Zakut H , Soreq H
Ref : Genomics , 22 :288 , 1994
Abstract : Variant alleles of the butyrylcholinesterase gene, BCHE, have often been used to trace the genetic histories of populations. The D70G substitution in BCHE causes prolonged postanesthesia apnea ("atypical" phenotype); H322N substitution in the closely related acetylcholinesterase gene, ACHE, is the basis of the mutually incompatible Yt blood groups. In both genes, additional point mutations were reported to be linked to these phenotypically evident ones. To examine whether the intragenic linkage reported for the ACHE and BCHE mutations in Americans is universal, we studied frequencies of these mutations in trans-Caucasian Georgian Jews, a population that has remained relatively isolated for 1500 years. To this end we employed PCR amplification followed by DNA sequencing and enzymatic restriction and compared the frequencies we found to corresponding reported phenotype data. Georgian Jews' N322 ACHE was a rather low 7.0% and was totally linked to a P446 mutation, in agreement with a recent report. In BCHE, however, G70 was a relatively high 5.8%, and the V497 and T539 mutations were not found, either in Georgian or in Ashkenazi Jews, in contrast to reported findings in Americans. Our findings reveal distinct displays of ACHE and BCHE haplotypes in Georgian Jews and suggest different founder effects, genetic drifts, and/or selection pressures in the evolution of each of these genes.
ESTHER : Ehrlich_1994_Genomics_22_288
PubMedSearch : Ehrlich_1994_Genomics_22_288
PubMedID: 7806214

Title : Mutations and impaired expression in the ACHE and BCHE genes: neurological implications - Soreq_1994_Biomed.Pharmacother_48_253
Author(s) : Soreq H , Ehrlich G , Schwarz M , Loewenstein Y , Glick D , Zakut H
Ref : Biomed Pharmacother , 48 :253 , 1994
Abstract : The acetylcholine hydrolysing cholinesterases control the termination of cholinergic signalling in multiple tissues and are targets for a variety of drugs, natural and man-made poisons and common insecticides. Molecular cloning and gene mapping studies revealed the primary structure of human acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase and localized the corresponding ACHE and BCHE genes to the chromosomal positions 3q26-ter and 7q22, respectively. Several different point mutations in the coding region of BCHE were found to be particularly abundant in the Israeli population. Analytical expression studies in microinjected Xenopus oocytes have demonstrated that the biochemical properties of cholinesterases may be modified by rationalized site-directed mutagenesis and in chimeric ACHE/BCHE constructs. These properties are differently altered in the various allelic BCHE variants, conferring resistance to several anti-cholinesterases, which may explain the evolutionary emergence of these multiple alleles. At the clinical level, abnormal expression of both ACHE and BCHE and the in vivo amplification of the ACHE and BCHE genes has been variously associated with abnormal megakaryocytopoiesis, leukemias and brain and ovarian tumors. Moreover, antisense oligonucleotides blocking the expression of these genes were shown to interfere with hemocytopoiesis in culture, implicating these genes in cholinergic influence on cell growth and proliferation.
ESTHER : Soreq_1994_Biomed.Pharmacother_48_253
PubMedSearch : Soreq_1994_Biomed.Pharmacother_48_253
PubMedID: 7999987

Title : Use of partially phosphorothioated antisense oligodeoxynucleotides for sequence-dependent modulation of hematopoiesis in culture - Ehrlich_1994_Antisense.Res.Dev_4_173
Author(s) : Ehrlich G , Patinkin D , Ginzberg D , Zakut H , Eckstein F , Soreq H
Ref : Antisense Research Development , 4 :173 , 1994
Abstract : To distinguish between sequence-dependent effects and non-specific cytotoxicity of phosphorothioate antisense oligonucleotides (AS-oligos), we introduced AS-oligos blocking expression of 2Hs, the Homo sapiens cell division controller cdc2 kinase, its hematopoietically expressed homolog CHED, and the acetylcholine-hydrolyzing enzyme butyrylcholinesterase (BCHE) into primary murine bone marrow (BM) culture. Antisense oligonucleotides were fully phosphorothioated (Ts) or prepared with three phosphorothioate groups at their 3' termini (S3). Each of these oligos could cause reductions in colony counts either as a result of its sequence-dependent biological capacity or due to sequence-independent cytotoxicity. The Ts and S3 forms of the matching sense oligo, S-BCHE, served for comparison. The S3 forms of AS-2Hs, AS-BCHE, and S-BCHE caused more limited drops in colony counts than their Ts counterparts, reflecting lower cytotoxicity. When incubated with electroblotted BM proteins, Ts but not S3 oligos intensively labeled two protein bands. Moreover, 5'-end 32P-labeled (Ts) S-BCHE labeled nuclear proteins in situ in small, mitotic cells, suggesting correlation between oligo-protein interactions and the sequence-independent cytotoxicity of Ts AS-oligos. Extension of the apparently nontoxic AS-CHED by two adenosine residues at the 3' end, creating a potential for intramolecular hydrogen bond formation, resulted in increased toxicity. These findings recommend the use of nonlooped, partially phosphorothioated oligos for the modulation of hematopoiesis.
ESTHER : Ehrlich_1994_Antisense.Res.Dev_4_173
PubMedSearch : Ehrlich_1994_Antisense.Res.Dev_4_173
PubMedID: 7849488

Title : Structure-function relationship studies in human cholinesterases reveal genomic origins for individual variations in cholinergic drug responses. - Loewenstein_1993_Prog.Neuropsychopharmacol.Biol.Psychiatry_17_905
Author(s) : Loewenstein Y , Gnatt A , Neville LF , Zakut H , Soreq H
Ref : Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biological Psychiatry , 17 :905 , 1993
Abstract : 1. Due to their involvement in the termination of neurotransmission at cholinergic synapses and neuromuscular junctions, cholinesterases are the target proteins for numerous drugs of neuro-psychopharmacology importance. 2. In order to perform structure-function relationship studies on human cholinesterases with respect to such drugs, a set of expression vectors was engineered, all of which include cloned cDNA inserts encoding various forms of human acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase. These vectors were designed to be transcribed in vitro into their corresponding mRNA products which, when microinjected into Xenopus oocytes, are efficiently translated to yield their catalytically active enzymes, each with its distinct substrate specificity and sensitivity to selective inhibitors. 3. A fully automated microtiter plate assay for evaluating the inhibition of said enzymes by tested cholinergic drugs and/or poisons has been developed, in conjunction with computerized data analysis, which offers prediction of such inhibition data on the authentic human enzymes and their natural or mutagenized variants. 4. Thus, it was found that asp70-->gly substitution renders butyrylcholinesterase succinylcholine insensitive and resistant to oxime reactivation while ser 425-->Pro with gly70 gives rise to the "atypical" butyrylcholinesterase phenotype, abolishing dibucaine binding. 5. Furthermore, differences in cholinesterase affinities to physostigmine, ecothiophate and bambuterol were shown in these natural variants. 6. Definition of key residues important for drug interactions may initiate rational design of more specific cholinesterase inhibitors, with fewer side effects. This, in turn, offers therapeutic potential in the treatment of clinical syndromes such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, glaucoma and myasthenia gravis.
ESTHER : Loewenstein_1993_Prog.Neuropsychopharmacol.Biol.Psychiatry_17_905
PubMedSearch : Loewenstein_1993_Prog.Neuropsychopharmacol.Biol.Psychiatry_17_905
PubMedID: 8278601

