Liu S

References (176)

Title : The Overexpression of Zea mays Strigolactone Receptor Gene D14 Enhances Drought Resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana L - Zhang_2024_Int.J.Mol.Sci_25_
Author(s) : Zhang C , Wang F , Jiao P , Liu J , Zhang H , Liu S , Guan S , Ma Y
Ref : Int J Mol Sci , 25 : , 2024
Abstract : Strigolactones (SLs) represent a recently identified class of plant hormones that are crucial for plant tillering and mycorrhizal symbiosis. The D14 gene, an essential receptor within the SLs signaling pathway, has been well-examined in crops, like rice (Oryza sativa L.) and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana L.), yet the research on its influence in maize (Zea mays L.) remains scarce. This study successfully clones and establishes Arabidopsis D14 gene overexpression lines (OE lines). When compared with the wild type (WT), the OE lines exhibited significantly longer primary roots during germination. By seven weeks of age, these lines showed reductions in plant height and tillering, alongside slight decreases in rosette and leaf sizes, coupled with early aging symptoms. Fluorescence-based quantitative assays indicated notable hormonal fluctuations in OE lines versus the WT, implying that D14 overexpression disrupts plant hormonal homeostasis. The OE lines, exposed to cold, drought, and sodium chloride stressors during germination, displayed an especially pronounced resistance to drought. The drought resistance of OE lines, as evident from dehydration-rehydration assays, outmatched that of the WT lines. Additionally, under drought conditions, the OE lines accumulated less reactive oxygen species (ROS) as revealed by the assessment of the related physiological and biochemical parameters. Upon confronting the pathogens Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000), post-infection, fluorescence quantitative investigations showed a significant boost in the salicylic acid (SA)-related gene expression in OE lines compared to their WT counterparts. Overall, our findings designate the SL receptor D14 as a key upregulator of drought tolerance and a regulator in the biotic stress response, thereby advancing our understanding of the maize SL signaling pathway by elucidating the function of the pivotal D14 gene.
ESTHER : Zhang_2024_Int.J.Mol.Sci_25_
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2024_Int.J.Mol.Sci_25_
PubMedID: 38279328

Title : Chemical characterization, multivariate analysis and comparison of biological activities of different parts of Fraxinus mandshurica - Guo_2024_Biomed.Chromatogr__e5861
Author(s) : Guo J , Liu S , Guo Y , Bai L , Ho CT , Bai N
Ref : Biomedical Chromatography , :e5861 , 2024
Abstract : Fraxinus mandshurica (Oleaceae) is used as a traditional medicinal plant for the treatment of red eyes, menstrual disorders, excessive leucorrhea, chronic bronchitis and psoriasis. To perform chemical characterization of the secondary metabolites of F. mandshurica roots, bark, stems and leaves, 32 samples were collected from eight provinces in this study. A total of 64 chemical components were detected from four different parts of F. mandshurica by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Meanwhile, a total of nine secoiridoids were obtained by natural product chemical extraction, isolation and identification methods. Quantitative analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-mass spectrometry showed the highest total content of secoiridoids in the bark, which is also consistent with the traditional medicinal parts. The results of methodological validation showed that the correlation coefficient (R(2) ) values were all >0.9993, indicating a good linear range of the standard curve, while the relative standard deviations of precision, reproducibility and stability were <3%, and the spiked recoveries ranged from 98.22 to 102.27%, indicating that the experimental method was reliable and stable. In addition, fingerprinting and a heatmap were established to demonstrate the content trends of F. mandshurica more visually from different origins. Multivariate analysis, including principal component analysis and partial least squares discriminant analysis, was performed to determine the chemical characteristics of different parts of F. mandshurica, and six characteristic secoiridoids that could be used to distinguish different origins were screened. Finally, the inhibition of tyrosinase, alpha-glucosidase, acetylcholinesterase and pancreatic lipase activities by the nine characteristic compounds and extracts from different parts were investigated, and the results showed that they all exhibited different degrees of enzyme activity inhibition and thus have potential applications in whitening and blemish removal, hypoglycemia, anti-Alzheimer's disease and anti-obesity as a new source of natural enzyme activity inhibitors. This study establishes an identification and evaluation method applicable to phytochemistry of different origins, which is a guideline for quality control, origin evaluation and clinical application of traditional medicinal plants. This is also an unprecedented study on the identification of the chemical composition of different parts of F. mandshurica, characteristic compounds and the inhibition of enzyme activity of extracts from different parts.
ESTHER : Guo_2024_Biomed.Chromatogr__e5861
PubMedSearch : Guo_2024_Biomed.Chromatogr__e5861
PubMedID: 38501361

Title : Santacruzamate A Alleviates Pain and Pain-Related Adverse Emotions through the Inhibition of Microglial Activation in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex - Qin_2024_ACS.Pharmacol.Transl.Sci_7_1002
Author(s) : Qin Y , Liu Q , Wang S , Wang Q , Du Y , Yao J , Chen Y , Yang Q , Wu Y , Liu S , Zhao M , Wei G , Yang L
Ref : ACS Pharmacol Transl Sci , 7 :1002 , 2024
Abstract : Chronic pain is a complex disease. It seriously affects patients' quality of life and imposes a significant economic burden on society. Santacruzamate A (SCA) is a natural product isolated from marine cyanobacteria in Panama. In this study, we first demonstrated that SCA could alleviate chronic inflammatory pain, pain-related anxiety, and depression emotions induced by complete Freund's adjuvant in mice while inhibiting microglial activation in the anterior cingulate cortex. Moreover, SCA treatment attenuated lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response by downregulating interleukin 1beta and 6 (IL-1beta and IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) levels in BV2 cells. Furthermore, we found that SCA could bind to soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) through molecular docking technology, and the thermal stability of sEH was enhanced after binding of SCA to the sEH protein. Meanwhile, we identified that SCA could reduce the sEH enzyme activity and inhibit sEH protein overexpression in the LPS stimulation model. The results indicated that SCA could alleviate the development of inflammation by inhibiting the enzyme activity and expression of sEH to further reduce chronic inflammatory pain. Our study suggested that SCA could be a potential drug for treating chronic inflammatory pain.
ESTHER : Qin_2024_ACS.Pharmacol.Transl.Sci_7_1002
PubMedSearch : Qin_2024_ACS.Pharmacol.Transl.Sci_7_1002
PubMedID: 38633586

Title : Neurotoxicities induced by micro\/nanoplastics: A review focusing on the risks of neurological diseases - Liu_2024_J.Hazard.Mater_469_134054
Author(s) : Liu S , He Y , Yin J , Zhu Q , Liao C , Jiang G
Ref : J Hazard Mater , 469 :134054 , 2024
Abstract : Pollution of micro/nano-plastics (MPs/NPs) is ubiquitously prevalent in the environment, leading to an unavoidable exposure of the human body. Despite the protection of the blood-brain barrier, MPs/NPs can be transferred and accumulated in the brain, which subsequently exert negative effects on the brain. Nevertheless, the potential neurodevelopmental and/or neurodegenerative risks of MPs/NPs remain largely unexplored. In this review, we provide a systematic overview of recent studies related to the neurotoxicity of MPs/NPs. It covers the environmental hazards and human exposure pathways, translocation and distribution into the brain, the neurotoxic effects, and the possible mechanisms of environmental MPs/NPs. MPs/NPs are widely found in different environment matrices, including air, water, soil, and human food. Ambient MPs/NPs can enter the human body by ingestion, inhalation and dermal contact, then be transferred into the brain via the blood circulation and nerve pathways. When MPs/NPs are present in the brain, they can initiate a series of molecular or cellular reactions that may harm the blood-brain barrier, cause oxidative stress, trigger inflammatory responses, affect acetylcholinesterase activity, lead to mitochondrial dysfunction, and impair autophagy. This can result in abnormal protein folding, loss of neurons, disruptions in neurotransmitters, and unusual behaviours, ultimately contributing to the initiation and progression of neurodegenerative changes and neurodevelopmental abnormalities. Key challenges and further research directions are also proposed in this review as more studies are needed to focus on the potential neurotoxicity of MPs/NPs under realistic conditions.
ESTHER : Liu_2024_J.Hazard.Mater_469_134054
PubMedSearch : Liu_2024_J.Hazard.Mater_469_134054
PubMedID: 38503214

Title : Expanding the clinical spectrum of anti-DPPX encephalitis: a multicenter retrospective study - Gao_2024_Front.Neurosci_18_1379933
Author(s) : Gao Y , Zhang Y , Chunyu H , Xu Y , Wang Y , Liu S , Chang J , Tang B , Xu C , Lu Y , Zhou J , Kong X , Zhu X , Chen S , Zhou Q , Meng H
Ref : Front Neurosci , 18 :1379933 , 2024
Abstract : OBJECTIVE: Anti-dipeptidyl-peptidase-like protein-6 (DPPX) encephalitis is a rare autoimmune encephalitis, and clinical and experimental information regarding this disease is limited. We conducted this study to comprehensively describe the clinical characteristics, ancillary test results, neuroimaging results, and treatment response in a group of Chinese patients with anti-DPPX encephalitis for better understanding this disease. METHODS: We recruited 14 patients who tested positive for anti-DPPX antibodies in the serum and/or cerebrospinal fluid from 11 medical centers between March 2021 and June 2023. This retrospective study evaluated data on symptoms, autoantibody test, auxiliary examinations, treatments, and outcomes. RESULTS: The average age at diagnosis was 45.93 +/- 4.62 years (range: 11-72 years), and 9 of the 14 patients were males. The main symptoms included cognitive impairment (50.0%, 7/14), central nervous system hyperexcitability (42.9%, 6/14), gastrointestinal dysfunction (35.7%, 5/14), and psychiatric disorders (35.7%, 5/14). Notably, we discovered specific findings on (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging in two patients. Co-existing autoantibodies were identified in two patients. Parainfection was identified in four patients. One patient had other autoimmune diseases, and one had tumor. Eleven patients received immunotherapy and most patients improved at discharge. Surprisingly, three male patients but no female patients relapsed during the 6 months of follow-up. CONCLUSION: The development and outcome of anti-DPPX encephalitis are variable. Male patients were predominant in our cohort. The most common symptoms were the classical triad of prodromal gastrointestinal dysfunction, cognitive and mental disorders, and central nervous system hyperexcitability. Infections, immune dysregulation, and tumors may be important etiologies. Long-term monitoring of disease development should be done in male patients. Overall, our results highlight novel clinical characteristics of anti-DPPX encephalitis.
ESTHER : Gao_2024_Front.Neurosci_18_1379933
PubMedSearch : Gao_2024_Front.Neurosci_18_1379933
PubMedID: 38756408
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-DPP6

Title : Ultrasensitive Nanofiber Biosensor: Rapid In Situ Chromatic Detection of Bacteria for Healthcare Innovation - Shariatzadeh_2024_ACS.Appl.Bio.Mater_12_45859
Author(s) : Shariatzadeh FJ , Logsetty S , Liu S
Ref : ACS Appl Bio Mater , 12 :45859 , 2024
Abstract : Rapid detection of bacterial presence in skin wounds is crucial to prevent the transition from acute to chronic wounds and the onset of systemic infections. Current methods for detecting infections, particularly at low concentrations (<1.0 x 10(5) CFU/cm(2)), often require complex technologies and direct sampling, which can be invasive and time-consuming. Addressing this gap, we introduce a colorimetric nanofibrous biosensor enabling real-time in situ monitoring of bacterial concentrations in wounds. This biosensor employs a colorimetric hemicyanine dye (HCy) probe, which changes color in response to bacterial lipase, a common secretion in infected wounds. To enhance the biosensor's sensitivity, we incorporated two key materials science strategies: aligning the nanofibers to promote efficient bacterial attachment and localization and integrating Tween 80, a surfactant, within the nanofiber matrix. This combination of physical and chemical cues results in a notable increase in lipase activity. The cross-aligned core-shell nanofibers, embedded with Tween 80 and HCy, demonstrate an immediate and distinct color change when exposed to as low as 3.0 x 10(4) CFU/cm(2) of common pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and MRSA. Significantly, the presence of Tween 80 amplifies the colorimetric response, making visual detection more straightforward and four times more pronounced. Our nanobiosensor design facilitates the detection of low-concentration bacterial infections in situ without the need to remove wound dressings. This advancement marks a significant step forward in real-time wound monitoring, offering a practical tool for the early detection of clinical bacterial infections.
ESTHER : Shariatzadeh_2024_ACS.Appl.Bio.Mater_12_45859
PubMedSearch : Shariatzadeh_2024_ACS.Appl.Bio.Mater_12_45859
PubMedID: 38502803

Title : A Versatile Thioesterase Involved in Dimerizationduring Cinnamoyl Lipid Biosynthesis - Deng_2024_Angew.Chem.Int.Ed.Engl__e202402010
Author(s) : Deng Z , Liu C , Wang F , Song N , Liu J , Li H , Liu S , Li T , Liu Z , Xiao F , Li W
Ref : Angew Chem Int Ed Engl , :e202402010 , 2024
Abstract : The cinnamoyl lipid compound youssoufene A1 (1), featuring a unique dearomatic carbon-bridged dimeric skeleton, exhibits increased inhibition against multidrug resistant Enterococcus faecalis compared to monomeric youssoufenes. However, the formation process of this intriguing dearomatic dimerization remains unknown. In this work, an unusual"gene-within-gene"thioesterase (TE) gene ysfF was functionally characterized. The gene was found to naturally encodes two proteins, an entire YsfF with alpha/beta-hydrolase and 4-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA thioesterase (4-HBT)-like enzyme domains, and a nested YsfFHBT (4-HBT-like enzyme). Using intracellular tagged carrier-protein tracking (ITCT) strategy, in vitro reconstitution and in vivo experiments, we found that: i) both domains of YsfF displayed thioesterase activities; ii) YsfF/YsfFHBT could accomplish the 6Pi-electrocyclic ring closure for benzene ring formation; and iii) YsfF and cyclase YsfX together were responsible for the ACP-tethered dearomatic dimerization process, possibly via an unprecedent Michael-type addition reaction. Moreover, site-directed mutagenesis experiments demonstrated that N301, E483 and H566 of YsfF are critical residues for both the 6Pi-electrocyclization and dimerization processes. This study enhances our understanding of the multifunctionality of the TE protein family.
ESTHER : Deng_2024_Angew.Chem.Int.Ed.Engl__e202402010
PubMedSearch : Deng_2024_Angew.Chem.Int.Ed.Engl__e202402010
PubMedID: 38462490
Gene_locus related to this paper: 9actn-YsfF

