Li_2021_Pharmaceutics_13_

Reference

Title : Activation of Tenofovir Alafenamide and Sofosbuvir in the Human Lung and Its Implications in the Development of Nucleoside\/Nucleotide Prodrugs for Treating SARS-CoV-2 Pulmonary Infection - Li_2021_Pharmaceutics_13_
Author(s) : Li J , Liu S , Shi J , Zhu HJ
Ref : Pharmaceutics , 13 : , 2021
Abstract :

ProTide technology is a powerful tool for the design of nucleoside/nucleotide analog prodrugs. ProTide prodrug design improves cell permeability and enhances intracellular activation. The hydrolysis of the ester bond of a ProTide is a determinant of the intracellular activation efficiency and final antiviral efficacy of the prodrug. The hydrolysis is dictated by the catalytic activity and abundance of activating enzymes. The antiviral agents tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) and sofosbuvir (SBV) are typical ProTides. Both TAF and SBV have also been proposed to treat patients with COVID-19. However, the mechanisms underlying the activation of the two prodrugs in the lung remain inconclusive. In the present study, we profiled the catalytic activity of serine hydrolases in human lung S9 fractions using an activity-based protein profiling assay. We evaluated the hydrolysis of TAF and SBV using human lung and liver S9 fractions and purified enzymes. The results showed that CatA and CES1 were involved in the hydrolysis of the two prodrugs in the human lung. More specifically, CatA exhibited a nearly 4-fold higher hydrolytic activity towards TAF than SBV, whereas the CES1 activity on hydrolyzing TAF was slightly lower than that for SBV. Overall, TAF had a nearly 4-fold higher hydrolysis rate in human lung S9 than SBV. We further analyzed protein expression levels of CatA and CES1 in the human lung, liver, and primary cells of the two tissues using proteomics data extracted from the literature. The relative protein abundance of CatA to CES1 was considerably higher in the human lung and primary human airway epithelial cells than in the human liver and primary human hepatocytes. The findings demonstrated that the high susceptivity of TAF to CatA-mediated hydrolysis resulted in efficient TAF hydrolysis in the human lung, suggesting that CatA could be utilized as a target activating enzyme when designing antiviral ester prodrugs for the treatment of respiratory virus infection.

PubMedSearch : Li_2021_Pharmaceutics_13_
PubMedID: 34683949
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-CTSA

Related information

Inhibitor Sofosbuvir
Substrate Sofosbuvir    Tenofovir-alafenamide
Gene_locus Sofosbuvir    Tenofovir-alafenamide    human-CTSA

Citations formats

Li J, Liu S, Shi J, Zhu HJ (2021)
Activation of Tenofovir Alafenamide and Sofosbuvir in the Human Lung and Its Implications in the Development of Nucleoside\/Nucleotide Prodrugs for Treating SARS-CoV-2 Pulmonary Infection
Pharmaceutics 13 :

Li J, Liu S, Shi J, Zhu HJ (2021)
Pharmaceutics 13 :