Title : Expression of a human acetylcholinesterase promoter-reporter construct in developing neuromuscular junctions of Xenopus embryos - Ben-Aziz-Aloya_1993_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_90_2471
Author(s) : Ben-Aziz-Aloya R , Seidman S , Timberg R , Sternfeld M , Zakut H , Soreq H
Ref : Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , 90 :2471 , 1993
Abstract : We have employed Xenopus embryos to express human acetylcholinesterase (AcChoEase; EC 3.1.1.7) in developing synapses. Transcription of AcChoEase mRNA was driven by a 2.2-kb sequence upstream from the initiator AUG in the ACHE gene encoding AcChoEase, with multiple potential sites for binding universal and tissue-specific transcription factors. These included clustered MyoD elements, E-box, SP1, EGR1, AP-2, and the development-related GAGA motif. A DNA construct composed of this sequence linked to a 2.1-kb sequence encoding human AcChoEase was designated human AcChoEase promoter-reporter (HpACHE). HpACHE but none of its several 5'-truncated derivatives was transcriptionally active in developing Xenopus embryos. Furthermore, PCR analysis using chimeric PCR primers revealed usage of the same 1.5-kb intron and 74-bp exon within the HpACHE sequence in microinjected embryos and various human tissues. Cytochemical staining revealed conspicuous accumulation of overexpressed AcChoEase in neuromuscular junctions and within muscle fibers of apparently normal 2-day Xenopus embryos injected with HpACHE. The same reporter driven by the cytomegalovirus promoter was similarly efficient in directing the heterologous human enzyme toward neuromuscular junctions, attributing the evolutionary conservation of AcChoEase targeting to the coding sequence. Our findings demonstrate that a short DNA sequence is sufficient to promote the exogenous transcription and faithful splicing of human AcChoEase mRNA in developing Xenopus embryos and foreshadow their use for integrative studies of cholinergic signaling and synapse formation.
ESTHER : Ben-Aziz-Aloya_1993_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_90_2471
PubMedSearch : Ben-Aziz-Aloya_1993_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_90_2471
PubMedID: 8460160

Title : Molecular dissection of cholinesterase domains responsible for carbamate toxicity - Loewenstein_1993_Chem.Biol.Interact_87_209
Author(s) : Loewenstein Y , Denarie M , Zakut H , Soreq H
Ref : Chemico-Biological Interactions , 87 :209 , 1993
Abstract : Carbamate compounds marked for their cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition are widely used as therapeutics and as insecticides. Groups of closely related carbamate molecules provide an important tool in the understanding of the domains responsible for binding these ligands to ChEs. Comparative inhibition profiles were derived for five N-methyl carbamates, mostly carbofuran derivatives, differing in length and branching of their hydrocarbonic chain towards human erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (H.AChE), human serum butyrylcholinesterase (H.BChE) in its normal form or in a mutant form containing the point mutation Asp70-->Gly, and Drosophila nervous system ChE. Carbofuran was more toxic to all three ChEs than any of the other derivatives, with IC50 values which differed by more than 1000-fold. Drosophila ChE appeared to be most sensitive to all of the examined carbamates, and H.AChE was consistently more sensitive than H.BChE. Moreover, inhibition efficiency for H.BChE decreased more effectively than it did for H.AChE with increased length and complexity of the side chain, indicating less flexible carbamate binding site in BChE as compared with AChE. The Asp70-->Gly mutation had no apparent effect on H.BChE inhibition by N-methyl carbamates, suggesting that the Asp70 domain localized near the rim of the active site groove is not important in carbamate binding. Comparison of the carbamate IC50 values with published LD50 values demonstrated correlation between the in vivo toxicity and inhibition of BChE by carbamates, suggesting a biological in addition to scavenging importance for BChE in mammals. Pinpointing different domains characteristic of carbamate binding in each member of the ChE family can thus shed light on the variable toxicity of these inhibitors to insects and mammals, predict the toxicity of yet untested inhibitor molecules and help in designing novel and improved ChE inhibitors.
ESTHER : Loewenstein_1993_Chem.Biol.Interact_87_209
PubMedSearch : Loewenstein_1993_Chem.Biol.Interact_87_209
PubMedID: 8343977

Title : Clinical Implications of Cholinesterase Aberrations in Syndromes of Hemopoietic Cell Division -
Author(s) : Zakut H , Lapidot-Lifson Y
Ref : In Multidisciplinary approaches to cholinesterase functions - Proceedings of Fourth International Meeting on Cholinesterases , (Shafferman, A. and Velan, B., Eds) Plenum Press, New York :269 , 1992
PubMedID:

Title : [Medical aspects and structural implications of cholinesterase inhibitors] -
Author(s) : Soreq H , Meir R , Zakut H
Ref : Harefuah , 123 :100 , 1992
PubMedID: 1516859

Title : Cloning and antisense oligodeoxynucleotide inhibition of a human homolog of cdc2 required in hematopoiesis - Lapidot-Lifson_1992_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_89_579
Author(s) : Lapidot-Lifson Y , Patinkin D , Prody CA , Ehrlich G , Seidman S , Ben-Aziz R , Benseler F , Eckstein F , Zakut H , Soreq H
Ref : Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A , 89 :579 , 1992
Abstract : Mechanisms triggering the commitment of pluripotent bone marrow stem cells to differentiated lineages such as mononuclear macrophages or multinucleated megakaryocytes are still unknown, although several lines of evidence suggested correlation between cholinergic signaling and hematopoietic differentiation. We now present cloning of a cDNA coding for CHED (cholinesterase-related cell division controller), a human homolog of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe cell division cycle 2 (cdc2)-like kinases, universal controllers of the mitotic cell cycle. Library screening, RNA blot hybridization, and direct PCR amplification of cDNA reverse-transcribed from cellular mRNA revealed that CHED mRNA is expressed in multiple tissues, including bone marrow. The CHED protein includes the consensus ATP binding and phosphorylation domains characteristic of kinases, displays 34-42% identically aligned amino acid residues with other cdc2-related kinases, and is considerably longer at its amino and carboxyl termini. An antisense oligodeoxynucleotide designed to interrupt CHED's expression (AS-CHED) significantly reduced the ratio between CHED mRNA and actin mRNA within 1 hr of its addition to cultures, a reduction that persisted for 4 days. AS-CHED treatment selectively inhibited megakaryocyte development in murine bone marrow cultures but did not prevent other hematopoietic pathways, as evidenced by increasing numbers of mononuclear cells. An oligodeoxynucleotide blocking production of the acetylcholine-hydrolyzing enzyme, butyrylcholinesterase, displayed a similar inhibition of megakaryocytopoiesis. In contrast, an oligodeoxynucleotide blocking production of the human 2Hs cdc2 homolog interfered with production of the human 2Hs cdc2 homolog interfered with cellular proliferation without altering the cell-type composition of these cultures. Therefore, these findings strengthen the link between cholinergic signaling and cell division control in hematopoiesis and implicate both CHED and cholinesterases in this differentiation process.
ESTHER : Lapidot-Lifson_1992_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_89_579
PubMedSearch : Lapidot-Lifson_1992_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_89_579
PubMedID: 1731328

Title : In vivo gene amplification in non-cancerous cells: cholinesterase genes and oncogenes amplify in thrombocytopenia associated with lupus erythematosus - Zakut_1992_Mut.Res_276_275
Author(s) : Zakut H , Lapidot-Lifson Y , Beeri R , Ballin A , Soreq H
Ref : Mutation Research , 276 :275 , 1992
Abstract : The ACHE and BCHE genes, encoding the acetylcholine hydrolysing enzymes acetylcholinesterase (ACHE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BCHE), co-amplify with several oncogenes in leukemic patients with platelet deficiency (thrombocytopenia). This and other experiments implicated ACHE and BCHE in the development of bone marrow megakaryocytes, the progenitors of platelets. Therefore, we wished to find out whether cholinesterase gene amplification would also occur in non-cancerous platelet disorders and, if so, whether oncogenes would amplify in such cases as well. The autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) presents an appropriate model system for this issue, since patients with SLE may suffer from thrombocytopenia resistant to most treatment modalities. Here, we report a 40-80-fold amplification of genomic sequences from the ACHE and BCHE genes as well as the C-raf, V-sis and C-fes/fps oncogenes in peripheral blood cells from an SLE patient with severe thrombocytopenia. PvuII restriction analysis and DNA blot hybridization of the amplified ACHE and BCHE sequences demonstrated apparent aberrations in both genes, suggesting that malfunctioning of modified, partially amplified cholinesterase genes may be involved in the etiology of thrombocytopenia associated with SLE. These observations imply that cholinergic mechanisms regulate megakaryocytopoiesis, shed new light on the diverse hematologic findings characteristic of SLE, and may become valuable as diagnostic, treatment and prognostic tools in the follow-up of patients suffering from thrombocytopenia associated with SLE. Furthermore, these findings reinforce the notion that cholinesterase gene amplifications are causally related with platelet abnormalities in multiple hemopoietic disorders.
ESTHER : Zakut_1992_Mut.Res_276_275
PubMedSearch : Zakut_1992_Mut.Res_276_275
PubMedID: 1374519