Title : Portal vein gas is a sign of intestinal necrosis after pesticide poisoning: a case report - Zhu_2024_J.Int.Med.Res_52_3000605241240992
Author(s) : Zhu H , Chen G , Liu S , Hong K , Wang H
Ref : J Internal Medicine Res , 52 :3000605241240992 , 2024
Abstract : Portal vein gas accumulation and intestinal pneumatosis are uncommon signs indicating a high mortality risk in cases of intestinal ischemic necrosis. However, the widespread use of computed tomography has led to an increase in detection of benign lesions. We report a case of portal vein gas accumulation resulting from organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. A male patient was brought to the hospital in a comatose state with bilateral pupils that measured 1.0 mm, and he showed shortness of breath and wet rattles in the lungs. A cholinesterase concentration of 214 U/L was detected on an auxiliary examination. The patient was diagnosed with organophosphorus pesticide poisoning and underwent mechanical ventilation, hemoperfusion, and continuous renal replacement therapy according to the poisoning guidelines. On the fifth day, considerable abdominal distension was observed. An abdominal computed tomography scan revealed dilation of the small bowel and ascending colon with fluid and gas accumulation, as well as gas within the intestinal wall and hepatic veins. Although portal vein gas and intestinal pneumatosis are a sign of mortality requiring immediate surgical intervention, an increasing number of benign cases suggests potential benefits of conservative treatment approaches.
ESTHER : Zhu_2024_J.Int.Med.Res_52_3000605241240992
PubMedSearch : Zhu_2024_J.Int.Med.Res_52_3000605241240992
PubMedID: 38597115

Title : Establishment of transgenic fluorescent mice for labeling synapses and screening synaptogenic adhesion molecules - Yang_2024_Elife_13_
Author(s) : Yang L , Zhang J , Liu S , Zhang Y , Wang L , Wang X , Wang S , Li K , Wei M , Zhang C
Ref : Elife , 13 : , 2024
Abstract : Synapse is the fundamental structure for neurons to transmit information between cells. The proper synapse formation is crucial for developing neural circuits and cognitive functions of the brain. The aberrant synapse formation has been proved to cause many neurological disorders, including autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disability. Synaptic cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) are thought to play a major role in achieving mechanistic cell-cell recognition and initiating synapse formation via trans-synaptic interactions. Due to the diversity of synapses in different brain areas, circuits and neurons, although many synaptic CAMs, such as Neurexins (NRXNs), Neuroligins (NLGNs), Synaptic cell adhesion molecules (SynCAMs), Leucine-rich-repeat transmembrane neuronal proteins (LRRTMs) and SLIT and NTRK-like protein (SLITRKs) have been identified as synaptogenic molecules, how these molecules determine specific synapse formation and whether other molecules driving synapse formation remain undiscovered are unclear. Here, to providing a tool for synapse labeling and synaptic CAMs screening by artificial synapse formation (ASF) assay, we generated synaptotagmin-1-tdTomato (Syt1-tdTomato) transgenic mice by inserting the tdTomato-fused synaptotagmin-1 coding sequence into the genome of C57BL/6J mice. In the brain of Syt1-tdTomato transgenic mice, the tdTomato-fused synaptotagmin-1 (SYT1-tdTomato) signals were widely observed in different areas and overlapped with synapsin-1, a widely-used synaptic marker. In olfactory bulb, the SYT1-tdTomato signals are highly enriched in glomerulus. In the cultured hippocampal neurons, the SYT1-tdTomato signals showed colocalization with several synaptic markers. Compared to the wild-type (WT) mouse neurons, cultured hippocampal neurons from Syt1-tdTomato transgenic mice presented normal synaptic neurotransmission. In ASF assays, neurons from Syt1-tdTomato transgenic mice could form synaptic connections with HEK293T cells expressing NLGN2, LRRTM2, and SLITRK2 without immunostaining. Therefore, our work suggested that the Syt1-tdTomato transgenic mice with the ability to label synapses by tdTomato, and it will be a convenient tool for screening synaptogenic molecules.
ESTHER : Yang_2024_Elife_13_
PubMedSearch : Yang_2024_Elife_13_
PubMedID: 38450720

Title : Rhynchophylline relieves nonalcoholic fatty liver disease by activating lipase and increasing energy metabolism - Liu_2023_Int.Immunopharmacol_117_109948
Author(s) : Liu K , Liu S , Wu C , Wang Y , Zhang Y , Yu J , Li X , Qi X , Su S , Zhou L , Li Y
Ref : Int Immunopharmacol , 117 :109948 , 2023
Abstract : Hepatic fat metabolism may be altered in the context of overnutrition and obesity, often resulting in the accumulation of triglycerides in hepatocytes and leading to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Natural plant alkaloids have demonstrated great potential for the prevention and treatment of NAFLD. However, the role of rhynchophylline (RHY) in lipid metabolism is not clear. We explored the role of RHY in lipid metabolism in cells treated with oleic and palmitic acids to mimic high-fat diet (HFD) conditions. RHY attenuated oleic and palmitic acid-induced increases in triglyceride accumulation in HepG2, AML12, and LMH cells. RHY also increased energy metabolism and reduced oxidative stress. We further investigated the effect of RHY on hepatic lipid metabolism in mice fed an HFD including 40 mg/kg RHY. RHY alleviated hepatic steatosis, reduced fat deposition, promoted energy metabolism, and improved glucose metabolism. We investigated the mechanism responsible for this activity by docking with key proteins of lipid metabolism disorders using Discovery Studio software, which showed that RHY interacted well with lipases. Finally, we found that adding RHY promoted lipase activity and lipolysis. In conclusion, RHY ameliorated HFD-induced NAFLD and its complications by increasing lipase activity.
ESTHER : Liu_2023_Int.Immunopharmacol_117_109948
PubMedSearch : Liu_2023_Int.Immunopharmacol_117_109948
PubMedID: 37012893

Title : Alteration of gut microbiota after heat acclimation may reduce organ damage by regulating immune factors during heat stress - Liu_2023_Front.Microbiol_14_1114233
Author(s) : Liu S , Wen D , Feng C , Yu C , Gu Z , Wang L , Zhang Z , Li W , Wu S , Liu Y , Duan C , Zhuang R , Xue L
Ref : Front Microbiol , 14 :1114233 , 2023
Abstract : INTRODUCTION: Heat-related illnesses can lead to morbidity, which are anticipated to increase frequency with predictions of increased global surface temperatures and extreme weather events. Although heat acclimation training (HAT) could prevent heat-related diseases, the mechanisms underlying HAT-promoting beneficial changes in organ function, immunity, and gut microbes remain unclear. METHODS: In the current study, we recruited 32 healthy young soldiers and randomly divided them into 4 teams to conduct HATs for 10 days: the equipment-assisted training team at high temperature (HE); the equipment-assisted training team under normal hot weather (NE); the high-intensity interval training team at high temperature (HIIT), and the control team without training. A standard heat tolerance test (HTT) was conducted before (HTT-1st) and after (HTT-2nd) the training to judge whether the participants met the heat acclimation (HA) criteria. RESULTS: We found that the participants in both HE and NE teams had significantly higher acclimation rates (HA/total population) than whom in the HIIT team. The effects of HAT on the participants of the HE team outperformed that of the NE team. In the HA group, the differences of physiological indicators and plasma organ damage biomarkers (ALT, ALP, creatinine, LDH, alpha-HBDH and cholinesterase) before and after HTT-2nd were significantly reduced to those during HTT-1st, but the differences of immune factors (IL-10, IL-6, CXCL2, CCL4, CCL5, and CCL11) elevated. The composition, metabolism, and pathogenicity of gut microbes changed significantly, with a decreased proportion of potentially pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia-Shigella and Lactococcus) and increased probiotics (Dorea, Blautia, and Lactobacillus) in the HA group. Training for a longer time in a high temperature and humidity showed beneficial effects for intestinal probiotics. CONCLUSION: These findings revealed that pathogenic gut bacteria decrease while probiotics increase following HA, with elevated immune factors and reduced organ damage during heat stress, thereby improving the body's heat adaption.
ESTHER : Liu_2023_Front.Microbiol_14_1114233
PubMedSearch : Liu_2023_Front.Microbiol_14_1114233
PubMedID: 36910226

Title : Research Progress on Effects of Ginsenoside Rg2 and Rh1 on Nervous System and Related Mechanisms - Liu_2023_Molecules_28_
Author(s) : Liu C , Zheng P , Wang H , Wei Y , Wang C , Hao S , Liu S , Chen W , Zhao Y , Zong Y , Li J , He Z
Ref : Molecules , 28 : , 2023
Abstract : Neurological-related disorders are diseases that affect the body's neurons or peripheral nerve tissue, such as Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). The development of neurological disorders can cause serious harm to the quality of life and functioning of the patient. The use of traditional therapeutic agents such as dopamine-promoting drugs, anticholinergic drugs, cholinesterase inhibitors, and NMDA receptor antagonists is often accompanied by a series of side effects such as drug resistance, cardiac arrhythmia, liver function abnormalities, and blurred vision. Therefore, there is an urgent need to find a therapeutic drug with a high safety profile and few side effects. Herbal medicines are rich in active ingredients that are natural macromolecules. Ginsenoside is the main active ingredient of ginseng, which has a variety of pharmacological effects and is considered to have potential value in the treatment of human diseases. Modern pharmacological studies have shown that ginsenosides Rg2 and Rh1 have strong pharmacological activities in the nervous system, with protective effects on nerve cells, improved resistance to neuronal injury, modulation of neural activity, resistance to cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury, improvement of brain damage after eclampsia hemorrhage, improvement of memory and cognitive deficits, treatment of AD and vascular dementia, alleviation of anxiety, pain, and inhibition of ionic-like behavior. In this article, we searched the pharmacological research literature of Rg2 and Rh1 in the field of neurological diseases, summarized the latest research progress of the two ginsenosides, and reviewed the pharmacological effects and mechanisms of Rg2 and Rh1, which provided a new way of thinking for the research of the active ingredients in ginseng anti-neurological diseases and the development of new drugs.
ESTHER : Liu_2023_Molecules_28_
PubMedSearch : Liu_2023_Molecules_28_
PubMedID: 36677589 || 38067664

Title : ABHD6 drives endocytosis of AMPA receptors to regulate synaptic plasticity and learning flexibility - Wei_2023_Prog.Neurobiol__102559
Author(s) : Wei M , Yang L , Su F , Liu Y , Zhao X , Luo L , Sun X , Liu S , Dong Z , Zhang Y , Shi YS , Liang J , Zhang C
Ref : Prog Neurobiol , :102559 , 2023
Abstract : Trafficking of alpha-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptors (AMPARs), mediated by AMPAR interacting proteins, enabled neurons to maintain tuning capabilities at rest or active state. alpha/beta-Hydrolase domain-containing 6 (ABHD6), an endocannabinoid hydrolase, was an AMPAR auxiliary subunit found to negatively regulate the surface delivery of AMPARs. While ABHD6 was found to prevent AMPAR tetramerization in endoplasmic reticulum, ABHD6 was also reported to localize at postsynaptic site. Yet, the role of ABHD6 interacting with AMPAR at postsynaptic site, and the physiological significance of ABHD6 regulating AMPAR trafficking remains elusive. Here, we generated the ABHD6 knockout (ABHD6(KO)) mice and found that deletion of ABHD6 selectively enhanced AMPAR-mediated basal synaptic responses and the surface expression of postsynaptic AMPARs. Furthermore, we found that loss of ABHD6 impaired hippocampal long-term depression (LTD) and synaptic downscaling in hippocampal synapses. AMPAR internalization assays revealed that ABHD6 was essential for neuronal activity-dependent endocytosis of surface AMPARs, which is independent of ABHD6's hydrolase activity. The defects of AMPAR endocytosis and LTD are expressed as deficits in learning flexibility in ABHD6(KO) mice. Collectively, we demonstrated that ABHD6 is an endocytic accessory protein promoting AMPAR endocytosis, thereby contributes to the formation of LTD, synaptic downscaling and reversal learning.
ESTHER : Wei_2023_Prog.Neurobiol__102559
PubMedSearch : Wei_2023_Prog.Neurobiol__102559
PubMedID: 38159878
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-ABHD6 , mouse-ABHD6

Title : Platinum nanoflowers stabilized with aloe polysaccharides for detection of organophosphorus pesticides in food - Zhao_2023_Int.J.Biol.Macromol__126552
Author(s) : Zhao H , Li R , Zhang T , Zhou L , Wang L , Han Z , Liu S , Zhang J
Ref : Int J Biol Macromol , :126552 , 2023
Abstract : Organophosphorus pesticides can inhibit the activity of acetylcholinesterase and cause neurological diseases. Therefore, it is crucial to establish an efficient and sensitive platform for organophosphorus pesticide detection. In this work, we extracted aloe polysaccharide (AP) from aloe vera with the number average molecular weight of 29,271 Da and investigated its reducing property. We prepared aloe polysaccharide stabilized platinum nanoflowers (AP-Pt(n) NFs), their particle size ranges were 29.4-67.3 nm. Furthermore, AP-Pt(n) NFs exhibited excellent oxidase-like activity and the catalytic kinetics followed the typical Michaelis-Menten equation. They showed strong affinity for 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine substrates. More importantly, we developed a simple and effective strategy for the sensitive colorimetric detection of organophosphorus pesticides in food using biocompatible AP-Pt(n) NFs. The detection range was 0.5 microg/L - 140 mg/L, which was wider than many previously reported nanozyme detection systems. This colorimetric biosensor had good selectivity and good promise for bioassay analysis.
ESTHER : Zhao_2023_Int.J.Biol.Macromol__126552
PubMedSearch : Zhao_2023_Int.J.Biol.Macromol__126552
PubMedID: 37660849

Title : Hyperoside inhibits pancreatic lipase activity in vitro and reduces fat accumulation in vivo - Zhang_2023_Food.Funct_14_4763
Author(s) : Zhang X , Li D , Wang K , Xie J , Liu Y , Wang T , Liu S , Huang Q , Guo Q , Wang H
Ref : Food Funct , 14 :4763 , 2023
Abstract : Hyperoside, the main component of many anti-obesity plants, might exhibit a lipase inhibition effect to reduce fat accumulation. The anti-obesity effect of hyperoside was investigated by studying its inhibitory effect and mechanism on pancreatic lipase in vitro and evaluating its ability to reduce lipid accumulation in vivo. Hyperoside is a mixed-type inhibitor of lipase with an IC(50) of 0.67 +/- 0.02 mmol L(-)in vitro. Hyperoside changed the secondary conformation of lipase, increased the alpha-helix content, and changed the microenvironment of lipase through static quenching. The interaction between hyperoside and lipase results from a strong binding spontaneous exothermic reaction, mainly through hydrogen bonding, van der Waals force and electrostatic force. Hyperoside protected hepatic lipid accumulation and adipose tissue hypertrophy and reduced the expression of inflammatory factors in high-fat diet-induced rats. Moreover, hyperoside had a good inhibitory effect on lipase activity in serum and increased fecal fat excretion, thereby reducing lipid absorption in vivo. This study provides theoretical support for the research and development of hyperoside in fat-reducing functional foods.
ESTHER : Zhang_2023_Food.Funct_14_4763
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2023_Food.Funct_14_4763
PubMedID: 37128768

Title : Green-Efficient Enzymatic Synthesis and Characterization of Liposoluble 6'\/6-O-Lauryl Phenolic Glycosides with Enhanced Intestinal Permeability - Xu_2023_J.Agric.Food.Chem__
Author(s) : Xu Z , Liu S , Lai H , You L , Zhao Z
Ref : Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry , : , 2023
Abstract : Arbutin, salidroside, polydatin, and phlorizin are typically natural bioactive phenolic glycosides. To improve the liposolubility and bioavailability, highly liposoluble derivatives including 6'-O-lauryl arbutin, 6'-O-lauryl salidroside, 6''-O-lauryl polydatin, and 6''-O-lauryl phlorizin were efficiently synthesized by enzymatic acylation in a green solvent 2-MeTHF. Their reaction conversions reached 84.4, 99.5, 99.8, and 89.1%, respectively, when catalyzed by Lipozyme 435 at 20 mg/mL at 50 degreesC. As expected, the derivatives had high log P (1.66-2.37) and retained good antioxidant activity, making them potential alternatives to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and tert-butyl-hydroquinone (TBHQ) in lipid systems. Then, the intestinal permeability characteristics and metabolism of phenolic glycosides and their derivatives were investigated based on Caco-2 monolayers. The permeability of polydatin and phlorizin was mainly through active transport, but that of arbutin and salidroside involved both passive diffusion and active uptake. The acylated derivatives suffered from severe CES-mediated hydrolysis but exhibited a larger transported amount than phenolic glycosides.
ESTHER : Xu_2023_J.Agric.Food.Chem__
PubMedSearch : Xu_2023_J.Agric.Food.Chem__
PubMedID: 37167604

Title : (+)-\/(-)-Rutabenzofuran a and (+)-\/(-)- Rutabenzofuran b: Two unprecedented pairs of Z\/E isomeric benzofuran enantiomers from the aerial part of Ruta graveolens L - Liu_2023_Phytochemistry__113677
Author(s) : Liu Y , Peng J , Huang L , Li B , Ge C , Liu S , Jiang Y
Ref : Phytochemistry , :113677 , 2023
Abstract : Two pairs of Z/E isomeric benzofuran enantiomers possessing unprecedented carbon skeletons featuring ring cleavage and addition reactions in the alpha-pyrone ring of furocoumarin, named rutabenzofuran A [(+)-1 and (-)-1], and rutabenzofuran B [(+)-2 and (-)-2], respectively, were isolated as minor compounds from the water extract of the aerial part of Ruta graveolens L. Their structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic data analysis. The absolute configurations were assigned by comparing the optical rotation with previous research and the experimental circular dichroism (CD) spectra with the calculated electronic CD (ECD) spectra. (-)-1, (+)-2, and (-)-2 were evaluated for antibacterial, anticoagulant, anticancer, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activities. No anticancer or anticoagulant activities were observed, yet (-)-2 exhibited weak antibacterial activity against Salmonella enterica subsp. Enterica. At the same time, (-)-1, (+)-2, and (-)-2 displayed weak inhibitory activity on AChE.
ESTHER : Liu_2023_Phytochemistry__113677
PubMedSearch : Liu_2023_Phytochemistry__113677
PubMedID: 37059286

Title : Structural insights into the oligomeric effects on catalytic activity of a decameric feruloyl esterase and its application in ferulic acid production - Du_2023_Int.J.Biol.Macromol__126540
Author(s) : Du G , Wang Y , Zhang Y , Yu H , Liu S , Ma X , Cao H , Wei X , Wen B , Li Z , Fan S , Zhou H , Xin F
Ref : Int J Biol Macromol , :126540 , 2023
Abstract : Oligomeric feruloyl esterase (FAE) has great application prospect in industry due to its potentially high stability and fine-tuned activity. However, the relationship between catalytic capability and oligomeric structure remains undetermined. Here we identified and characterized a novel, cold-adapted FAE (BtFae) derived from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron. Structural studies unraveled that BtFae adopts a barrel-like decameric architecture unique in esterase families. By disrupting the interface, the monomeric variant exhibited significantly reduced catalytic activity and stability toward methyl ferulate, potentially due to its impact on the flexibility of the catalytic triad. Additionally, our results also showed that the monomerization of BtFae severely decreased the ferulic acid release from de-starched wheat bran and insoluble wheat arabinoxylan by 75 % and 80 %, respectively. Collectively, this study revealed novel connections between oligomerization and FAE catalytic function, which will benefit for further protein engineering of FAEs at the quaternary structure level for improved industrial applications.
ESTHER : Du_2023_Int.J.Biol.Macromol__126540
PubMedSearch : Du_2023_Int.J.Biol.Macromol__126540
PubMedID: 37634773
Gene_locus related to this paper: bactn-BT4077

Title : Pharmacological effect and mechanism of orlistat in anti-tumor therapy: A review - Hao_2023_Medicine.(Baltimore)_102_e34671
Author(s) : Hao X , Zhu X , Tian H , Lai G , Zhang W , Zhou H , Liu S
Ref : Medicine (Baltimore) , 102 :e34671 , 2023
Abstract : Research has demonstrated that obesity is an important risk factor for cancer progression. Orlistat is a lipase inhibitor with promising therapeutic effects on obesity. In addition to being regarded as a slimming drug, a growing number of studies in recent years have suggested that orlistat has anti-tumor activities, while the underlying mechanism is still not well elucidated. This paper reviewed recent pharmacological effects and mechanisms of orlistat against tumors and found that orlistat can target cancer cells through activation or suppression of multiple signaling pathways. It can induce tumor cells apoptosis or death, interfere with tumor cells' cycles controlling, suppress fatty acid synthase activity, increase ferroptosis, inhibit tumor angiogenesis, and improve tumor cells glycolytic. Thus, this review may shed new light on anti-tumor mechanism and drug repurposing of orlistat, and anti-tumor drug development.
ESTHER : Hao_2023_Medicine.(Baltimore)_102_e34671
PubMedSearch : Hao_2023_Medicine.(Baltimore)_102_e34671
PubMedID: 37682175

Title : Visual and Rapid Detection of Nerve Agent Mimics in Gas and Solution Phase by a Simple Fluorescent Probe - Chen_2023_Anal.Chem__
Author(s) : Chen Q , Liu J , Liu S , Zhang J , He L , Liu R , Jiang H , Han X , Zhang K
Ref : Analytical Chemistry , : , 2023
Abstract : Chemical nerve agents are highly toxic organophosphorus compounds that are easy to obtain and can be utilized by terrorists to threaten homeland security and human safety. Those organophosphorus nerve agents contain nucleophilic ability that can react with acetylcholinesterase leading to muscular paralysis and human death. Therefore, there is great importance to explore a reliable and simple method to detect chemical nerve agents. Herein, the o-phenylenediamine-linked dansyl chloride as a colorimetric and fluorescent probe has been prepared to detect specific chemical nerve agent stimulants in the solution and vapor phase. The o-phenylenediamine unit serves as a detection site that can react with diethyl chlorophosphate (DCP) in a rapid response within 2 min. A satisfied relationship line was obtained between fluorescent intensity and the concentration of DCP in the range of 0-90 microM. In the optimized conditions, we conducted the fluorescent titration to measure the limits of detection (0.082 microM) with the fluorescent enhancement up to 18-fold. Fluorescence titration and NMR studies were also conducted to explore the detection mechanism, indicating that the formation of phosphate ester causes the intensity of fluorescent change during the PET process. Finally, probe 1 coated with the paper test is utilized to detect DCP vapor and solution by the naked eye. We expect that this probe may give some admiration to design the small molecule organic probe and applied in the selectivity detection of chemical nerve agents.
ESTHER : Chen_2023_Anal.Chem__
PubMedSearch : Chen_2023_Anal.Chem__
PubMedID: 36802493

Title : Extracellular Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) Downregulates Adipose Hormone-Sensitive Lipase (HSL) and Contributes to Obesity - Chen_2023_Mol.Metab__101834
Author(s) : Chen L , Li L , Cui D , Huang Y , Tong H , Zabihi H , Wang S , Qi Y , Lakowski T , Leng L , Liu S , Wu H , Young LH , Bucala R , Qi D
Ref : Mol Metab , :101834 , 2023
Abstract : Attenuation of adipose hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) may impair lipolysis and exacerbate obesity. We investigate the role of cytokine, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in regulating adipose HSL and adipocyte hypertrophy. Extracellular MIF released from adipocytes downregulates HSL in an autocrine fashion, by activating the AMPK/JNK signaling pathway upon binding to its membrane receptor, CD74. WT mice fed high fat diet (HFD), as well as mice overexpressing MIF, both had high circulating MIF levels and showed suppression of HSL during the development of obesity. Blocking the extracellular action of MIF by a neutralizing MIF antibody significantly reduced obesity in HFD mice. Interestingly, intracellular MIF binds with Csn5 and JNK, which leads to an opposing effect to inhibit JNK phosphorylation. With global MIF deletion, adipocyte JNK phosphorylation increased, resulting in decreased HSL expression, suggesting that the loss of MIF's intracellular inhibitory action on JNK was dominant in Mif(-/-) mice. Adipose tissue from Mif(-/-) mice also exhibited higher Akt and lower PKA phosphorylation following HFD feeding compared with WT, which may contribute to the downregulation of HSL activation during more severe obesity. Both intracellular and extracellular MIF have opposing effects to regulate HSL, but extracellular actions predominate to downregulate HSL and exacerbate the development of obesity during HFD.
ESTHER : Chen_2023_Mol.Metab__101834
PubMedSearch : Chen_2023_Mol.Metab__101834
PubMedID: 37935315

Title : Insecticidal Effect of the Entomopathogenic Fungus Lecanicillium araneicola HK-1 in Aphis craccivora (Hemiptera: Aphididae) - Liu_2023_Insects_14_
Author(s) : Liu S , Li J , Feng Q , Chu L , Tan Z , Ji X , Jin P
Ref : Insects , 14 : , 2023
Abstract : Aphis craccivora (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is an important pest affecting various crops worldwide. However, only few studies have been conducted on the infection of A. craccivora by Lecanicillium and related insecticidal mechanisms. We investigated the infection process of A. craccivora by Lecanicillium araneicola HK-1 using fluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and our results indicated that the conidia of strain HK-1 easily attached to the feet and dorsum of A. craccivora. The activities of chitinase and extracellular protease were induced in the aphid after treatment with HK-1. A bioassay on A. craccivora showed that the median lethal concentration (LC(50)) of the fungus crude extract was 24.00 mg mL(-1) for 24 h of treatment. Additionally, the results showed that the crude extract disrupted the enzyme system of A. craccivora, inducing the inhibition of carboxylesterase (CarE) and the induction of glutathione S-transferase (GST) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Combining these results with those of a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, it is suggested that p-cymene, hymecromone, 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (Z, Z) methyl ester, and 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (Z, Z) may be connected to the insecticidal effects we observed. This study provides a theoretical basis for the use of L. araneicola HK-1 as a potential biological control agent.
ESTHER : Liu_2023_Insects_14_
PubMedSearch : Liu_2023_Insects_14_
PubMedID: 37999059

Title : Rapid detection of carbamate nerve agent analogues using dually functionalized gold nanoclusters - Zhang_2023_Anal.Bioanal.Chem_415_3275
Author(s) : Zhang Q , Lv J , Xia J , Wang L , Qu G , Yang Y , Liu S
Ref : Anal Bioanal Chem , 415 :3275 , 2023
Abstract : Carbamate nerve agents (CMNAs) are a type of lethal cholinesterase inhibitor with one or more quaternary amine centres and aromatic rings. CMNAs have been recently added to the Annex on Chemicals of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) and Schedules of Controlled Chemicals of China. In this study, a rapid, sensitive and selective method was developed for the fluorescence detection of ambenonium chloride (AC) through host-guest and electrostatic dual interactions between AC and cyclodextrin/11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (CD/MUA) dually functionalized gold nanoclusters (AuNCs). Through this method, AC was detected with a limit of detection of 10.0 ng/mL. Method evaluation showed high selectivity towards AC over other related compounds. The practical applicability was verified, as satisfactory recoveries were obtained for AC spiked in river water and urine, as well as Proficiency Test samples from Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW). In addition, a fluorescence sensing array comprising four AuNCs was designed to distinguish six carbamates and structurally similar compounds. This method provides a potential approach for the rapid, sensitive and selective recognition and detection of CMNAs.
ESTHER : Zhang_2023_Anal.Bioanal.Chem_415_3275
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2023_Anal.Bioanal.Chem_415_3275
PubMedID: 37266687

Title : The diagnostic value of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 in early diabetic nephropathy - Zhai_2023_Ann.Med_55_2230446
Author(s) : Zhai Y , Cao X , Liu S , Shen Y
Ref : Ann Med , 55 :2230446 , 2023
Abstract : OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate diagnosis of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) in early diabetic nephropathy (DN). METHODS: A total of 342 type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients hospitalized in department of metabolism and nephrology in our hospital from January 2019 to December 2019 were randomly selected. Patients were divided into three groups via urine albumin level: diabetes mellitus (DM) group, simple diabetes group (114 patients, urinary albumin creatinine ratio (UACR) < 30 mg/g); DN1 group, early DN group (114 patients, UACR: 30-300 mg/g); DN2 group: clinical DN group (114 patients, UACR > 300mg/g). Eighty healthy adults were examined at the same time. Lp-PLA2, fasting blood glucose (FBG), creatinine (Cr), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TCHOL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), blood urea nitrogen/creatinine (BUN/Cr), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), 24-h urine protein, albumin and creatinine of all subjects were detected and compared. Pearson's correlation analysis and multiple ordered logistic regression were used to investigate the correlation between serum Lp-PLA2 level and DN. The possibility of Lp-PLA2 in the diagnosis of early DN was studied by using the subject working curve. RESULTS: Lp-PLA2 level in DN1 and DN2 groups was significantly higher than that in DM group, with statistical difference (p < .05). With the progression of DN, the level of Lp-PLA2 gradually increased p < .05. Lp-PLA2 was positively correlated with FBG, TG, LDL and HbA1c (R = 0.637, p < .01; R = 0.314, p = .01; R = 0.213, p = .01; R = 0.661, p >= .01), was negatively correlated with HDL (r = -0.230, p < .01). The results showed that Lp-PLA2 was an independent factor in the evaluation of early DN. The area under the curve for the evaluation of serum Lp-PLA2 level in early DN was 0.841, the optimal critical value was 155.9 ng/mL, the sensitivity was 88% and the specificity was 76.2%. CONCLUSIONS: Lp-PLA2 is an independent factor for the evaluation of early DN, and can be used as an important potential specific indicator for the diagnosis of early DN, meanwhile monitoring the progression of DN.
ESTHER : Zhai_2023_Ann.Med_55_2230446
PubMedSearch : Zhai_2023_Ann.Med_55_2230446
PubMedID: 37566692