Title : Mapping the human acetylcholinesterase gene to chromosome 7q22 by fluorescent in situ hybridization coupled with selective PCR amplification from a somatic hybrid cell panel and chromosome-sorted DNA libraries - Ehrlich_1992_Genomics_13_1192
Author(s) : Ehrlich G , Viegas-Pequignot E , Ginzberg D , Sindel L , Soreq H , Zakut H
Ref : Genomics , 13 :1192 , 1992
Abstract : To establish the chromosomal location of the human ACHE gene encoding the acetylcholine hydrolyzing enzyme acetylcholinesterase (ACHE, acetylcholine acetylhydrolase, E.C. 3.1.1.7), a human-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedure that supports the selective amplification of ACHE DNA fragments from human genomic DNA was employed with 19 human-hamster somatic cell hybrids carrying one or more human chromosomes. Informative ACHE-specific PCR fragments were produced from two cell lines, both of which include human chromosome 7, but not with DNA from 17 cell hybrids carrying various combinations of all human chromosomes other than 7. Fluorescent in situ hybridization of biotinylated ACHE DNA with metaphase chromosomes from human peripheral blood lymphocytes revealed prominent labeling on the 7q22 position. Therefore, further tests were performed to confirm the chromosome 7 location. DNA samples from the two cell lines including chromosome 7 and the ACHE gene were positive with PCR primers informative for the human cystic fibrosis CFTR gene, known to reside at the 7q31.1 position, but negative for the ACHE-related butyrylcholinesterase (BCHE, acylcholine acylhydrolase, E.C. 3.1.1.8) gene, mapped at the 3q26-ter position, confirming that these lines contain chromosome 7 but not chromosome 3. In contrast, three other cell lines including chromosome 3, but not 7, were BCHE-positive and ACHE-negative. In addition, genomic DNA from a sorted chromosome 7 library supported the production of ACHE- but not BCHE-specific PCR products, whereas with DNA from a sorted chromosome 3 library, the BCHE but not the ACHE fragment was amplified.
ESTHER : Ehrlich_1992_Genomics_13_1192
PubMedSearch : Ehrlich_1992_Genomics_13_1192
PubMedID: 1380483

Title : Chorionic villus cDNA library displays expression of butyrylcholinesterase: putative genetic disposition for ecological danger - Zakut_1991_Prenat.Diagnos_11_597
Author(s) : Zakut H , Lieman-Hurwitz J , Zamir R , Sindell L , Ginzberg D , Soreq H
Ref : Prenat Diagnos , 11 :597 , 1991
Abstract : Gene expression in chorionic villi may be particularly vulnerable to environmental exposure to poisonous substances. To reveal villus gene products which are thus subject to poisoning, molecular cloning was employed. A single sample of apparently normal chorionic villi (approximately 40 mg, from 9 weeks' gestation) was microscopically dissected to ensure purity of fetal tissue. Total RNA was extracted by isothiocyanate and directly employed for reverse transcription. A chorionic villus cDNA library was constructed from this preparation in the phage vector lambda gt10 and contained 60,000 independent recombinants. In the present study, this cDNA library was screened with labelled cDNA probes encoding human butyrylcholinesterase (BCHE) and acetylcholinesterase (ACHE). Nine BCHEcDNA clones were isolated out of 1.6 x 10(6) phages (5.7 x 10(-6) of screened recombinants) and exhibited similar restriction patterns to those observed for BCHEcDNA from other human tissues. In contrast, no ACHEcDNA clones could be found in 4.0 x 10(6) screened phages (less than 2.5 x 10(-6) of recombinants). These findings demonstrate efficient transcription (similar to fetal brain levels) from the BCHE gene but not from the ACHE gene in chorionic villi, and support the notion that BCHE is involved in chorionic villus growth and development.
ESTHER : Zakut_1991_Prenat.Diagnos_11_597
PubMedSearch : Zakut_1991_Prenat.Diagnos_11_597
PubMedID: 1722578

Title : Search for the Molecular Origins of Butyrylcholinesterase Polymorphism by cDNA Screening, Deletion Mutagenesis, and Xenopus Oocyte Co-Injections -
Author(s) : Dreyfus PA , Pincon-Raymond M , Zakut H , Seidman S , Soreq H
Ref : In: Cholinesterases: Structure, Function, Mechanism, Genetics, and Cell Biology , (Massoulie J, Barnard EA, Chatonnet A, Bacou F, Doctor BP, Quinn DM) American Chemical Society, Washington, DC :162 , 1991
PubMedID:

Title : Differential Codon Usage and Distinct Surface Probabilities in Human Acetylcholinesterase and Butyrylcholinesterase -
Author(s) : Ben-Aziz R , Gnatt A , Prody C , Lev-Lehman E , Neville LF , Seidman S , Ginzberg D , Soreq H , Lapidot-Lifson Y , Zakut H
Ref : In: Cholinesterases: Structure, Function, Mechanism, Genetics, and Cell Biology , (Massoulie J, Barnard EA, Chatonnet A, Bacou F, Doctor BP, Quinn DM) American Chemical Society, Washington, DC :172 , 1991
PubMedID:

Title : A role for cholinesterases in tumorigenesis?. [Review] [48 refs] - Soreq_1991_Cancer.Cells_3_511
Author(s) : Soreq H , Lapidot-Lifson Y , Zakut H
Ref : Cancer Cells , 3 :511 , 1991
Abstract : Hydrolysis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine by acetylcholinesterase (ACHE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BCHE) is the rate-limiting step in the termination of cholinergic signaling at neuromuscular junctions. A growing body of evidence suggests that these enzymes also play a role in tumorigenesis. The ACHE and BCHE genes are amplified, mutated, and/or aberrantly expressed in a variety of human tumor types. These changes could be the result of chromosome breakage, since there is an unusually high frequency of chromosomal abnormalities near the map positions of these genes (3q26-ter and 11p-ter, respectively) in such tumors, particularly hemopoietic malignancies. Both ACHE and BCHE contain the consensus peptide motif S/T-P-X-Z, which is found in many substrates of cdc2-related protein kinases. Here we consider the intriguing possibility that phosphorylation by cdc2-related kinases may be the molecular mechanism linking cholinesterases with tumor cell proliferation. We also discuss the notion that inhibition of these enzymes by commonly used organophosphorous poisons may be tumorigenic in humans.
ESTHER : Soreq_1991_Cancer.Cells_3_511
PubMedSearch : Soreq_1991_Cancer.Cells_3_511
PubMedID: 1820094