Title : LAL deficiency induced myeloid-derived suppressor cells as targets and biomarkers for lung cancer - Zhao_2023_J.Immunother.Cancer_11_
Author(s) : Zhao T , Liu S , Hanna NH , Jalal S , Ding X , Wan J , Yan C , Du H
Ref : J Immunother Cancer , 11 : , 2023
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a heterogeneous population of cells in tumor microenvironment, which suppress antitumor immunity. Expansion of various MDSC subpopulations is closely associated with poor clinical outcomes in cancer. Lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) is a key enzyme in the metabolic pathway of neutral lipids, whose deficiency (LAL-D) in mice induces the differentiation of myeloid lineage cells into MDSCs. These Lal (-/-) MDSCs not only suppress immune surveillance but also stimulate cancer cell proliferation and invasion. Understanding and elucidating the underlying mechanisms of MDSCs biogenesis will help to facilitate diagnosis/prognosis of cancer occurrence and prevent cancer growth and spreading. METHODS: Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) was performed to distinguish intrinsic molecular and cellular differences between normal versus Lal (-/-) bone marrow-derived Ly6G(+) myeloid populations in mice. In humans, LAL expression and metabolic pathways in various myeloid subsets of blood samples of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were assessed by flow cytometry. The profiles of myeloid subsets were compared in patients with NSCLC before and after the treatment of programmed death-1 (PD-1) immunotherapy. RESULTS: scRNA-seq of Lal (-/-) CD11b(+)Ly6G(+) MDSCs identified two distinctive clusters with differential gene expression patterns and revealed a major metabolic shift towards glucose utilization and reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction. Blocking pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) in glycolysis reversed Lal (-/-) MDSCs' capabilities of immunosuppression and tumor growth stimulation and reduced ROS overproduction. In the blood samples of human patients with NSCLC, LAL expression was significantly decreased in CD13(+)/CD14(+)/CD15(+)/CD33(+) myeloid cell subsets. Further analysis in the blood of patients with NSCLC revealed an expansion of CD13(+)/CD14(+)/CD15(+) myeloid cell subsets, accompanied by upregulation of glucose-related and glutamine-related metabolic enzymes. Pharmacological inhibition of the LAL activity in the blood cells of healthy participants increased the numbers of CD13(+) and CD14(+) myeloid cell subsets. PD-1 checkpoint inhibitor treatment in patients with NSCLC reversed the increased number of CD13(+) and CD14(+) myeloid cell subsets and PDH levels in CD13(+) myeloid cells. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that LAL and the associated expansion of MDSCs could serve as targets and biomarkers for anticancer immunotherapy in humans.
ESTHER : Zhao_2023_J.Immunother.Cancer_11_
PubMedSearch : Zhao_2023_J.Immunother.Cancer_11_
PubMedID: 36914206
Gene_locus related to this paper: mouse-1llip

Title : Risk of resistance and the metabolic resistance mechanism of Laodelphax striatellus (Falln) to cyantraniliprole - Li_2023_Pestic.Biochem.Physiol_197_105685
Author(s) : Li Z , Wang X , Guo L , Yin T , Liu D , Liu S , You X , Xia X
Ref : Pestic Biochem Physiol , 197 :105685 , 2023
Abstract : Cyantraniliprole is a highly effective diamide insecticide used to control of Laodelphax striatellus (Fallen). This study aimed to assess the insecticide resistance risk of L. striatellus and its metabolic resistance mechanisms. After 25 continuous generations of selection, the resistance of L. striatellus to cyantraniliprole increased by 17.14-fold. The realistic heritability of resistance was 0.0751. After successive rearing for five generations without exposure to insecticides, the resistance ratio for the resistant strain of L. striatellus decreased by 3.47-fold, and the average resistance decline rate per generation was 0.0266. Cyantraniliprole-resistant strains did not exhibit cross-resistance to triflumezopyrim, pymetrozine, flonicamid, sulfoxaflor, dinotefuran, clothianidin, thiamethoxam, nitenpyram, or imidacloprid. Compared to those of the sensitive strain, the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th instars, nymphal stage durations, total preoviposition period, and average generation time of the resistant strain were markedly reduced. Furthermore, the activity of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450) and carboxylesterase (CarE) were markedly increased. The upregulation of CYP419A1v2 expression was most evident among the P450 genes, with a 6.10-fold increase relative to that in the sensitive strain. The CarE gene LsCarE5 was significantly upregulated by 1.94-fold compared with that in the sensitive strain. With the continuous use of cyantraniliprole, L. striatellus may develop resistance to this insecticide. This resistance may be related to the increase in metabolic enzyme activities regulated by the overexpression of P450 and CarE genes.
ESTHER : Li_2023_Pestic.Biochem.Physiol_197_105685
PubMedSearch : Li_2023_Pestic.Biochem.Physiol_197_105685
PubMedID: 38072542

Title : A retrospective screening method for carbamate toxicant exposure based on butyrylcholinesterase adducts in human plasma with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry - Ren_2023_J.Chromatogr.B.Analyt.Technol.Biomed.Life.Sci_1225_123775
Author(s) : Ren Z , Chen B , Liang D , Liu D , Lei W , Liu S
Ref : Journal of Chromatography B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sciences , 1225 :123775 , 2023
Abstract : Carbamate pesticides are extensively used in agriculture for their inhibition to acetylcholinesterase and damages to the insects' neural systems. Because of their toxicity, human poisoning incidents caused by carbamate pesticide exposure have occurred from time to time. What's more, some lethally toxic carbamate toxicants known as carbamate nerve agents (CMNAs) have been supplemented in Schedule 1 of the Annex on Chemicals in the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) by Organisation of the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) from 2020. And some other carbamates, like physostigmine, have been used in clinical treatment as anticholinergic drugs and their misuse may also cause damages to the body. Similar to organophosphorus toxicants, carbamate toxicants would react with butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) in plasma when entering the human body, resulting in the BChE adducts, based on which the exposure of carbamate toxicants could be detected retrospectively. In this study, methylcarbamyl nonapeptide and dimethylcarbamyl nonapeptide from pepsin digestion of BChE adducts were identified with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) in product ion scan mode. Carbofuran was chosen as the target to establish the detection method of carbamate toxicant exposure based on methylcarbamyl nonapeptide digested from methylcarbamyl BChE. Procainamide-gel affinity purification, pepsin digestion and UHPLC-MS/MS analysis in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode were applied. Under the optimized conditions of sample preparation and UHPLC-MS/MS MRM analysis, the limits of detection (LODs) reached 10.0 ng/mL of plasma exposed to carbofuran with satisfactory specificity. The quantitation approach was established with d(3)-carbofuran-exposed plasma as the internal standard (IS) and the linearity range was 30.0-1.00 x 10(3) nmol/L (R(2) >0.998) with the accuracy of 95.6%-107% and precision of >=9% relative standard deviation (RSD). The applicability was also evaluated by N,N-dimethyl-carbamates with the LODs of 30.0 nmol/L for pirimicarb-exposed plasma based on dimethylcarbamyl nonapeptide. Because most of carbamate toxicants has methylcarbamyl or dimethylcarbamyl groups, this approach could be applied on the retrospective screening of carbamate toxicant exposure including CMNAs, carbamate pesticides or carbamate drugs. This study could provide an effective means in the fields of CWC verification, toxicological mechanism investigation and down-selection of potential treatment options.
ESTHER : Ren_2023_J.Chromatogr.B.Analyt.Technol.Biomed.Life.Sci_1225_123775
PubMedSearch : Ren_2023_J.Chromatogr.B.Analyt.Technol.Biomed.Life.Sci_1225_123775
PubMedID: 37285767

Title : Network pharmacology combined with an animal model to reveal the material basis and mechanism of Amomum villosum in alleviating constipation in mice - Liu_2023_Gene_897_148064
Author(s) : Liu S , Zhao Y , Li S , Li Y , Liu L , Sheng J , Tian Y , Gao X
Ref : Gene , 897 :148064 , 2023
Abstract : Constipation is a prevalent gastrointestinal disorder, with its prevalence showing an annual upward trend. There are many factors involved in the occurrence of constipation, such as abnormal smooth muscle contraction and disorders of gastrointestinal hormone secretion. Amomum villosum (A. villosum) has been proven to be effective in improving digestive system diseases, but there is no report on improving constipation. Therefore, we used network pharmacology prediction combined with animal experiments to explore the key active components of A. villosum and their pharmacological mechanisms. The results of network pharmacological prediction showed that beta-sitosterol was the key laxative compound of A. villosum, which may play a laxative role by activating the adrenoceptor alpha 1 A-myosin light chain (ADRA1A-MLC) pathway. Further animal experiments showed that beta-sitosterol could significantly shorten the time to first black stool; increase faecal weight, faecal number, and faecal water content; and promote gastrointestinal motility. beta-sitosterol may promote intestinal motility by upregulating the expression of ADRA1A and myosin light chain 9 (Myl9) mRNA and protein in the colon, thereby activating the ADRA1A-MLC signalling pathway. In addition, it is possible to improve constipation symptoms by regulating serum neurotransmitters and gastrointestinal motility-related factors, such as the serum content of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and acetylcholinesterase (AchE) and the mRNA expression of 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 4 (5-HT4), stem cell factor (SCF), stem cell factor receptor (c-Kit) and smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase (smMLCK) in the colon. These results lay a foundation for the application of A. villosum and beta-sitosterol in constipation.
ESTHER : Liu_2023_Gene_897_148064
PubMedSearch : Liu_2023_Gene_897_148064
PubMedID: 38065427

Title : The physiological, biochemical and transcriptional responses to sulfamethoxazole in the Asian clam, Corbicula fluminea (O. F. Muller, 1774) - Liu_2022_Comp.Biochem.Physiol.C.Toxicol.Pharmacol_260_109406
Author(s) : Liu S , Zhao H , Zheng M , Wang H , Jing C , Zhang W , Hu F
Ref : Comparative Biochemistry & Physiology C Toxicol Pharmacol , 260 :109406 , 2022
Abstract : Sulfamethoxazole (SMX), a broad-spectrum antibiotic, has been widely used in the treatment and prevention of infection caused by bacteria in recent years. The present study was aimed to evaluate the response mechanisms to SMX stress in gills and digestive gland of Corbicula fluminea (O. F. Mller, 1774). To this end, clams were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of SMX (0, 1, 10 and 100 microg/L) for 7 and 28 days, and siphon behavior, tissue-specific enzymatic and transcriptional changes were assayed. Our results showed that exposure to SMX significantly suppressed filtration rate and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, activated antioxidant defense system and elevated transcription of several genes related to cell apoptosis in gills and digestive gland of clams. In general, SMX at environmentally relevant concentrations exhibited a negative impact on siphon behavior and induced neurotoxicology, oxidative stress and cell apoptosis in C. fluminea. The current study will help broaden our understanding of the ecotoxicity of SMX on freshwater bivalves.
ESTHER : Liu_2022_Comp.Biochem.Physiol.C.Toxicol.Pharmacol_260_109406
PubMedSearch : Liu_2022_Comp.Biochem.Physiol.C.Toxicol.Pharmacol_260_109406
PubMedID: 35793736

Title : Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf aqueous extract ameliorates loperamide-induced constipation in mice by promoting gastrointestinal motility and regulating the gut microbiota - Gao_2022_Front.Microbiol_13_1017804
Author(s) : Gao X , Hu Y , Tao Y , Liu S , Chen H , Li J , Zhao Y , Sheng J , Tian Y , Fan Y
Ref : Front Microbiol , 13 :1017804 , 2022
Abstract : Slow transit constipation (STC) is the most common type of functional constipation. Drugs with good effects and few side effects are urgently needed form the treatment of STC. Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf (CC) is an important medicinal and edible spice plant. The wide range of biological activities suggested that CC may have laxative effects, but thus far, it has not been reported. In this study, the loperamide-induced STC mouse model was used to evaluate the laxative effect of the aqueous extract of CC (CCAE), and the laxative mechanism was systematically explored from the perspectives of the enteric nervous system (ENS), neurotransmitter secretion, gastrointestinal motility factors, intestinal inflammation, gut barrier and gut microbiota. The results showed that CCAE not only decreased the serum vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), induced nitric oxide synthases (iNOS), and acetylcholinesterase (AchE) in STC mice but also increased the expression of gastrointestinal motility factors in colonic interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs), thereby significantly shortening the defecation time and improving the gastrointestinal transit rate. The significantly affected gastrointestinal motility factors included stem cell factor receptor (c-Kit), stem cell factor (SCF), anoctamin 1 (Ano1), ryanodine receptor 3 (RyR3), smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase (smMLCK) and Connexin 43 (Cx43). Meanwhile, CCAE could repair loperamide-induced intestinal inflammation and intestinal barrier damage by reducing the expression of the pro-inflammatory factor IL-1beta and increasing the expression of the anti-inflammatory factor IL-10, chemical barrier (Muc-2) and mechanical barrier (Cldn4, Cldn12, Occludin, ZO-1, and ZO-2). Interestingly, CCAE could also partially restore loperamide-induced gut microbial dysbiosis in various aspects, such as microbial diversity, community structure and species composition. Importantly, we established a complex but clear network between gut microbiota and host parameters. Muribaculaceae, Lachnospiraceae and UCG-010 showed the most interesting associations with the laxative phenotypes; several other specific taxa showed significant associations with serum neurotransmitters, gastrointestinal motility factors, intestinal inflammation, and the gut barrier. These findings suggested that CCAE might promote intestinal motility by modulating the ENS-ICCs-SMCs network, intestinal inflammation, intestinal barrier and gut microbiota. CC may be an effective and safe therapeutic choice for STC.
ESTHER : Gao_2022_Front.Microbiol_13_1017804
PubMedSearch : Gao_2022_Front.Microbiol_13_1017804
PubMedID: 36267178

Title : Transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses reveal the antifungal mechanism of the compound phenazine-1-carboxamide on Rhizoctonia solani AG1IA - Zhang_2022_Front.Plant.Sci_13_1041733
Author(s) : Zhang Y , Li Q , Wang C , Liu S
Ref : Front Plant Sci , 13 :1041733 , 2022
Abstract : To explore the molecular mechanisms of the antifungal compound phenazine-1-carboxamide (PCN) inhibits Rhizoctonia solani and discover potential targets of action, we performed an integrated analysis of transcriptome and metabolome in R. solani mycelium by whether PCN treating or not. A total of 511 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between the PCN treatment and control groups. The fluorescence-based quantitative PCR (qPCR) got the accordant results of the gene expression trends for ten randomly selected DEGs. The Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis revealed that fatty acid metabolic process, fatty acid oxidation, and lipid oxidation were among the most enriched in the biological process category, while integral component of membrane, plasma membrane, and extracellular region were among the most enriched in the cellular component category and oxidoreductase activity, cofactor binding, and coenzyme binding were among the most enriched in the molecular function category. KEGG enrichment analysis revealed the most prominently enriched metabolic pathways included ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, nitrogen metabolism, aminobenzoate degradation. The DEGs related functions of cellular structures, cell membrane functions, cellular nutrition, vacuole-mitochondrion membrane contact site and ATPase activity, pH, anti-oxidation, were downregulated. A total of 466 differential metabolites were found between the PCN treatment and control groups after PCN treatment. KEGG enrichment found purine, arachidonic acid, and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathways were mainly affected. Further results proved PCN decreased the mycelial biomass and protein content of R. solani, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity reduced while peroxidase (POD) and cytochrome P450 activities increased. The molecule docking indicted that NADPH nitrite reductase, ATP-binding cassette transporter, alpha/beta hydrolase family domain-containing protein, and NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase maybe the particular target of PCN. In conclusion, the mechanisms via which PCN inhibits R. solani AG1IA may be related to cell wall damage, cell membrane impairment, intracellular nutrient imbalance, disturbed antioxidant system, and altered intracellular pH, which laid foundation for the further new compound designing to improve antifungal efficacy.
ESTHER : Zhang_2022_Front.Plant.Sci_13_1041733
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2022_Front.Plant.Sci_13_1041733
PubMedID: 36483956