Title : Human acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase are encoded by two distinct genes - Gnatt_1991_Cell.Mol.Neurobiol_11_91
Author(s) : Gnatt A , Ginzberg D , Lieman-Hurwitz J , Zamir R , Zakut H , Soreq H
Ref : Cellular Molecular Neurobiology , 11 :91 , 1991
Abstract : 1. Various hybridization approaches were employed to investigate structural and chromosomal interrelationships between the human cholinesterase genes CHE and ACHE encoding the polymorphic, closely related, and coordinately regulated enzymes having butyrylcholinesterase (BCHE) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities. 2. Homologous cosmid recombination with a 190-base pair 5' fragment from BCHEcDNA resulted in the isolation of four overlapping cosmid clones, apparently derived from a single gene with several introns. The Cosmid CHEDNA included a 700-base pair fragment known to be expressed at the 3' end of BCHEcDNA from nervous system tumors and which has been mapped by in situ hybridization to the unique 3q26-ter position. In contrast, cosmid CHEDNA did not hybridize with full-length AChEcDNA, proving that the complete CHE gene does not include AChE-encoding sequences either in exons or in its introns. 3. The chromosomal origin of BCHE-encoding sequences was further examined by two unrelated gene mapping approaches. Filter hybridization with DNA from human/hamster hybrid cell lines revealed BCHEcDNA-hybridizing sequences only in cell lines including human chromosome 3. However, three BCHEcDNA-homologous sequences were observed at chromosomal positions 3q21, 3q26-ter, and 16q21 by a highly stringent in situ hybridization protocol, including washes at high temperature and low salt. 4. These findings stress the selectivity of cosmid recombination and chromosome blots, raise the possibility of individual differences in BCHEcDNA-hybridizing sequences, and present an example for a family highly similar proteins encoded by distinct, nonhomologous genes.
ESTHER : Gnatt_1991_Cell.Mol.Neurobiol_11_91
PubMedSearch : Gnatt_1991_Cell.Mol.Neurobiol_11_91
PubMedID: 2013062

Title : Acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase genes coamplify in primary ovarian carcinomas - Zakut_1990_J.Clin.Invest_86_900
Author(s) : Zakut H , Ehrlich G , Ayalon A , Prody CA , Malinger G , Seidman S , Ginzberg D , Kehlenbach R , Soreq H
Ref : Journal of Clinical Investigation , 86 :900 , 1990
Abstract : The genes for acetylcholinesterase (ACHE) and butyrylcholinesterase (CHE) are expressed in multiple tumor tissues, including ovarian carcinomas. Both CHE and ACHE genes coamplify in leukemias. To examine the relationship of gene amplification to the expression of these genes in tumors, ACHE and CHE genes and their expression were studied in primary ovarian carcinomas. DNA blot hybridization demonstrated a significant amplification and mutagenesis of both genes in 6 of 11 malignant tumors studied. This was greater or of the same order of magnitude as the amplification of the oncogenes c-rafi, v-sis, and c-fes in these tumors. No amplification was found in normal ovarian tissues or benign ovarian cysts. Xenopus oocyte microinjections, blot and in situ hybridizations, and immuno- and cytochemical staining revealed translatable CHEmRNA and its active protein product in discrete tumor foci. The frequent coamplification in ovarian carcinomas of ACHE and CHE genes implicates cholinesterases in neoplastic growth and/or proliferation.
ESTHER : Zakut_1990_J.Clin.Invest_86_900
PubMedSearch : Zakut_1990_J.Clin.Invest_86_900
PubMedID: 2394839

Title : Expression and in vivo amplification of the human acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase genes -
Author(s) : Soreq H , Zakut H
Ref : Prog Brain Res , 84 :51 , 1990
PubMedID: 2267318

Title : Expression of alternatively terminated unusual human butyrylcholinesterase messenger RNA transcripts, mapping to chromosome 3q26-ter, in nervous system tumors - Gnatt_1990_Cancer.Res_50_1983
Author(s) : Gnatt A , Prody CA , Zamir R , Lieman-Hurwitz J , Zakut H , Soreq H
Ref : Cancer Research , 50 :1983 , 1990
Abstract : To study the molecular origin of the altered regulation of butyrylcholinesterase (BCHE) in nervous system tumors, BCHE complementary DNA (cDNA) sequences from human glioblastoma and neuroblastoma cDNA libraries were compared with BCHE cDNAs from normal fetal and adult tissues. A single 2.6-kilobase BCHE cDNA sequence was found in all normal tissues, whereas an additional alternatively terminated BCHE cDNA clone was found in both tumor libraries. The tumor-specific cDNA contained a 3',0.7-kilobase nontranslatable extension, as well as several nucleotide alterations in the normal polyadenylation site. Single-base mutations in the coding region of this unusual BCHE cDNA infer two amino acid substitutions: Asp70----Gly and Ser425----Pro. The Asp70----Gly change has recently been implicated with "atypical" BCHE, which is deficient in its capacity to hydrolyze succinylcholine. The 3.6-kilobase mRNA was less abundant in RNA blot hybridization than the 2.6-kilobase mRNA, which is in agreement with the low ratios between the 3.6- and 2.6-kilobase BCHE cDNA clones in glioblastoma and neuroblastoma libraries. Furthermore, size fractionation and microinjection of glioblastoma polyadenylated RNA, followed by enzyme activity and selective inhibition measurements, demonstrated two peaks of functional BCHE mRNA, the heavier one probably reflecting the longer transcripts. Chromosomal mapping of the 0.7-kilobase 3' fragment by in situ hybridization localized it to a unique 3q26-ter position, where we recently found an inheritably amplified "silent" defective CHE gene in a family exposed to the cholinesterase inhibitor methyl parathion. Our findings confirm previous genetic linkage mapping of the functional CHE gene to the 3q26-ter position and demonstrate that extended functional mRNA transcripts encoding a BCHE form with two modified amino acids are produced from this gene in glioblastoma and neuroblastoma cells.
ESTHER : Gnatt_1990_Cancer.Res_50_1983
PubMedSearch : Gnatt_1990_Cancer.Res_50_1983
PubMedID: 2317787

Title : Manipulations of cholinesterase gene expression modulate murine megakaryocytopoiesis in vitro - Patinkin_1990_Mol.Cell.Biol_10_6046
Author(s) : Patinkin D , Seidman S , Eckstein F , Benseler F , Zakut H , Soreq H
Ref : Molecular & Cellular Biology , 10 :6046 , 1990
Abstract : Megakaryocytopoiesis was selectively inhibited in cultured murine bone marrow cells by a 15-mer oligodeoxynucleotide complementary to the initiator AUG region in butyrylcholinesterase mRNA. Furthermore, conditioned medium from Xenopus oocytes producing recombinant butyrylcholinesterase stimulated megakaryocytopoiesis. These observations implicate butyrylcholinesterase in megakaryocytopoiesis and suggest application of oligodeoxynucleotides for modulating bone marrow development.
ESTHER : Patinkin_1990_Mol.Cell.Biol_10_6046
PubMedSearch : Patinkin_1990_Mol.Cell.Biol_10_6046
PubMedID: 2233731

Title : Amplification of butyrylcholinesterase and acetylcholinesterase genes in normal and tumor tissues: putative relationship to organophosphorous poisoning - Soreq_1990_Pharm.Res_7_1
Author(s) : Soreq H , Zakut H
Ref : Pharm Res , 7 :1 , 1990
Abstract : Cholinesterases are ubiquitous carboxylesterase type B enzymes capable of hydrolyzing the neurotransmitter acetylcholine which are transiently expressed in multiple germline, embryonic, and tumor cells. The acute poisoning effects of various organophosphorous compounds are generally attributed to their irreversible covalent interaction with cholinesterases and block of their catalytic activities. We have recently found a de novo inheritable amplification of a CHE gene encoding defective butyrylcholinesterase (acylcholine acyl hydrolase; EC 3.1.1.8) in a family under prolonged exposure to the agricultural organophosphorous insecticide methyl parathion. Further analysis revealed that both the CHE and the ACHE genes, encoding acetylcholinesterase (acetylcholine acetyl hydrolase; EC 3.1.1.7), are amplified in leukemias and platelet disorders and that the tumorigenic expression of these genes in ovarian carcinomas is associated with their frequent coamplification in these tumors. The amplification of CHE and ACHE genes in normal and tumor tissues might be analogous to the well-known amplification of other genes encoding target proteins to toxic compounds. As such, it could provide cells a selection advantage when exposed to organophosphorous poisons. Further, since cholinesterases appear to play developmentally important roles in multiple cell types, the amplification and overexpression of their corresponding genes might affect fertility, be related to the progression of various tumor types, and bear upon the ecological and clinical risks involved with the common use of organophosphorous poisons.
ESTHER : Soreq_1990_Pharm.Res_7_1
PubMedSearch : Soreq_1990_Pharm.Res_7_1
PubMedID: 2405380

Title : Tissue-specific processing and polarized compartmentalization of clone-produced cholinesterase in microinjected Xenopus oocytes - Dreyfus_1989_Cell.Mol.Neurobiol_9_323
Author(s) : Dreyfus PA , Seidman S , Pincon-Raymond M , Murawsky M , Rieger F , Schejter E , Zakut H , Soreq H
Ref : Cellular Molecular Neurobiology , 9 :323 , 1989
Abstract : 1. To approach the involvement of tissue-specific elements in the compartmentalization of ubiquitous polymorphic proteins, immunohistochemical methods were used to analyze the localization of butyrylcholinesterase (BCHE) in Xenopus oocytes microinjected with synthetic BCHEmRNA alone and in combination with tissue-extracted mRNAs. 2. When injected alone BCHEmRNA efficiently directed the synthesis of small membrane-associated accumulations localized principally on the external surface of the oocyte's animal pole. Tunicamycin blocked the appearance of such accumulations, suggesting that glycosylation is involved in the transport of nascent BCHE molecules to the oocyte's surface. Coinjection with brain or muscle mRNA, but not liver mRNA, facilitated the formation of pronounced, tissue-characteristic BCHE aggregates. 3. These findings implicate tissue-specific mRNAs in the assembly of the clone-produced protein and in its nonuniform distribution in the oocyte membrane or extracellular material.
ESTHER : Dreyfus_1989_Cell.Mol.Neurobiol_9_323
PubMedSearch : Dreyfus_1989_Cell.Mol.Neurobiol_9_323
PubMedID: 2692828

Title : De novo amplification within a silent human cholinesterase gene in a family subjected to prolonged exposure to organophosphorous insecticides - Prody_1989_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_86_690
Author(s) : Prody CA , Dreyfus PA , Zamir R , Zakut H , Soreq H
Ref : Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , 86 :690 , 1989
Abstract : A 100-fold DNA amplification in the CHE gene, coding for serum butyrylcholinesterase (BtChoEase), was found in a farmer expressing the "silent" CHE phenotype. Individuals homozygous for this gene display a defective serum BtChoEase and are particularly vulnerable to poisoning by agricultural organophosphorous insecticides, to which all members of this family had long been exposed. DNA blot hybridization with regional BtChoEase cDNA probes suggested that the amplification was most intense in regions encoding central sequences within BtChoEase cDNA, whereas distal sequences were amplified to a much lower extent. This is in agreement with the "onion skin" model, based on amplification of genes in cultured cells and primary tumors. The amplification was absent in the grandparents but present at the same extent in one of their sons and in a grandson, with similar DNA blot hybridization patterns. In situ hybridization experiments localized the amplified sequences to the long arm of chromosome 3, close to the site where we previously mapped the CHE gene. Altogether, these observations suggest that the initial amplification event occurred early in embryogenesis, spermatogenesis, or oogenesis, where the CHE gene is intensely active and where cholinergic functioning was indicated to be physiologically necessary. Our findings demonstrate a de novo amplification in apparently healthy individuals within an autosomal gene producing a target protein to an inhibitor. Its occurrence in two generations from a family under prolonged exposure to parathion indicates that organophosphorous poisons may be implicated in previously unforeseen long-term ecological effects.
ESTHER : Prody_1989_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_86_690
PubMedSearch : Prody_1989_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_86_690
PubMedID: 2911599

Title : Gene mapping on chorionic villi chromosomes by hybridization in situ: localization of cholinesterase cDNA binding sites to chromosomes 3q21, 3q26-ter and 16q21 - Zakut_1989_Hum.Reprod_4_941
Author(s) : Zakut H , Zamir R , Sindel L , Soreq H
Ref : Hum Reprod , 4 :941 , 1989
Abstract : To adapt the in-situ hybridization approach for use in very early fetal development, comparative in-situ hybridization was initiated on chromosomes from chorionic villus sampling (CVS). An additional aim was to refine the localization of the chromosomal sites binding butyrylcholinesterase (BCHE) cDNA by mapping them in parallel to previously mapped genes of close locations. BCHEcDNA was previously found to bind to the long arms of lymphocyte chromosomes 3 and 16, with a wide distribution of grains suggesting two separate sites on chromosome 3. When labelled with 35S and hybridized with CVS chromosomes, BCHEcDNA was bound to three distinct sites, designated CHEL1, CHEL2 and CHEL3. These peaked at 3q21, 3q26-ter and 16q21 respectively. Parallel hybridization with the cDNA encoding transferrin receptor (TFRC) refined its localization to 3q29, in agreement with previously published results and in a distal position to CHEL2, whereas haptoglobin cDNA (HPcDNA) was correctly mapped at 16q24, distal to CHEL3. In view of the published genetic linkage between the CHEL1 locus and the transferrin TF gene on 3q25, this study suggests that one of the three sites carrying BCHE-coding sequences, namely CHEL2, harbours the functional CHEL1 gene. Thus, in-situ hybridization provides a rapid and precise method for the localization of genes on CVS chromosomes, in comparison with known DNA markers.
ESTHER : Zakut_1989_Hum.Reprod_4_941
PubMedSearch : Zakut_1989_Hum.Reprod_4_941
PubMedID: 2613865

Title : [In-situ hybridization on chorionic villi chromosomes]. [Hebrew] - Zakut_1989_Harefuah_116_81
Author(s) : Zakut H , Zamir R , Soreq H
Ref : Harefuah , 116 :81 , 1989
Abstract : Novel techniques for the prenatal diagnosis of inherited defects are currently being developed. The long-range aim is to be able to predict precisely, at an early stage of fetal development, the tendency of the fetus to develop multiple genetic, congenital or acquired diseases. We adapted the technique of gene mapping by in-situ hybridization for use with chromosomes from fetal chorionic villi sampling (CVS). Refined mapping of the genes coding for cholinesterase (CHE) in comparison with the haptoglobin and the transferrin receptor genes on CVS chromosomes Nos. 3 and 16 revealed 3 CHE genes in positions 3q21, 3q26, and 16q12. In view of genetic linkage data, at least 2 of these appear to be potentially active. These findings demonstrate that genes, for which molecularly cloned DNA probes are available, may be localized on CVS chromosomes by comparing their localization with that of known genes after in-situ hybridization. The implications for prenatal diagnosis are promising.
ESTHER : Zakut_1989_Harefuah_116_81
PubMedSearch : Zakut_1989_Harefuah_116_81
PubMedID: 2707673

Title : Expression and tissue-specific assembly of human butyrylcholine esterase in microinjected Xenopus laevis oocytes - Soreq_1989_J.Biol.Chem_264_10608
Author(s) : Soreq H , Seidman S , Dreyfus PA , Zevin-Sonkin D , Zakut H
Ref : Journal of Biological Chemistry , 264 :10608 , 1989
Abstract : Cholinesterases represent a ubiquitous, polymorphic family of acetylcholine hydrolyzing enzymes. The multileveled tissue-specific heterogeneity which characterizes these enzymes makes the cholinesterases an appropriate model for studying the mechanisms involved in regulating divergent pathways in protein biogenesis. For this purpose, a cDNA coding for human butyrylcholine esterase (BCHE) was subcloned into the SP 6 transcription vector. Synthetic mRNA transcribed from this construct was microninjected into Xenopus laevis oocytes alone, and in conjunction with poly(A)+ RNAs extracted from human brain or muscle. Injected BCHE-mRNA induced the biosynthesis of a protein exhibiting the catalytic activity, substrate specificity, and sensitivity to selective inhibitors characteristic of native human serum BCHE, and clearly distinct from the related enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The nascent BCHE was reproducibly distributed into low salt-soluble and detergent-extractable pools. Sucrose gradient analysis demonstrated that the nascent human enzyme was capable of limited subunit assembly, appearing as functional dimeric molecules in both of these fractions. Co-injection with brain or muscle-derived mRNAs facilitated higher order oligomeric assembly. Co-injected brain mRNA induced the appearance of tetramers while co-injected muscle mRNA induced the appearance of an array of heavy molecular forms, including a heavy 16 S form. These results indicate that the molecular determinants which distinguish BCHE from AChE are inherent to its primary amino acid sequence and that additional, tissue-specific protein(s) are involved in the modulation of subunit assembly within particular biological milieues.
ESTHER : Soreq_1989_J.Biol.Chem_264_10608
PubMedSearch : Soreq_1989_J.Biol.Chem_264_10608
PubMedID: 2732242