Title : Fosthiazate exposure induces oxidative stress, nerve damage, and reproductive disorders in nontarget nematodes - Liu_2022_Environ.Sci.Pollut.Res.Int_30_12522
Author(s) : Liu S , Wu Q , Zhong Y , He Z , Wang Z , Li R , Wang M
Ref : Environ Sci Pollut Res Int , 30 :12522 , 2022
Abstract : As a forceful nematicide, fosthiazate has been largely applied in the management of root-knot nematodes and other herbivorous nematodes. However, the toxicity of fosthiazate to nontarget nematodes is unclear. To explore the toxicity and the mechanisms of fosthiazate in nontarget nematodes, Caenorhabditis elegans was exposed to 0.01-10 mg/L fosthiazate. The results implied that treatment with fosthiazate at doses above 0.01 mg/L could cause injury to the growth, locomotion behavior, and reproduction of the nematodes. Moreover, L1 larvae were more vulnerable to fosthiazate exposure than L4 larvae. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and lipofuscin accumulation were fairly increased in 1 mg/L fosthiazate-exposed nematodes. Treatment with 0.1 mg/L fosthiazate significantly inhibited the activity of acetylcholinesterase (p < 0.01). Furthermore, subacute exposure to 10 mg/L fosthiazate strongly influenced the expression of genes related to oxidative stress, reproduction, and nerve function (e.g., gst-1, sod-1, puf-8, wee-1.3, and ace-1 genes). These findings suggested that oxidative stress, reproduction and nerve disorders could serve as key endpoints of toxicity induced by fosthiazate. The cyp-35a family gene was the main metabolic fosthiazate in C. elegans, and the cyp-35a5 subtype was the most sensitive, with a change in expression level of 2.11-fold compared with the control. These results indicate that oxidative stress and neurological and reproductive disorders played fundamental roles in the toxicity of fosthiazate in C. elegans and may affect the abundance and function of soil nematodes.
ESTHER : Liu_2022_Environ.Sci.Pollut.Res.Int_30_12522
PubMedSearch : Liu_2022_Environ.Sci.Pollut.Res.Int_30_12522
PubMedID: 36112285

Title : Lysosomal acid lipase, CSF1R and PD-L1 determine functions of CD11c+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells - Zhao_2022_JCI.Insight__
Author(s) : Zhao T , Liu S , Ding X , Johnson EM , Hanna NH , Singh K , Sen CK , Wan J , Du H , Yan C
Ref : JCI Insight , : , 2022
Abstract : Lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) is a key enzyme in the metabolic pathway of neutral lipids. In the blood of LAL deficient (lal-/-) mice, increased CD11c+ cells were accompanied by up-regulated PD-L1 expression. Single cell RNA sequencing of lal-/- CD11c+ cells identified two distinctive clusters with a major metabolic shift towards glucose utilization and reactive oxygen species (ROS) over-production. Pharmacologically blocking pyruvate dehydrogenase in glycolysis not only reduced CD11c+ cells and their PD-L1 expression, but also reversed their capabilities of T cell suppression and tumor growth stimulation. Colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) plays an essential role in controlling lal-/- CD11c+ cell homeostasis and function and PD-L1 expression. Inhibition of LAL activity by pharmacological inhibitor increased CD11c, PD-L1 and CSF1R levels in both normal murine myeloid cells and human blood cells. Tumor-bearing mice and human non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients also showed CD11c+ cell expansion with PD-L1 and CSF1R up-regulation and immunosuppression. There were positive correlations among CD11c, PD-L1 and CSF1R expression and negative correlations with LAL expression in lung cancer and melanoma patients using the TCGA database and patient samples. Therefore, CD11c+ cells switched their functions to immune suppression and tumor growth stimulation through CSF1R/PD-L1 upregulation and metabolic reprogramming.
ESTHER : Zhao_2022_JCI.Insight__
PubMedSearch : Zhao_2022_JCI.Insight__
PubMedID: 35917184

Title : Highly Selective Detection of Paraoxon in Food Based on the Platform of Cu Nanocluster\/MnO(2) Nanosheets - Liu_2022_Nanomaterials.(Basel)_12_
Author(s) : Liu S , Zhang P , Miao Y , Li C , Shi YE , Liu J , Lv YK , Wang Z
Ref : Nanomaterials (Basel) , 12 : , 2022
Abstract : Selective and sensitive identification of paraoxon residue in agricultural products is greatly significant for food safety but remains a challenging task. Herein, a detection platform was developed by integrating Cu nanoclusters (Cu NCs) with MnO(2) nanosheets, where the fluorescence of Cu NCs was effectively quenched. Upon introducing butyrylcholinesterase and butyrylcholine into the system, their hydrolysate, thiocholine, leads to the decomposition of the platform through a reaction between the MnO(2) nanosheets and thiol groups on thiocholine. The electron-rich groups on thiocholine can further promote the fluorescence intensity of Cu NCs through host-guest interactions. Adding paraoxon results in the failure of fluorescence recovery and further promotion, which could be utilized for the quantitative detection of paraoxon, and a limit of detection as low as 0.22 ng/mL can be achieved. The detection platform shows strong tolerance to common interference species, which endows its applications for the detection of paraoxon in vegetables and fruit. These presented results not only open a new door for the functionalization of metal nanoclusters but also offer an inspiring strategy for analytic techniques in nanomedicine and environmental science.
ESTHER : Liu_2022_Nanomaterials.(Basel)_12_
PubMedSearch : Liu_2022_Nanomaterials.(Basel)_12_
PubMedID: 35564138

Title : Sensitive detection of organophosphorus pesticides based on the localized surface plasmon resonance and fluorescence dual-signal readout - Wang_2022_Anal.Chim.Acta_1235_340536
Author(s) : Wang K , Li Q , Wang Y , Wu Y , Liu Z , Liu S
Ref : Anal Chim Acta , 1235 :340536 , 2022
Abstract : In this work, a dual-signal visual biosensor was designed for organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) detection using DNA functionalized Ag/Au bimetallic nanoparticles (Ag/Au NPs) as multifunctional nanoprobe. The dual-signal detection strategy was based on the inhibition of enzyme-induced H(2)O(2) generation by OPs in the detection solution containing acetylcholinesterase (AChE), choline oxidase (CHO), acetylcholine (ACh) and nanoprobe. H(2)O(2) produced by enzyme-catalyzed reaction could trigger the etching of Ag and dissociation of carboxyfluorescein (FAM)-labeled aptamer from the nanoprobe, resulting in significant localized surface plasmon resonance (LPRR) and fluorescence (FL) signal responses. In the presence of OPs, AChE activity was inhibited to disrupt the enzymatic generation of H(2)O(2), which allowed to simultaneous quantitative measure OPs through the LSPR peak shifts and FL intensity variations of the nanoprobe. The LSPR/FL dual-signal biosensor showed great selectivity and sensitivity for OPs detection. In addition, two distinct colour changes were visually observed to match the LSPR/FL spectra signal responses, which was a feasible means for visual analysis of OPs. Consequently, the work provided a dual-signal visual biosensor via the combination of multifunctional nanoprobe, and had significant potential to monitor pesticide residue with high anti-interference capability and detection accuracy.
ESTHER : Wang_2022_Anal.Chim.Acta_1235_340536
PubMedSearch : Wang_2022_Anal.Chim.Acta_1235_340536
PubMedID: 36368824

Title : Transcriptomic Identification and Expression Profile Analysis of Odorant-Degrading Enzymes from the Asian Corn Borer Moth, Ostrinia furnacalis - Zhang_2022_Insects_13_
Author(s) : Zhang L , Shen Y , Jiang X , Liu S
Ref : Insects , 13 : , 2022
Abstract : The Asian corn borer moth Ostrinia furnacalis is an important lepidopteran pest of maize in Asia. Odorant-degrading enzymes (ODEs), including carboxylesterases (CCEs), glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), cytochrome P450s (CYPs), UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs), and aldehyde oxidases (AOXs), are responsible for rapid inactivation of odorant signals in the insect antennae. In this study, we performed a transcriptome assembly for the antennae of O. furnacalis to identify putative ODE genes. Transcriptome sequencing revealed 35,056 unigenes, and 21,012 (59.94%) of these were annotated by searching against the reference sequences in the NCBI non-redundant (NR) protein database. For functional classification, these unigenes were subjected to Gene Ontology (GO), Eukaryotic Orthologous Groups (KOG), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) annotations. We identified 79 genes encoding putative ODEs: 19 CCEs, 17 GSTs, 24 CYPs, 13 UGTs, and 6 AOXs. BLASTX best hit results indicated that these genes shared quite high amino acid identities with their respective orthologs from other lepidopteran species. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR showed that OfurCCE2, OfurCCE5, and OfurCCE18 were enriched in male antennae, while OfurCCE7 and OfurCCE10 were enriched in female antennae. OfurCCE14 and OfurCCE15 were expressed at near-equal amounts in the antennae of both sexes. Our findings establish a solid foundation for future studies aimed at understanding the olfactory functions of these genes in O. furnacalis.
ESTHER : Zhang_2022_Insects_13_
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2022_Insects_13_
PubMedID: 36354851

Title : Juniperus sabina L. as a Source of Podophyllotoxins: Extraction Optimization and Anticholinesterase Activities - Xu_2022_Int.J.Mol.Sci_23_
Author(s) : Xu S , Li X , Liu S , Tian P , Li D
Ref : Int J Mol Sci , 23 : , 2022
Abstract : Juniperus sabina L. (J. sabina) has been an important plant in traditional medicine since ancient times. Its needles are rich in podophyllotoxin, a precursor compound to anti-tumor drugs. However, no systematic research has been done on J. sabina as a source of podophyllotoxins or their biological action. Hence, extracts of podophyllotoxin and deoxypodophyllotoxin were the main optimization targets using the Box-Behnken design (BBD) and response surface methodology (RSM). The total phenol content and antioxidant activity of J. sabina needle extract were also optimized. Under the optimal process conditions (ratio of material to liquid (RLM) 1:40, 90% methanol, and ultrasonic time 7 min), the podophyllotoxin extraction rate was 7.51 mg/g DW, the highest level reported for Juniperus spp. distributed in China. To evaluate its biological potential, the neuroprotective acetyl- and butyrylcholinease (AChE and BChE) inhibitory abilities were tested. The needle extract exhibited significant anti-butyrylcholinesterase activity (520.15 mg GALE/g extract), which correlated well with the high levels of podophyllotoxin and deoxypodophyllotoxin. This study shows the potential medicinal value of J. sabina needles.
ESTHER : Xu_2022_Int.J.Mol.Sci_23_
PubMedSearch : Xu_2022_Int.J.Mol.Sci_23_
PubMedID: 36142118

Title : Pisa syndrome in dementia with Lewy bodies: A Chinese multicenter study - Su_2022_Parkinsonism.Relat.Disord_103_50
Author(s) : Su Z , Liu S , Chen G , Gan J , Bao X , Zhu H , Wang X , Wu H , Ji Y
Ref : Parkinsonism Relat Disord , 103 :50 , 2022
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Pisa syndrome (PS) is rarely reported in Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). The aim of this article is to investigate the prevalence rate of PS and the correlation with clinical features evaluated in patients with DLB. METHODS: A total of 209 DLB patients were consecutively recruited and underwent standardized clinical evaluation in our multicenter study. The associations between PS and clinical factors were evaluated. RESULTS: The prevalence rate of PS in patients with DLB was 15.3%, which was higher in the moderate and severe stages than mild cognitive impairment and mild stages (81.2% vs. 18.8%). Patients with PS had a longer duration of disease (P = 0.020) and parkinsonism (P = 0.003), higher scores of NPI (P = 0.028), ADL (P = 0.002) and UPDRS part III (P < 0.001), lower scores of clock drawing test (P = 0.009), visuospatial/executive abilities (P = 0.018), attention (P = 0.020), language and praxis (P = 0.020), registration (P = 0.012), greater H&Y stage (P < 0.001), and higher proportion of cholinesterase inhibitors used (P = 0.044) than those without PS. Longer disease duration (OR = 1.166, P = 0.023), presence of parkinsonism (OR = 7.971, P = 0.007), moderate and severe dementia (OR = 3.215, P = 0.021) were associated with the presence of PS. Patients had a longer duration of PS (P = 0.014) and lower mean age of onset (P = 0.040) in the group with severe lateral trunk flexion. CONCLUSION: The development of PS may be associated with longer disease duration, the presence of parkinsonism and severe stages of dementia in DLB. Cholinesterase inhibitors may have a correlation with PS. The severity of lateral flexion is related to the duration of PS and mean age of onset.
ESTHER : Su_2022_Parkinsonism.Relat.Disord_103_50
PubMedSearch : Su_2022_Parkinsonism.Relat.Disord_103_50
PubMedID: 36041278

Title : Nuclear access of DNlg3 c-terminal fragment and its function in regulating innate immune response genes - Xie_2022_Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun_641_93
Author(s) : Xie H , Liu S , Fu Y , Cheng Q , Wang P , Bi CL , Wang R , Chen MM , Fang M
Ref : Biochemical & Biophysical Research Communications , 641 :93 , 2022
Abstract : Neuroligins (NLGNs) are one of the autism susceptibility genes, however, the mechanism that how dysfunction of NLGNs leads to Autism remains unclear. More and more studies have shown that the transcriptome alteration may be one of the important factors to generate Autism. Therefore, we are very concerned about whether Neuroligins would affect transcriptional regulation, which may at last lead to Autism. As a single-transmembrane receptor, proteolytic cleavage is one of the most important posttranslational modifications of NLGN proteins. In this study, we demonstrated the existence of DNlg3 C-terminal fragment. Studies in the S2 cells and HEK293T cells showed the evidence for nuclear access of the DNlg3 C-terminal fragment. Then we identified the possible targets of DNlg3 C-terminal fragment after its nuclear access by RNA-seq. The bioinformatics analysis indicated the transcriptome alteration between dnlg3 null flies and wild type flies focused on genes for the innate immune responses. These results were consistent with the infection hypotheses for autism. Our study revealed the nuclear access ability of DNlg3 c-terminal fragment and its possible function in transcriptional regulation of the innate immune response genes. This work provides the new links between synaptic adhesion molecule NLGNs and immune activation, which may help us to get a deeper understanding on the relationship between NLGNs and Autism.
ESTHER : Xie_2022_Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun_641_93
PubMedSearch : Xie_2022_Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun_641_93
PubMedID: 36525929