Title : Coamplification of human acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase genes in blood cells: correlation with various leukemias and abnormal megakaryocytopoiesis - Lapidot-Lifson_1989_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_86_4715
Author(s) : Lapidot-Lifson Y , Prody CA , Ginzberg D , Meytes D , Zakut H , Soreq H
Ref : Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , 86 :4715 , 1989
Abstract : To study the yet unknown role of the ubiquitous family of cholinesterases (ChoEases) in developing blood cells, the recently isolated cDNAs encoding human acetylcholinesterase (AcChoEase; acetylcholine acetylhydrolase, EC 3.1.1.7) and butyrylcholinesterase (BtChoEase; cholinesterase; acylcholine acylhydrolase, EC 3.1.1.8) were used in blot hybridization with peripheral blood DNA from various leukemic patients. Hybridization signals (10- to 200-fold intensified) and modified restriction patterns were observed with both cDNA probes in 4 of the 16 leukemia DNA preparations examined. These reflected the amplification of the corresponding AcChoEase and BtChoEase genes (ACHE and CHE) and alteration in their structure. Parallel analysis of 30 control samples revealed nonpolymorphic, much weaker hybridization signals for each of the probes. In view of previous reports on the effect of acetylcholine analogs and ChoEase inhibitors in the induction of megakaryocytopoiesis and production of platelets in the mouse, we further searched for such phenomena in nonleukemic patients with platelet production disorders. Amplifications of both ACHE and CHE genes were found in 2 of the 4 patients so far examined. Pronounced coamplification of these two related but distinct genes in correlation with pathological production of blood cells suggests a functional role for members of the ChoEase family in megakaryocytopoiesis and raises the question whether the coamplification of these genes could be causally involved in the etiology of hemocytopoietic disorders.
ESTHER : Lapidot-Lifson_1989_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_86_4715
PubMedSearch : Lapidot-Lifson_1989_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_86_4715
PubMedID: 2734315

Title : Cholinoceptive properties of human primordial, preantral, and antral oocytes: in situ hybridization and biochemical evidence for expression of cholinesterase genes - Malinger_1989_J.Mol.Neurosci_1_77
Author(s) : Malinger G , Zakut H , Soreq H
Ref : Journal of Molecular Neuroscience , 1 :77 , 1989
Abstract : In addition to their well-known involvement in neuromuscular junctions and in brain cholinergic synapses, cholinergic mechanisms have been implicated in the growth and maturation of oocytes in various species. Functional acetylcholine receptors were electrophysiologically demonstrated in amphibian and mammalian oocyte membranes, and activity of the acetylcholine-hydrolyzing enzyme, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), was biochemically measured in the exceptionally big oocytes of the frog Xenopus laevis. However, biochemical methods could not reveal whether AChE was produced within the oocytes themselves or in the surrounding follicle cells. Furthermore, this issue is particularly important for understanding growth and fertilization processes in the much smaller human oocytes, in which the sensitivity of AChE biochemical measurements is far too low to be employed. To resolve this question, a molecular biology approach was combined with biochemical measurements on ovarian extracts and sections. To directly determine whether the human cholinesterase (ChE) genes are transcriptionally active in oocytes, and, if so, at what stages in their development, the presence of ChE mRNA was pursued. For this purpose frozen ovarian sections were subjected to in situ hybridization using 35S-labeled human ChE cDNA. Highly pronounced hybridization signals were localized within oocytes in primordial, preantral, and antral follicles, but not in other ovarian cell types, demonstrating that within the human ovary ChE mRNA is selectively synthesized in viable oocytes at different developmental stages.
ESTHER : Malinger_1989_J.Mol.Neurosci_1_77
PubMedSearch : Malinger_1989_J.Mol.Neurosci_1_77
PubMedID: 2641279

Title : Definition, at the molecular level, of a thyroglobulin- acetylcholinesterase shared epitope: study of its pathophysiological significance in patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy - Ludgate_1989_Autoimmunity_3_167
Author(s) : Ludgate M , Dong Q , Dreyfus PA , Zakut H , Taylor P , Vassart G , Soreq H
Ref : Autoimmunity , 3 :167 , 1989
Abstract : The nature of the putative autoantigen in Graves' ophthalmopathy (Go) remains an enigma but the sequence similarity between thyroglobulin (Tg) and acetylcholinesterase (ACHE) provides a rationale for epitopes which are common to the thyroid gland and the eye orbit. In an attempt to define the shared epitope, we have screened a lambda gt 11 human thyroid cDNA library using a polyclonal antibody to Torpedo ACHE and isolated two clones, which upon sequencing, were shown to contain Tg segments, corresponding to portions of the C terminal part of the molecule which has a high similarity with ACHE. Having demonstrated the existence of an epitope common to Tg and ACHE, the clones have been further tested and found to be positive in lysis plaque assays with 1/10 sera from patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), 8/8 from patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy and 0/8 normal sera. We have investigated the physiological significance of this common epitope by in situ immunolocalization studies in which the polyclonal antibody to Torpedo ACHE (which was used for screening the library) and immunoglobulins (Igs) from 6 Go patients tested were shown to bind to end plate regions of human foetal muscle fibres which were concurrently shown to be rich in cholinesterase activity: Igs from 3 normal individuals and 2 patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis did not bind. The results demonstrate and characterize an epitope which is common to Tg and ACHE and show that Go patients Igs contain antibodies which bind to muscle end plates rich in cholinesterase. The significance of these findings to the pathogenesis of Go is discussed.
ESTHER : Ludgate_1989_Autoimmunity_3_167
PubMedSearch : Ludgate_1989_Autoimmunity_3_167
PubMedID: 2485081

Title : Cross-homologies and structural differences between human cholinesterases revealed by antibodies against cDNA-produced human butyrylcholinesterase peptides - Dreyfus_1988_J.Neurochem_51_1858
Author(s) : Dreyfus PA , Zevin-Sonkin D , Seidman S , Prody CA , Zisling R , Zakut H , Soreq H
Ref : Journal of Neurochemistry , 51 :1858 , 1988
Abstract : To study the polymorphism of human cholinesterases (ChEs) at the levels of primary sequence and three-dimensional structure, a fragment of human butyrylcholinesterase (BCHE) cDNA was subcloned into the pEX bacterial expression vector and its polypeptide product analyzed. Immunoblot analysis revealed that the clone-produced BCHE peptides interact specifically with antibodies against human and Torpedo acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Rabbit polyclonal antibodies prepared against the purified clone-produced BCHE polypeptides interacted in immunoblots with denatured serum BCHE as well as with purified and denatured erythrocyte AChE. In contrast, native BCHE tetramers from human serum, but not AChE dimers from erythrocytes, interacted with these antibodies in solution to produce antibody-enzyme complexes that could be precipitated by second antibodies and that sedimented faster than the native enzyme in sucrose gradient centrifugation. Furthermore, both AChE and BCHE dimers from muscle extracts, but not BCHE tetramers from muscle, interacted with these antibodies. To reveal further whether the anti-cloned BCHE antibodies would interact in situ with ChEs in the neuromuscular junction, bundles of muscle fibers were microscopically dissected from the region in fetal human diaphragm that is innervated by the phrenic nerve. Muscle fibers incubated with the antibodies and with 125I-Protein A were subjected to emulsion autoradiography, followed by cytochemical ChE staining. The anti-cloned BCHE antibodies, as well as anti-Torpedo AChE antibodies, created patches of silver grains in the muscle endplate region stained for ChE, under conditions where control sera did not. These findings demonstrate that the various forms of human AChE and BCHE in blood and in neuromuscular junctions share sequence homologies, but also display structural differences between distinct molecular forms within particular tissues, as well as between similarly sedimenting molecular forms from different tissues.
ESTHER : Dreyfus_1988_J.Neurochem_51_1858
PubMedSearch : Dreyfus_1988_J.Neurochem_51_1858
PubMedID: 2460589

Title : Modified properties of serum cholinesterases in primary carcinomas - Zakut_1988_Cancer_61_727
Author(s) : Zakut H , Even L , Birkenfeld S , Malinger G , Zisling R , Soreq H
Ref : Cancer , 61 :727 , 1988
Abstract : Cholinesterases were characterized in the serum of 77 treated and 11 untreated patients having primary carcinomas of various tissue origins and 21 healthy volunteers which served as controls. In most of the samples, pseudocholinesterase (BCHE) accounted for almost all cholinesterase (ChE) activity and was inhibited by the organophosphorous poison tetraisopropyl pyrophosphoramide (iso-OMPA). In samples from the tumor-bearing patients, ChE degraded 733 +/- 59 nmole acetylcholine/h/mg protein, lower than the 960 +/- 175 nmole/hour/mg levels measured in controls. Tumor serum ChE exhibited elevated sensitivity to 1,5-bis-(4-allyldimethyl ammonium phenyl)-pentan-3-one dibromide (BW), the selective bisquaternary inhibitor of "true" acetylcholinesterase (AChE), with no correlation to age, sex, staging of tumor, presence of metastases or the specific treatment protocol, and with a different distribution pattern from the decrease in ChE specific activity or the sensitivity to iso-OMPA. In sucrose gradients, ChE sedimented as 12S in controls whereas in tumor serum samples from treated patients an additional component of 6 to 7 S, inhibited by both iso-OMPA and BW, also was detected. However, the ChE activity in serum of patients with diagnosed carcinomas before surgery and medical treatment appeared to be nondistinguishable from controls. These findings suggest that the modified properties of serum cholinesterases in carcinoma patients are not the result of the tumor itself, but that the common therapy protocols used in the treatment of primary carcinomas may cause the appearance of soluble ChE activity with properties of both AChE and BCHE, which accumulates in the serum.
ESTHER : Zakut_1988_Cancer_61_727
PubMedSearch : Zakut_1988_Cancer_61_727
PubMedID: 3338035

Title : Antibodies against acetylcholinesterase and low levels of cholinesterases in a patient with an atypical neuromuscular disorder - Livneh_1988_Clin.Immunol.Immunopath_48_119
Author(s) : Livneh A , Sarova I , Michaeli D , Pras M , Wagner K , Zakut H , Soreq H
Ref : Clinical Immunology & Immunopathology , 48 :119 , 1988
Abstract : Antibodies against acetylcholinesterase were found in the serum of a patient presenting dyspnea, generalized muscle paresis, diminished tendon reflexes, and fasciculations. Electrodiagnostic studies showed a decremental response, an incomplete interference pattern, and reduced motor nerve conduction velocity. Edrophonium administration resulted in extreme cholinergic crisis. Biopsies displayed muscle atrophy and nervous tissue degeneration. Recurrent acute respiratory failure ended in death. The patient's serum pseudocholinesterase and red blood cells acetylcholinesterase levels were generally very low, with periodical fluctuations. Minute quantities of the patient's serum inhibited the activity of cholinesterases from normal human serum and from various fetal tissues. Enzyme inhibition was abolished following preadsorption of the serum immunoglobulins with goat antihuman Fab, and radioiodinated acetylcholinesterase from human erythrocytes was precipitated by the patient's serum, confirming that anticholinesterase antibodies were present. Acetylcholinesterase extracted from fetal striated muscle with detergent and salt was inhibited to a larger extent than the enzymes similarly prepared from other fetal tissues and more efficiently than buffer-soluble muscle enzyme. These findings suggest that the patient's serum contained antibodies which interacted preferentially with the membrane-associated forms of muscle acetylcholinesterase and indicate that autoantibodies against acetylcholinesterase could play a role in the pathogenesis of the disease.
ESTHER : Livneh_1988_Clin.Immunol.Immunopath_48_119
PubMedSearch : Livneh_1988_Clin.Immunol.Immunopath_48_119
PubMedID: 3390968

Title : Human cholinesterase genes localized by hybridization to chromosomes 3 and 16 - Soreq_1987_Hum.Genet_77_325
Author(s) : Soreq H , Zamir R , Zevin-Sonkin D , Zakut H
Ref : Hum Genet , 77 :325 , 1987
Abstract : A cloned human cDNA for cholinesterase (ChE) was used as a probe for in situ hybridization to spread lymphocyte chromosomes to map the structural human CHE genes to distinct chromosomal regions. The recent genetic linkage assignment of the CHE1 locus of the CHE gene to chromosome 3q was confirmed and further refined to 3q21-q26, close to the genes coding for transferrin (TF) and transferrin receptor (TFRC). The CHE1 allele localizes to a 3q region that is commonly mutated and then associated with abnormal megakaryocyte proliferation in acute myelodysplastic anomalies. In view of earlier findings that ChE inhibitors induce megakaryocytopoiesis in culture, this localization may indicate that ChEs are involved in regulating the differentiation of megakaryocytes. A second site for ChEcDNA hybridization was found on chromosome 16p11-q23, demonstrating that the CHE2 locus of the cholinesterase gene, which directs the production of the common C5 variant of serum ChE, also codes for a structural subunit of the enzyme and is localized on the same chromosome with the haptoglobin (HP) gene, both genes being found on the long arm of chromosome 16. The finding of two sites for ChEcDNA hybridization suggests that the two loci coding for human ChEs may include nonidentical sequences responsible for the biochemical differences between ChE variants.
ESTHER : Soreq_1987_Hum.Genet_77_325
PubMedSearch : Soreq_1987_Hum.Genet_77_325
PubMedID: 3692476

Title : Expression of cholinesterase genes in human oocytes revealed by in-situ hybridization - Soreq_1987_Hum.Reprod_2_689
Author(s) : Soreq H , Malinger G , Zakut H
Ref : Hum Reprod , 2 :689 , 1987
Abstract : Transcriptional activity of the human cholinesterase genes was examined in developing oocytes from mature ovaries by in-situ hybridization combined with biochemical acetylcholine hydrolysis measurements. High levels of cholinesterase mRNA could be detected in oocytes from primordial, pre-antral and antral follicles but not in atretic follicles, with transient enhancement at the pre-antral stage. Biochemical analysis of enzymatic activity identified the ovarian enzyme as 'true' acetylcholinesterase by its sensitivity to selective inhibitors. Our findings suggest that cholinergic responses may function in human oocytes independently of the surrounding follicular cells, and the pronounced synthesis of cholinesterase transcripts in oocytes suggests that the cholinesterase genes in humans are particularly good candidates for the formation and re-insertion of inheritable processed cholinesterase genes.
ESTHER : Soreq_1987_Hum.Reprod_2_689
PubMedSearch : Soreq_1987_Hum.Reprod_2_689
PubMedID: 2830295