Title : Simultaneous CSM-TACE with CalliSpheres() and partial splenic embolization using 8spheres() for hepatocellular carcinoma with hypersplenism: Early prospective multicenter clinical outcome - Zhou_2022_Front.Oncol_12_998500
Author(s) : Zhou J , Feng Z , Liu S , Li X , Liu Y , Gao F , Shen J , Zhang YW , Zhao GS , Zhang M
Ref : Front Oncol , 12 :998500 , 2022
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Primary hepatocellular carcinoma is often complicated with hepatitis and liver cirrhosis. Some patients develop different degrees of splenomegaly, hypersplenism and hypohepatia due to the aggravation of liver cirrhosis, which to some extent interfere with the treatment of tumors and even affect the prognosis of patients. In this study, we prospectively evaluate the efficacy and safety of simultaneous CalliSpheres((a)) microspheres transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (CSM-TACE) and partial splenic embolization (PSE) using 8spheres((a)) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with hypersplenism. METHODS: Ninety consecutive HCC patients with hypersplenism who underwent CSM-TACE were selected: 32 patients in CSM-TACE+PSE group, and 58 patients in CSM-TACE group. The peripheral blood cell counts (leukocyte, platelet (PLT), liver function and red blood cell (RBC)), CSM-TACE and/or PSE related complications, and the tumor control rate at 1 month after CSM-TACE were compared. The survival time and prognostic factors were also observed. RESULTS: Before CSM-TACE, there were no significant differences in sex, age, Child-Pugh grade, tumor size, and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) between the two groups. After CSM-TACE, the PLT and white blood cell (WBC) counts in CSM-TACE+PSE group were significantly higher than those in the CSM-TACE group (P<0.05). There were no significant differences in RBC before and after treatment (P > 0.05). In the CSM-TACE group, there were no significant differences in WBC, PLT, and RBC before and after treatment (P > 0.05). There was no significant difference in liver function at 1 month after treatment between the two groups. The cholinesterase (CHE) level in the CSM-TACE+PSE group after CSM-TACE+PSE was obviously higher than that before CSM-TACE+PSE and higher than that in the CSM-TACE group (P<0.05). However, the level of CHE returned to the preoperative level 1 month after CSM-TACE in the CSM-TACE group. The objective response rate (ORR) and median overall survival (OS) in the CSM-TACE+PSE group were higher than those in the CSM-TACE group (P<0.05). The adverse reactions of the two groups were fever, abdominal pain, stomach discomfort, nausea, and vomiting, and no serious complications occurred. The degree of abdominal pain and fever in the experimental group was lower than that in the control group (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Simultaneous CSM-TACE and PSE using domestic embolization particles for HCC with hypersplenism have good safety and efficacy and has a low incidence of PSE-related adverse events, it is conducive to improving liver function reserve, and can further improve the median OS.
ESTHER : Zhou_2022_Front.Oncol_12_998500
PubMedSearch : Zhou_2022_Front.Oncol_12_998500
PubMedID: 36530976

Title : Hesperidin methyl chalcone ameliorates lipid metabolic disorders by activating lipase activity and increasing energy metabolism - Liu_2022_Biochim.Biophys.Acta.Mol.Basis.Dis__166620
Author(s) : Liu S , Liu K , Wang Y , Wu C , Xiao Y , Yu J , Ma Z , Liang H , Li X , Li Y , Zhou L
Ref : Biochimica & Biophysica Acta Mol Basis Dis , :166620 , 2022
Abstract : Obesity has become an increasingly serious health issue with the continuous improvement in living standards. Its prevalence has become an economic burden on health care systems worldwide. Flavonoids have been shown to be beneficial in the prevention and treatment of obesity. Here, we evaluated the therapeutic potential of the flavonoid hesperidin methyl chalcone (HMC) on mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hepatic steatosis in vivo and in vitro. Treatment with HMC reduced oleic and palmitic acid-induced increases in intracellular triglyceride accumulation in HepG2, AML12 and LMH cells. HMC also enhanced energy metabolism and lowered oxidative stress. We used Discovery studio to dock key proteins associated with lipid metabolism disorders to HMC, and found that HMC interacted with lipase. Furthermore, we demonstrated that HMC improved lipase activity and lipolysis. In addition, we found that HMC promoted glucose absorption, alleviated lipid metabolic disorders, improved HFD-induced liver injury, and regulated HFD-induced changes in energy metabolism. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that HMC ameliorated HFD-induced obesity and its complications by promoting lipase activity, and provides a novel approach for the prevention and treatment of obesity and related diseases.
ESTHER : Liu_2022_Biochim.Biophys.Acta.Mol.Basis.Dis__166620
PubMedSearch : Liu_2022_Biochim.Biophys.Acta.Mol.Basis.Dis__166620
PubMedID: 36494040

Title : Insecticidal Activity of a Component, (-)-4-Terpineol, Isolated from the Essential Oil of Artemisia lavandulaefolia DC. against Plutella xylostella (L.) - Huang_2022_Insects_13_
Author(s) : Huang X , Du L , Liu T , Ma R , Liu X , Yuan H , Liu S
Ref : Insects , 13 : , 2022
Abstract : Plutella xylostella (L.) is one of the most serious pests of cruciferous vegetables. Our previous work demonstrated that the essential oil of Artemisia lavandulaefolia DC. exhibits promising insecticidal activities against P. xylostella. This study further characterizes the key components that are responsible for the insecticidal effect. In total, 47 compounds (96.52% of the total compounds) were identified from the total oil using GC-MS, and the major compounds were eucalyptol (21.57%), D(+)-camphor (17.33%), (-)-4-terpineol (9.96%) and caryophyllene oxide (10.96%). Among them, (-)-4-terpineol showed significantly larvicidal and fumigant activities against P. xylostella. The LD(50) of (-)-4-terpineol was 43.15 mg/mL at 12 h and 31.22 mg/mL at 24 h for 3rd instar larvae, and the LC(50) for adults was 8.34 mg/mL at 12 h and 7.35 mg/mL at 24 h. In addition, the adults treated with (-)-4-terpineol showed varying degrees of inhibitory activity toward glutathione S-transferase, catalase, acetylcholinesterase and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase at different post-treatment intervals and concentrations. The results indicate that (-)-4-terpineol has promising insecticidal activities against P. xylostella, and it has good inhibitory effects on the four enzymes of P. xylostella adults.
ESTHER : Huang_2022_Insects_13_
PubMedSearch : Huang_2022_Insects_13_
PubMedID: 36555036

Title : Lipase induced highly hydrophobic nanofibrillated cellulose film for strain sensor application - Wang_2022_Carbohydr.Polym_284_119193
Author(s) : Wang Y , Wang Q , Liu S , Ji X , Yang G , Chen J
Ref : Carbohydr Polym , 284 :119193 , 2022
Abstract : An environmental-friendly lipase induced highly hydrophobic NFC film was fabricated through lipase induced dimethyl adipate (DA) esterification followed by silver nanowires (AgNWs) coating for strain sensor application. Due to the lipase activation, the substitution degree (DS(NMR)) of 0.18 was achieved, which was three times higher than that of the control sample (without lipase treatment of NFC-DA). As a result, the water contact angle (WCA) of lipase induced adipated-NFC film was reached to 105 +/- 3 degrees from 50 +/- 2.3 degrees of NFC-DA. In addition, the cellulose structure and performance were well maintained after lipase induced esterification, confirmed by AFM, SEM, TG/DTG, and XRD analysis. After AgNWs coating and annealing, the hydrophobic NFC film-based strain sensor exhibited excellent sensitivity towards human motion, such as finger/wrist movement in real-time, even under wet conditions. Overall, a highly hydrophobic NFC film-based strain sensor was fabricated, which has promising application in wearable devices for human motion monitoring.
ESTHER : Wang_2022_Carbohydr.Polym_284_119193
PubMedSearch : Wang_2022_Carbohydr.Polym_284_119193
PubMedID: 35287910

Title : FAM135B sustains the reservoir of Tip60-ATM assembly to promote DNA damage response - Zhang_2022_Clin.Transl.Med_12_e945
Author(s) : Zhang K , Wu Q , Liu W , Wang Y , Zhao L , Chen J , Liu H , Liu S , Li J , Zhang W , Zhan Q
Ref : Clin Transl Med , 12 :e945 , 2022
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Recently, the mechanism by which cells adapt to intrinsic and extrinsic stresses has received considerable attention. Tat-interactive protein 60-kDa/ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated (TIP60/ATM) axis-mediated DNA damage response (DDR) is vital for maintaining genomic integrity. METHODS: Protein levels were detected by western blot, protein colocalisation was examined by immunofluorescence (IF) and protein interactions were measured by co-immunoprecipitation, proximity ligation assay and GST pull-down assays. Flow cytometry, comet assay and IF assays were used to explore the biological functions of sequence similarity 135 family member B (FAM135B) in DDR. Xenograft tumour, FAM135B transgenic mouse models and immunohistochemistry were utilised to confirm in vitro observations. RESULTS: We identified a novel DDR regulator FAM135B which could protect cancer cells from genotoxic stress in vitro and in vivo. The overexpression of FAM135B promoted the removal of gammaH2AX and 53BP1 foci, whereas the elimination of FAM135B attenuated these effects. Consistently, our findings revealed that FAM135B could promote homologous recombination and non-homologous end-joining repairs. Further study demonstrated that FAM135B physically bound to the chromodomain of TIP60 and improved its histone acetyltransferase activity. Moreover, FAM135B enhanced the interactions between TIP60 and ATM under resting conditions. Intriguingly, the protein levels of FAM135B dramatically decreased following DNA damage stress but gradually increased during the DNA repair period. Thus, we proposed a potential DDR mechanism where FAM135B sustains a reservoir of pre-existing TIP60-ATM assemblies under resting conditions. Once cancer cells suffer DNA damage, FAM135B is released from TIP60, and the functioning pre-assembled TIP60-ATM complex participates in DDR. CONCLUSIONS: We characterised FAM135B as a novel DDR regulator and further elucidated the role of the TIP60-ATM axis in response to DNA damage, which suggests that targeting FAM135B in combination with radiation therapy or chemotherapy could be a potentially effective approach for cancer treatment.
ESTHER : Zhang_2022_Clin.Transl.Med_12_e945
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2022_Clin.Transl.Med_12_e945
PubMedID: 35979619
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-FAM135B

Title : Directed evolution of feruloyl esterase from Lactobacillus acidophilus and its application for ferulic acid production - Liu_2021_Bioresour.Technol_332_124967
Author(s) : Liu S , Soomro L , Wei X , Yuan X , Gu T , Li Z , Wang Y , Bao Y , Wang F , Wen B , Xin F
Ref : Bioresour Technol , 332 :124967 , 2021
Abstract : Producing ferulic acid (FA) from the natural substrate with feruloyl esterase is promising in industries, screening and engineering new enzymes with high efficiency to increase the FA yield is of great concern. Here, the feruloyl esterase of Lactobacillus acidophilus (FAELac) was heterologous expressed and the FAELac with different oligomerization states was separated. Interestingly, the activity of dimer was 37-fold higher than high-polymer. To further enhance the efficiency of FAELac, eight mutants were generated based on the simulated structure, of which Q198A, Q134T enhanced the catalytic efficiency by 5.4- and 4.3-fold in comparison with the wild type. Moreover, higher yields of FA (2.21, 6.60, and 1.67 mg/g substrate, respectively) were released by the mutants from de-starched wheat bran, insoluble wheat arabinoxylan, and steam-exploded corn stover. These results indicated that improving the purification process, engineering new FAELac and substrates bias studies hold great potential for increasing FA production yield.
ESTHER : Liu_2021_Bioresour.Technol_332_124967
PubMedSearch : Liu_2021_Bioresour.Technol_332_124967
PubMedID: 33845316
Gene_locus related to this paper: lacac-q5fi30

Title : Characterization of a novel lipase from Bacillus licheniformis NCU CS-5 for applications in detergent industry and biodegradation of 2,4-D butyl ester - Zhao_2021_Int.J.Biol.Macromol__
Author(s) : Zhao J , Liu S , Gao Y , Ma M , Yan X , Cheng D , Wan D , Zeng Z , Yu P , Gong D
Ref : Int J Biol Macromol , : , 2021
Abstract : Enzymatic degradation has become the most promising approach to degrading organic ester compounds. In this study, Bacillus licheniformis NCU CS-5 was isolated from the spoilage of Cinnamomum camphora seed kernel, and its extracellular lipase was purified, with a specific activity of 192.98 U/mg. The lipase was found to be a trimeric protein as it showed a single band of 27 kDa in SDS-PAGE and 81 kDa in Native-PAGE. It was active in a wide range of temperatures (5-55 degreesC) and pH values (6.0-9.0), and the optimal temperature and pH value were 40 degreesC and 8.0, respectively. The enzyme was active in the presence of various organic solvents, metal ions, inhibitors and surfactants. Both crude and purified lipase retained more than 80% activity after 5 h in the presence of commercial detergents, suggesting its great application potential in detergent industry. The highest activity was found to be towards medium- and long-chain fatty acids (C(6)-C(18)). Peptide mass spectrometric analysis of the purified lipase showed similarity to the lipase family of B. licheniformis. Furthermore, it degraded more than 90% 2,4-D butyl ester to its hydrolysate 2,4-D within 24 h, indicating that the novel lipase may be applied to degrade organic ester pesticides.
ESTHER : Zhao_2021_Int.J.Biol.Macromol__
PubMedSearch : Zhao_2021_Int.J.Biol.Macromol__
PubMedID: 33548313
Gene_locus related to this paper: bacld-q65hr4

Title : Activation of Tenofovir Alafenamide and Sofosbuvir in the Human Lung and Its Implications in the Development of Nucleoside\/Nucleotide Prodrugs for Treating SARS-CoV-2 Pulmonary Infection - Li_2021_Pharmaceutics_13_
Author(s) : Li J , Liu S , Shi J , Zhu HJ
Ref : Pharmaceutics , 13 : , 2021
Abstract : ProTide technology is a powerful tool for the design of nucleoside/nucleotide analog prodrugs. ProTide prodrug design improves cell permeability and enhances intracellular activation. The hydrolysis of the ester bond of a ProTide is a determinant of the intracellular activation efficiency and final antiviral efficacy of the prodrug. The hydrolysis is dictated by the catalytic activity and abundance of activating enzymes. The antiviral agents tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) and sofosbuvir (SBV) are typical ProTides. Both TAF and SBV have also been proposed to treat patients with COVID-19. However, the mechanisms underlying the activation of the two prodrugs in the lung remain inconclusive. In the present study, we profiled the catalytic activity of serine hydrolases in human lung S9 fractions using an activity-based protein profiling assay. We evaluated the hydrolysis of TAF and SBV using human lung and liver S9 fractions and purified enzymes. The results showed that CatA and CES1 were involved in the hydrolysis of the two prodrugs in the human lung. More specifically, CatA exhibited a nearly 4-fold higher hydrolytic activity towards TAF than SBV, whereas the CES1 activity on hydrolyzing TAF was slightly lower than that for SBV. Overall, TAF had a nearly 4-fold higher hydrolysis rate in human lung S9 than SBV. We further analyzed protein expression levels of CatA and CES1 in the human lung, liver, and primary cells of the two tissues using proteomics data extracted from the literature. The relative protein abundance of CatA to CES1 was considerably higher in the human lung and primary human airway epithelial cells than in the human liver and primary human hepatocytes. The findings demonstrated that the high susceptivity of TAF to CatA-mediated hydrolysis resulted in efficient TAF hydrolysis in the human lung, suggesting that CatA could be utilized as a target activating enzyme when designing antiviral ester prodrugs for the treatment of respiratory virus infection.
ESTHER : Li_2021_Pharmaceutics_13_
PubMedSearch : Li_2021_Pharmaceutics_13_
PubMedID: 34683949
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-CTSA