Title : The use of mRNA translation in vitro and in ovo followed by crossed immunoelectrophoretic autoradiography to study the biosynthesis of human cholinesterases - Soreq_1986_Cell.Mol.Neurobiol_6_227
Author(s) : Soreq H , Dziegielewska KM , Zevin-Sonkin D , Zakut H
Ref : Cellular Molecular Neurobiology , 6 :227 , 1986
Abstract : The synthesis of various cholinesterases in different fetal human tissues was studied using in vitro and in ovo translation of poly(A)+ RNA, followed by crossed immunoelectrophoretic autoradiography. When unfractionated poly(A)+ mRNA from fetal brain, muscle, or liver was translated in vitro, in the reticulocyte lysate cell-free system, polypeptides were synthesized which reacted with antibodies against either "true" acetylcholinesterase (acetylcholine hydrolase; EC 3.1.1.7) or "pseudo", butyrylcholinesterase (acylcholine acylhydrolase; EC 3.1.1.8). The two nascent cholinesterases could be separated by crossed immunoelectrophoresis followed by autoradiography, suggesting that acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase are produced in all three tissues from nascent polypeptides containing different immunological domains. To examine whether the biosynthesis of cholinesterases includes posttranslational processing events, Xenopus oocytes were microinjected with mRNA from these tissues. Immunoelectrophoretic analysis of oocyte intracellular homogenates and incubation medium revealed various precipitation arcs, reflecting the synthesis and posttranslational processing of multiple forms of tissue-specific exported and intracellular acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase. These findings demonstrate that polymorphic cholinesterases are produced from nascent polypeptide products which undergo further posttranslational processing events in a tissue-specific manner before they become mature compartmentalized cholinesterases.
ESTHER : Soreq_1986_Cell.Mol.Neurobiol_6_227
PubMedSearch : Soreq_1986_Cell.Mol.Neurobiol_6_227
PubMedID: 3802131

Title : Synthesis of plasma proteins in fetal, adult, and neoplastic human brain tissue - Dziegielewska_1986_Dev.Biol_115_93
Author(s) : Dziegielewska KM , Saunders NR , Schejter EJ , Zakut H , Zevin-Sonkin D , Zisling R , Soreq H
Ref : Developmental Biology , 115 :93 , 1986
Abstract : The synthesis of plasma proteins directed by mRNA from human brain tissues was studied by combining in vitro or in ovo translation of mRNAs with crossed immunoelectrophoresis of the mRNA-directed labeled polypeptides, followed by autoradiography of the washed plates. Poly(A)-containing mRNA was prepared from different developmental stages of fetal and postnatal human brain and also from primary glioblastomas and meningiomas. Several plasma protein-like polypeptides were identified in the autoradiographs by their migration coordinates in the two-dimensional gels, compared with immunoprecipitates formed by mature, unlabeled, stainable proteins. These included polypeptides migrating like Gc globulin, haptoglobin, fibrinogen, alpha-fetoprotein, transferrin, cholinesterase, and alpha 2-macroglobulin; other, yet unidentified plasma proteins, were also observed. In general, the synthesis of these plasma proteins appeared to be more pronounced in fetal and neoplastic brain tissues than in postnatal tissues. However, clear immunoprecipitates for some of these plasma proteins could also be detected in products directed by mRNA from particular regions of mature, normal brains, indicating that some synthesis of plasma proteins takes place in the human brain even as late as 40 years of age. mRNAs for several proteins were also identified in samples of neoplastic brain. mRNA for transferrin was identified in normal fetal and adult brain but not in either the glioblastomas or meningiomas studied. Microinjected Xenopus oocytes, in which post-translational processing occurs as well, were also used to translate fetal brain mRNA. Several plasma proteins could be detected in the translation products which were induced and stored in the oocytes. These included hemopexin, which could not be detected in the in vitro system. Others, such as cholinesterase, were found to be secreted by the oocytes. These findings indicate that different cell types in the human brain may produce and either store or secrete particular plasma proteins at defined stages in their development.
ESTHER : Dziegielewska_1986_Dev.Biol_115_93
PubMedSearch : Dziegielewska_1986_Dev.Biol_115_93
PubMedID: 2422074

Title : Divergent regulation of muscarinic binding sites and acetylcholinesterase in discrete regions of the developing human fetal brain - Egozi_1986_Cell.Mol.Neurobiol_6_55
Author(s) : Egozi Y , Sokolovsky M , Schejter E , Blatt I , Zakut H , Matzkel A , Soreq H
Ref : Cellular Molecular Neurobiology , 6 :55 , 1986
Abstract : The expression of muscarinic acetylcholine binding sites and of cholinesterases was studied in extracts prepared from discrete regions of the human fetal brain, between the gestational ages of 14 and 24 weeks. The specific binding of [3H]N-methyl-4-piperidyl benzilate [( 4H]-4NMPB) to muscarinic binding sites ranged between 0.05 and 1.30 pmol/mg protein in the different brain regions, with Kd values of 1.2 +/- 0.2 nM. Binding of the cholinergic agonist oxotremorine fitted, in most of the brain regions examined, with a two-site model for the muscarinic binding sites. The density of muscarinic binding sites increased with development in most regions, with different rates and onset times. It was higher by about sixfold in some areas destined to become cholinergic, such as the cortex and midbrain, than in noncholinergic areas such as the cerebellum. In other areas destined to become cholinergic, such as the hippocampus and the caudate putamen, the receptor density remained low. Average density values increased from 0.1 +/- 0.1 at 14 weeks up to 0.7 +/- 0.4 pmol/mg protein at 24 weeks. The variability in the specific activities of cholinesterase was relatively low, and extracts from different brain regions hydrolyzed from 5 to 30 nmol of [3H]acetylcholine/min/mg protein. These were mostly "true" acetylcholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.7) activities, inhibited by 10(-5) M BW284C51, with minor pseudocholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.8) activities, inhibited by 10(-5) M iso-OMPA. The enzyme from different brain regions and developmental stages displayed similar Km values toward [3H]acetylcholine (ca. 4 X 10(-4) M-1). The ontogenetic changes in cholinesterase specific activities had no unifying pattern and/or relationship to the cholinergic nature of the various brain areas. In most of the brain regions, the arbitrary ratio between the specific activity of cholinesterase and the density of muscarinic binding sites decreased with development, with average values and variability ranges of 83 +/- 50 and 19 +/- 19 at 14 and 24 weeks, respectively. Our findings suggest divergent regulation for cholinergic binding sites and cholinesterase in the fetal human brain and imply that the expression of muscarinic receptors is related to the development of cholinergic transmission, while acetylcholinesterase is also involved in other functions in the fetal human brain.
ESTHER : Egozi_1986_Cell.Mol.Neurobiol_6_55
PubMedSearch : Egozi_1986_Cell.Mol.Neurobiol_6_55
PubMedID: 3719620

Title : Polymorphism of acetylcholinesterase in discrete regions of the developing human fetal brain - Zakut_1985_J.Neurochem_45_382
Author(s) : Zakut H , Matzkel A , Schejter E , Avni A , Soreq H
Ref : Journal of Neurochemistry , 45 :382 , 1985
Abstract : The molecular forms and membrane association of acetylcholinesterase (acetylcholine hydrolase, EC 3.1.1.7) and pseudocholinesterase (acylcholine acylhydrolase, EC 3.1.1.8) were determined in the presence of protease inhibitors in dissected regions of developing human fetal brain, as compared with parallel areas from mature brain. All areas contained substantial cholinesterase activities, of which acetylcholinesterase accounted for almost all the activity. Two major forms of acetylcholinesterase activity, sedimenting at 10-11S and 4-5S, respectively, were detected on sucrose gradients and possessed similar catalytic properties, as judged by their individual Km values toward [3H]acetylcholine (ca. 4 X 10(-4) M). The ratio between these forms varied by up to four- to fivefold, both between different areas and within particular areas at various developmental stages, but reached similar values (about 5:2) in all areas of mature brain. Acetylcholinesterase activity was ca. 35-50% low-salt-soluble and 45-65% detergent-soluble in various developmental stages and brain areas, with an increase during development of the detergent-soluble fraction of the light form. In contrast, pseudocholinesterase activity was mostly low-salt-soluble and sedimented as one component of 10-11S in all areas and developmental stages. Our findings suggest noncoordinate regulation of brain acetylcholinesterase and pseudocholinesterase, and indicate that the expression of acetylcholinesterase forms within embryonic brain areas depends both on cell type composition and on development.
ESTHER : Zakut_1985_J.Neurochem_45_382
PubMedSearch : Zakut_1985_J.Neurochem_45_382
PubMedID: 4009167