Title : Isoleucine increases muscle mass through promoting myogenesis and intramyocellular fat deposition - Liu_2021_Food.Funct_12_144
Author(s) : Liu S , Sun Y , Zhao R , Wang Y , Zhang W , Pang W
Ref : Food Funct , 12 :144 , 2021
Abstract : Isoleucine (Ile), as a branched-chain amino acid (BCAA), has a vital role in regulating body weight and muscle protein synthesis. However, the regulatory effect of Ile on muscle mass under high-fat diet (HFD) conditions and intramyocellular lipid deposition remains largely unclear. In this study, a feeding experiment with HFD with or without 25 g L-1 Ile was performed using 32 wild male C57BL/6J mice randomly divided into two groups. The results showed that Ile significantly increased both muscle and fat mass, as well as causing insulin resistance and meanwhile upregulating the levels of key adipogenic and myogenic proteins. More importantly, Ile damaged the mitochondrial function by vacuolation, swelling and cristae fracture in the gastrocnemius (GAS) and tibialis anterior (TA) with downregulation of mitochondrial function-related genes. Furthermore, Ile promoted myogenesis and more lipid droplet accumulation in myotubes. Compared with the control, the protein levels of myosin heavy chain (MyHC), myoblast determination protein 1 (MyoD), myogenin (MyoG), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARg) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) were upregulated in the Ile group, whereas the protein levels of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) were downregulated. Collectively, Ile increased muscle mass through myogenesis and intramyocellular lipid deposition. Our findings provide a new perspective for not only improving the lean juiciness of farm animals by increasing intramyocellular lipid accumulation, but also modulating myopathies under obesity.
ESTHER : Liu_2021_Food.Funct_12_144
PubMedSearch : Liu_2021_Food.Funct_12_144
PubMedID: 33289736

Title : Cloning, characterization of a novel acetyl xylan esterase, and its potential application on wheat straw utilization - Xu_2021_All.Life_14_622
Author(s) : Xu J , Zhao X , Yao Q , Zong W , Dai S , Deng Z , Liu S , Yun J , Yang X , Li H
Ref : All life , 14 :622 , 2021
Abstract : Acetyl xylan esterases are among the key enzymes in the xylan degradation enzyme system. However, acetyl xylan esterases from natural microorganisms have low expression and low enzyme activity and are impure. In this study, a new xylanase gene, est1051, from the metagenomic library, was expressed in the prokaryotic system. Its enzymatic properties were explored, including optimum temperature and pH, thermal and pH stability, and tolerance against organic solvents, metal ions and salt solutions. Then the fermentation conditions of EST1051 were optimized by the response surface method, and the maximum enzyme yield reached 1909.32 U/L. Finally, the synergism with cellulase on straw degradation was evaluated. EST1051 displays high homology with acetylxylan esterases in terms of amino acid sequences and conserved active sites. EST1051 shows high stability across a broad temperature range, and retains more than 60% of its enzymatic activity between 4 and 60C after 24 h of incubation. Single-factor analysis and orthogonal design were conducted to determine the optimal conditions for the maximizing the saccharification rate of wheat straws. Interestingly, the synergism of EST1051 with cellulase contributes to the efficient transformation of wheat straws. These findings may open the door to significant industrial applications of this novel acetylxylan esterase.
ESTHER : Xu_2021_All.Life_14_622
PubMedSearch : Xu_2021_All.Life_14_622
PubMedID:
Gene_locus related to this paper: 9bact-est1051

Title : Rational Design for Broadened Substrate Specificity and Enhanced Activity of a Novel Acetyl Xylan Esterase from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron - Wang_2021_J.Agric.Food.Chem_69_6665
Author(s) : Wang L , Han X , Wang Y , Wei X , Liu S , Shao S , Yang S , Sun L , Xin F
Ref : Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry , 69 :6665 , 2021
Abstract : Gut bacteria-derived enzymes play important roles in the metabolism of dietary fiber through enabling the hydrolysis of polysaccharides. In this study, we identified and characterized a 29 kDa novel acetyl xylan esterase, BTAxe1, from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron VPI5482. Then, we solved the structure of BTAxe1 and performed the rational design. Mutants N65S and N65A increased the activities toward short-chain (pNPA, pNPB) to near four-fold, and gained the activities toward longer-chain substrate (pNPO). Molecular docking analysis showed that the mutant N65S had a larger substrate binding pocket than the wild type. Hydrolysis studies using natural substrates showed that either N65S or N65A showed higher activity of that of wild-type, yielding 131.31 and 136.09 mM of acetic acid from xylan. This is the first study on the rational design of gut bacteria-derived Axes with broadened substrate specificity and enhanced activity, which can be referenced by other acetyl esterases or gut-derived enzymes.
ESTHER : Wang_2021_J.Agric.Food.Chem_69_6665
PubMedSearch : Wang_2021_J.Agric.Food.Chem_69_6665
PubMedID: 34074097
Gene_locus related to this paper: bacth-BT1008

Title : Role of endocannabinoid signaling in a septohabenular pathway in the regulation of anxiety- and depressive-like behavior - Vickstrom_2021_Mol.Psychiatry_26_3178
Author(s) : Vickstrom CR , Liu X , Liu S , Hu MM , Mu L , Hu Y , Yu H , Love SL , Hillard CJ , Liu QS
Ref : Mol Psychiatry , 26 :3178 , 2021
Abstract : Enhancing endocannabinoid signaling produces anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects, but the neural circuits involved remain poorly understood. The medial habenula (MHb) is a phylogenetically-conserved epithalamic structure that is a powerful modulator of anxiety- and depressive-like behavior. Here, we show that a robust endocannabinoid signaling system modulates synaptic transmission between the MHb and its sole identified GABA input, the medial septum and nucleus of the diagonal band (MSDB). With RNAscope in situ hybridization, we demonstrate that key enzymes that synthesize or degrade the endocannabinoids 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) or anandamide are expressed in the MHb and MSDB, and that cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) is expressed in the MSDB. Electrophysiological recordings in MHb neurons revealed that endogenously-released 2-AG retrogradely depresses GABA input from the MSDB. This endocannabinoid-mediated depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition (DSI) was limited by monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) but not by fatty acid amide hydrolase. Anatomic and optogenetic circuit mapping indicated that MSDB GABA neurons monosynaptically project to cholinergic neurons of the ventral MHb. To test the behavioral significance of this MSDB-MHb endocannabinoid signaling, we induced MSDB-specific knockout of CB1 or MAGL via injection of virally-delivered Cre recombinase into the MSDB of Cnr1(loxP/loxP) or Mgll(loxP/loxP) mice. Relative to control mice, MSDB-specific knockout of CB1 or MAGL bidirectionally modulated 2-AG signaling in the ventral MHb and led to opposing effects on anxiety- and depressive-like behavior. Thus, depression of synaptic GABA release in the MSDB-ventral MHb pathway may represent a potential mechanism whereby endocannabinoids exert anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects.
ESTHER : Vickstrom_2021_Mol.Psychiatry_26_3178
PubMedSearch : Vickstrom_2021_Mol.Psychiatry_26_3178
PubMedID: 33093652

Title : Recombinant expression and surface display of a zearalenone lactonohydrolase from Trichoderma aggressivum in Escherichia coli - Chen_2021_Protein.Expr.Purif_187_105933
Author(s) : Chen S , Pan L , Liu S , Li X , Wang B
Ref : Protein Expr Purif , 187 :105933 , 2021
Abstract : Zearalenone (ZEN), one of the most dangerous mycotoxins, causes enormous economic losses in the food and feed industries. To solve the problem of ZEN pollution, ZEN detoxifying enzymes are in emergent need. In this study, a zearalenone lactonohydrolase from Trichoderma aggressivum, denoted as ZHD-P, was heterologously expressed and characterized. The intracellular ZHD-P from E. coli BL21(DE3) exhibited high activity for ZEN degradation (191.94 U/mg), with the optimal temperature and pH of 45 degreesC and 7.5-9.0, respectively. With excellent temperature stability, the intracellular ZHD-P retained 100% activity when it was incubated at 25-40 degreesC for 1 h. Furthermore, we firstly constructed an E. coli cell surface display system for ZHD-P. The surface-displayed ZHD-P exhibited high activity against ZEN and showed optimal activity at 40 degreesC and pH 9.0. With superior pH stability, the surface-displayed ZHD-P retained 80% activity when it was incubated at pH 5.0-11.0 for 12 h. Interestingly, the metal ions tolerance of the surface-displayed ZHD-P was better than the intracellular form. Additionally, the surface-displayed ZHD-P could be reused four times with the residual enzyme activity of more than 50%. The biotoxicity assessment using P. phosphoreum T3 indicated that ZEN could be degraded into hypotoxic products by the intracellular or surface-displayed ZHD-P. ZHD-P could be feasible for ZEN detoxification.
ESTHER : Chen_2021_Protein.Expr.Purif_187_105933
PubMedSearch : Chen_2021_Protein.Expr.Purif_187_105933
PubMedID: 34273541

Title : Supplemental Choline Modulates Growth Performance and Gut Inflammation by Altering the Gut Microbiota and Lipid Metabolism in Weaned Piglets - Qiu_2021_J.Nutr_151_20
Author(s) : Qiu Y , Liu S , Hou L , Li K , Wang L , Gao K , Yang X , Jiang Z
Ref : J Nutr , 151 :20 , 2021
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Whether dietary choline and bile acids affect lipid use via gut microbiota is unclear. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the effect of choline and bile acids on growth performance, lipid use, intestinal immunology, gut microbiota, and bacterial metabolites in weaned piglets. METHODS: A total of 128 weaned piglets [Duroc x (Landrace x Yorkshire), 21-d-old, 8.21 +/- 0.20 kg body weight (BW)] were randomly allocated to 4 treatments (8 replicate pens per treatment, each pen containing 2 males and 2 females; n = 32 per treatment) for 28 d. Piglets were fed a control diet (CON) or the CON diet supplemented with 597 mg choline/kg (C), 500 mg bile acids/kg (BA) or both (C + BA) in a 2 x 2 factorial design. Growth performance, intestinal function, gut microbiota, and metabolites were determined. RESULTS: Compared with diets without choline, choline supplementation increased BW gain (6.13%), average daily gain (9.45%), gain per feed (8.18%), jejunal lipase activity (60.2%), and duodenal IL10 gene expression (51%), and decreased the mRNA abundance of duodenal TNFA (TNFalpha) (40.7%) and jejunal toll-like receptor 4 (32.9%) (P < 0.05); additionally, choline increased colonic butyrate (29.1%) and the abundance of Lactobacillus (42.3%), while decreasing the bile acid profile (55.8% to 57.6%) and the abundance of Parabacteroides (75.8%), Bacteroides (80.7%), and unidentified-Ruminococcaceae (32.5%) (P >= 0.05). Compared with diets without BA, BA supplementation decreased the mRNA abundance of colonic TNFA (37.4%), NF-kappaB p65 (42.4%), and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (42.5%) (P >= 0.01); BA also increased colonic butyrate (20.9%) and the abundance of Lactobacillus (39.7%) and Faecalibacterium (71.6%) and decreased that of Parabacteroides (67.7%) (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Choline supplementation improved growth performance and prevented gut inflammation in weaned piglets by altering gut microbiota and lipid metabolism. BA supplementation suppressed intestinal inflammation with no effect on growth performance, which was associated with changed gut microbiota and metabolites.
ESTHER : Qiu_2021_J.Nutr_151_20
PubMedSearch : Qiu_2021_J.Nutr_151_20
PubMedID: 33245135

Title : MiR-188-3p and miR-133b Suppress Cell Proliferation in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma via Post-Transcriptional Suppression of NDRG1 - Luo_2021_Technol.Cancer.Res.Treat_20_15330338211033074
Author(s) : Luo Z , Fan Y , Liu X , Liu S , Kong X , Ding Z , Li Y , Wei L
Ref : Technol Cancer Research Treat , 20 :15330338211033074 , 2021
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Previous studies reported that N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) was upregulated in various cancer tissues and decreased expression of miR-188-3p and miR-133b could suppress cell proliferation, metastasis, and invasion and induce apoptosis of cancer cells. However, the molecular mechanism of NRDG1 involved in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tumorigenesis is still unknown. METHODS: The expressions of miR-188-3p, miR-133b, and NRDG1 in HCC tissues and cells were quantified by qRT-PCR and Western blot. MTT assay and transwell invasion assay were performed to evaluate cell growth and cell migration, respectively. Luciferase reporter assay were performed to determine whether miR-188-3p and miR-133b could directly bind to NRDG1 in HCC cells. RESULTS: The results showed that NRDG1 was upregulated and these 2 microRNAs were downregulated in HCC tissues. NRDG1 was negatively correlated with miR-188-3p and miR-133b in HCC tissues. MiR-188-3p and miR-133b were demonstrated to directly bind to 3'UTR of NRDG1 and inhibit its expression. Upregulation of miR-188-3p and miR-133b reduced NRDG1 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines, which consequently inhibited cell growth and cell migration. CONCLUSIONS: Our finding suggested that miR-188-3p and miR-133b exert a suppressive effect on hepatocellular carcinoma proliferation, invasion, and migration through downregulation of NDRG1.
ESTHER : Luo_2021_Technol.Cancer.Res.Treat_20_15330338211033074
PubMedSearch : Luo_2021_Technol.Cancer.Res.Treat_20_15330338211033074
PubMedID: 34355586
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-NDRG1

Title : Aggregation-induced emission luminogen@manganese dioxide core-shell nanomaterial-based paper analytical device for equipment-free and visual detection of organophosphorus pesticide - Chen_2021_J.Hazard.Mater_413_125306
Author(s) : Chen J , Chen X , Wang P , Liu S , Chi Z
Ref : J Hazard Mater , 413 :125306 , 2021
Abstract : Organophosphorus pesticide (OP) residues have gathered considerable attention because of their significant threat to society development and healthy life. Developing a sensitive and practical OPs sensor is highly urgent, whereas remains a huge challenge. To this end, we fabricated a high-performance fluorescence paper analytical device (PAD) for apparatus-free and visual sensing of OPs based on aggregation-induced emission (AIE) luminogen's bright emission in aggregated state, unique response of MnO(2) to thiol compounds, and difference of MnO(2) and Mn(2+) in quenching fluorescence. AIE nanoparticles PTDNPs-0.10 and MnO(2) respectively acted as core and shell to prepare PTDNPs@MnO(2), which possessed high stability and were dripped on cellulose paper's surface to fabricate AIE-PAD. The sensing mechanism is that OPs-treated acetylcholinesterase (AChE) prevents the formation of thiocholine, thereby minimizing the reduction of MnO(2) into Mn(2+) and changing the output signal. As a result, equipment-free and visual sensing of OPs was acquired with limit of detection of 1.60 ng/mL. This work justifies the feasibility of applying core-shell material to develop high-performance sensor and substituting complex/expensive solution-phase sensor with PAD, providing a new avenue to bring OPs analysis out of the lab and into the world.
ESTHER : Chen_2021_J.Hazard.Mater_413_125306
PubMedSearch : Chen_2021_J.Hazard.Mater_413_125306
PubMedID: 33588332

Title : Current insights into the microbial degradation for pyrethroids: strain safety, biochemical pathway, and genetic engineering - Zhao_2021_Chemosphere_279_130542
Author(s) : Zhao T , Hu K , Li J , Zhu Y , Liu A , Yao K , Liu S
Ref : Chemosphere , 279 :130542 , 2021
Abstract : As a biologically inspired insecticide, pyrethroids (PYRs) exert evident toxic side effects on non-target organisms. PYRs and their general toxic intermediate 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) have shown high detection rates/levels in human beings recently, for which diet was identified as the major exposure route. Microbial mineralization has emerged as a versatile strategy in addressing such escalating concern. Herein, PYRs and 3-PBA biodegradation with regards to strain safety, application and surfactant were summarized. Numerous PYRs-degrading microbes have been reported yet with a minority focused on 3-PBA. Most isolates were from contaminated sites while several microbial food cultures (MFCs) have been investigated. MFCs such as Bacillus spp. and Aspergillus spp. that dominate in PYRs-degrading microbial pools are applicable candidates for agricultural by-products detoxification during the postharvest process. Subsequently, we discussed committed degradation steps, wherein hydrolase responsible for PYRs ester linkage cleavage and oxygenase for 3-PBA diphenyl ether bond rupture play vital roles. Finally, comprehensive information of the key enzyme genes is outlined along with methodologies concerning gene cloning. Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP) is competent for diphenyl ether scission. Newly-developed omics has become a feasible gene and enzyme mining technology. To achieve PYRs mineralization in feed and food commodities, the screening of MFCs rich in related enzymes and the construction of MFCs-derived genetically modified microbes (GMMs) exhibit great potential considering the safety issues.
ESTHER : Zhao_2021_Chemosphere_279_130542
PubMedSearch : Zhao_2021_Chemosphere_279_130542
PubMedID: 33866100

Title : Comparative Analyses of Sperm DNA Methylomes Among Three Commercial Pig Breeds Reveal Vital Hypomethylated Regions Associated With Spermatogenesis and Embryonic Development - Chen_2021_Front.Genet_12_740036
Author(s) : Chen S , Liu S , Mi S , Li W , Zhang S , Ding X , Yu Y
Ref : Front Genet , 12 :740036 , 2021
Abstract : Identifying epigenetic changes is essential for an in-depth understanding of phenotypic diversity and pigs as the human medical model for anatomizing complex diseases. Abnormal sperm DNA methylation can lead to male infertility, fetal development failure, and affect the phenotypic traits of offspring. However, the whole genome epigenome map in pig sperm is lacking to date. In this study, we profiled methylation levels of cytosine in three commercial pig breeds, Landrace, Duroc, and Large White using whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS). The results showed that the correlation of methylation levels between Landrace and Large White pigs was higher. We found that 1,040-1,666 breed-specific hypomethylated regions (HMRs) were associated with embryonic developmental and economically complex traits for each breed. By integrating reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) public data of pig testis, 1743 conservated HMRs between sperm and testis were defined, which may play a role in spermatogenesis. In addition, we found that the DNA methylation patterns of human and pig sperm showed high similarity by integrating public data from WGBS and chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) in other mammals, such as human and mouse. We identified 2,733 conserved HMRs between human and pig involved in organ development and brain-related traits, such as NLGN1 (neuroligin 1) containing a conserved-HMR between human and pig. Our results revealed the similarities and diversity of sperm methylation patterns among three commercial pig breeds and between human and pig. These findings are beneficial for elucidating the mechanism of male fertility, and the changes in commercial traits that undergo strong selection.
ESTHER : Chen_2021_Front.Genet_12_740036
PubMedSearch : Chen_2021_Front.Genet_12_740036
PubMedID: 34691153

Title : Notum suppresses the osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells through the Wnt\/Beta catenin signaling pathway - Yang_2021_Arch.Oral.Biol_130_105211
Author(s) : Yang P , Li C , Kou Y , Jiang Y , Li D , Liu S , Lu Y , Hasegawa T , Li M
Ref : Archives of Oral Biology , 130 :105211 , 2021
Abstract : OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to explore: (i) the effect of Notum on periodontitis in vivo; (ii) the effect of Notum on the osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) in vitro; and (iii) the potential mechanism of Notum in inhibiting the osteogenic differentiation of hPDLSCs. DESIGN: C57BL/6J mice were randomly assigned into two groups: control group (n = 4) and periodontitis group (n = 4). Immunohistochemical staining was used to evaluate the expression of Notum. In in vitro experiments, Western blot, qRT- PCR and ELISA were used to examine the expression of Notum in a lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation model. Alkaline phosphatase staining was used to evaluate alkaline phosphatase activity. Western blot and qRT - PCR were used to measure the expression of osteogenic-related markers after adding human recombinant Notum and Notum inhibitor ABC99. In addition, LiCl, an agonist of the Wnt/Beta-catenin signaling pathway, was added to explore using Western blot whether Notum was involved in regulating the osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament stem cells through the Wnt/Beta-catenin signaling pathway. RESULTS: Notum was highly expressed in periodontal tissues of mice and lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation cell model. The protein and messenger ribonucleic acid levels of hPDLSCs osteogenic markers were reduced after adding human recombinant Notum. However, the inhibitory effect of Notum on the osteogenic differentiation of hPDLSCs could be significantly reversed by adding LiCl. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrated that Notum inhibited the osteogenic differentiation of hPDLSCs probably via the Wnt/Beta-catenin the downstream signaling pathway.
ESTHER : Yang_2021_Arch.Oral.Biol_130_105211
PubMedSearch : Yang_2021_Arch.Oral.Biol_130_105211
PubMedID: 34352447

Title : Ajmalicine and its Analogues against AChE and BuChE for the Management of Alzheimer's Disease: An In-silico study - Liu_2020_Curr.Pharm.Des__
Author(s) : Liu S , Dang M , Lei Y , Ahmad SS , Khalid M , Kamal MA , Chen L
Ref : Curr Pharm Des , : , 2020
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most well-known reason for disability in persons aged greater than 65 years worldwide. AD influences the part of the brain that controls cognitive and noncognitive functions. OBJECTIVE: The study focuses on the screening of natural compounds for the inhibition of AChE and BuChE using a computational methodology. METHODS: We performed a docking-based virtual screening utilizing the 3D structure of AChE and BuChE to search for potential inhibitors for AD. In this work, a screened inhibitor Ajmalicine similarity search was carried out against a natural products database (Super Natural II). Lipinski rule of five was carried out and docking studies were performed between ligands and enzyme using 'Autodock4.2'. RESULTS: Two phytochemical compounds SN00288228 and SN00226692 were predicted for the inhibition of AChE and BuChE, respectively. The docking results revealed Ajmalicine, a prominent natural alkaloid, showing promising inhibitory potential against AChE and BuChE with the binding energy of - 9.02 and -8.89 kcal/mole respectively. However, SN00288228- AChE, and SN00226692-BuChE were found to have binding energy -9.88 and -9.54 kcal/mole, respectively. These selected phytochemical compounds showed better interactions in comparison to Ajmalicine with the target molecule. CONCLUSION: The current study verifies that SN00288228 and SN00226692 are more capable inhibitors of human AChE and BuChE as compared to Ajmalicine with reference to DeltaG values.
ESTHER : Liu_2020_Curr.Pharm.Des__
PubMedSearch : Liu_2020_Curr.Pharm.Des__
PubMedID: 32264807

Title : A GDSL-type esterase\/lipase gene, GELP77, is necessary for pollen dissociation and fertility in Arabidopsis - Tsugama_2020_Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun__
Author(s) : Tsugama D , Fujino K , Liu S , Takano T
Ref : Biochemical & Biophysical Research Communications , : , 2020
Abstract : Pollen wall characteristics are dramatically changed during pollen maturation. Many genes have been identified as regulators of such changes in pollen wall characteristics, but mechanisms of such changes have not been completely understood. Here, a GDSL-type esterase/lipase gene, GELP77, is shown to regulate such changes in Arabidopsis thaliana. GELP77-deficient (gelp77) plants exhibited male sterility, and this phenotype was suppressed by introduction of a GELP77 genomic fragment. Mature pollen grains of wild-type Arabidopsis plants have an organized reticulate surface structure and are dissociated from each other. In contrast, pollen grains of gelp77 lacked such a structure and were shrunken and stuck to each other. Nuclei were not detectable in gelp77 microspores at a putative uninucleate stage, suggesting that GELP77 is required as early as this stage. In plants that have the GELP77 promoter-GELP77-GFP transgene, the GELP77-GFP fusion protein was detected in microspores, tapetal cells and middle layer cells in anthers at post-meiotic stages, whereas not anthers at pre-meiotic stages. Analysis of amino acid sequences suggests that GELP77 is phylogenetically distant from the other 104 GDSL-type esterase/lipase genes in Arabidopsis and that GELP77 orthologs are present in various plant species. Together, these results indicate that GELP77 regulates pollen wall characteristics in Arabidopsis.
ESTHER : Tsugama_2020_Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun__
PubMedSearch : Tsugama_2020_Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun__
PubMedID: 32305137

Title : Predicting the Effects of CYP2C19 and Carboxylesterases on Vicagrel, a Novel P2Y12 Antagonist, by Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic\/Pharmacodynamic Modeling Approach - Liu_2020_Front.Pharmacol_11_591854
Author(s) : Liu S , Wang Z , Tian X , Cai W
Ref : Front Pharmacol , 11 :591854 , 2020
Abstract : Vicagrel, a novel acetate derivative of clopidogrel, exhibits a favorable safety profile and excellent antiplatelet activity. Studies aim at identifying genetic and non-genetic factors affecting vicagrel metabolic enzymes Cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19), Carboxylesterase (CES) 1 and 2 (CES1 and CES2), which may potentially lead to altered pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, are warranted. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model incorporating vicagrel and its metabolites was constructed, verified and validated in our study, which could simultaneously characterize its sequential two step metabolism and clinical response. Simulations were then performed to evaluate the effects of CYP2C19, CES1 and CES2 genetic polymorphisms as well as inhibitors of these enzymes on vicagrel pharmacokinetics and antiplatelet effects. Results suggested vicagrel was less influenced by CYP2C19 metabolic phenotypes and CES1 428 G > A variation, in comparison to clopidogrel. No pharmacokinetic difference in the active metabolite was also noted for volunteers carrying different CES2 genotypes. Omeprazole, a CYP2C19 inhibitor, and simvastatin, a CES1 and CES2 inhibitor, showed weak impact on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of vicagrel. This is the first study proposing a dynamic PBPK/PD model of vicagrel able to capture its pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles simultaneously. Simulations indicated that genetic polymorphisms and drug-drug interactions showed no clinical relevance for vicagrel, suggesting its potential advantages over clopidogrel for treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Our model can be utilized to support further clinical trial design aiming at exploring the effects of genetic polymorphisms and drug-drug interactions on PK and PD of this novel antiplatelet agent.
ESTHER : Liu_2020_Front.Pharmacol_11_591854
PubMedSearch : Liu_2020_Front.Pharmacol_11_591854
PubMedID: 33424602

Title : Toxicological effects of nano- and micro-polystyrene plastics on red tilapia: Are larger plastic particles more harmless? - Ding_2020_J.Hazard.Mater_396_122693
Author(s) : Ding J , Huang Y , Liu S , Zhang S , Zou H , Wang Z , Zhu W , Geng J
Ref : J Hazard Mater , 396 :122693 , 2020
Abstract : Nanoplastics (NPs) and microplastics (MPs) are a heterogeneous class of pollutants with diverse sizes in aquatic environments. To evaluate the hazardous effects of N/MPs with different sizes, the accumulation, oxidative stress, cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, neurotoxicity, and metabolomics changes were investigated in the red tilapia exposed to three sizes of polystyrene (PS) N/MPs (0.3, 5, and 70-90mum). After 14-d exposures, the largest particles (70-90mum) showed the highest accumulation levels in most cases. Exposures to PS-MPs (5 and 70-90mum) caused a more severe oxidative stress in red tilapia than PS-NPs. The activity of CYP3A-related enzyme was obviously inhibited by PS-NPs, whereas the CYP enzymes in the liver may not be sensitive to MP exposures. In the brain, only 5mumPS-MPs significantly inhibited the acetylcholinesterase activity. After exposures, the treatments with 0.3, 5, and 70-90mum N/MPs resulted in 31, 40, and 23 significantly differentially expressed metabolites, respectively, in which the pathway of tyrosine metabolism was significantly affected by all the three PS-N/MP exposures. Overall, the PS particles within the mum size posed more severe stress to red tilapia. Our results suggest that the toxicity of N/MPs may not show a simply monotonic negative correlation with their sizes.
ESTHER : Ding_2020_J.Hazard.Mater_396_122693
PubMedSearch : Ding_2020_J.Hazard.Mater_396_122693
PubMedID: 32353735

Title : Resveratrol oligomers from Paeonia suffruticosa protect mice against cognitive dysfunction by regulating cholinergic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory pathways - Liu_2020_J.Ethnopharmacol__112983
Author(s) : Liu S , Li Y , Yi F , Liu Q , Chen N , He X , He C , Xiao P
Ref : J Ethnopharmacol , :112983 , 2020
Abstract : ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Paeonia suffruticosa Andr. has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine as an anti-tumour, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective agent. Resveratrol oligomers are the main components of the seed coat extracts of Paeonia suffruticosa (PSCE) and have DPPH free radical scavenging and beta-secretase inhibitory activity. However, studies of its effect on ameliorating cognitive deficits are limited, and analyses of the underlying mechanisms are insufficient. AIM OF STUDY: This study aimed to investigate the cholinesterase inhibitory activities of resveratrol oligomers from P. suffruticosa in vitro and their effects on diminishing the oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) -induced cytotoxicity in PC12cells and scopolamine-induced cognitive deficits in mice. Moreover, the underlying mechanisms were further explored. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In vitro, the inhibitory effects of PSCE and its 10 stilbenes on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) were evaluated using the Ellmann assay, and its protective effects on normal and OGD/R-injured PC12cells were evaluated using the MTT assay. For the in vivo assay, C57BL/6 mice were orally administered PSCE at doses of 150 and 600mg/kg for 28 days, and injected with scopolamine (1.5mg/kg) to induce cognitive deficits. The memory behaviours were evaluated using the novel object recognition, Morris water maze and inhibitory avoidance test. Levels of various biochemical markers were also examined, including AChE, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), acetylcholine (ACh), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH) in the mouse brain and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-4 (IL-4) in serum. RESULTS: PSCE and its 10 stilbenes display good inhibition of AChE and BuChE activities and significantly increase the viability of normal and OGD/R-injured PC12cells. PSCE improves the cognitive performance of scopolamine-treated mice in behavioural tests. Meanwhile, PSCE increases AChE, ChAT, SOD, and CAT activities and ACh, GSH, IL-4 levels, and decreases IL-1beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha levels in the model animals. CONCLUSIONS: Resveratrol oligomers from P. suffruticosa show neuroprotective effect in vitro and in vivo by regulating cholinergic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory pathways, may have promising application in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.
ESTHER : Liu_2020_J.Ethnopharmacol__112983
PubMedSearch : Liu_2020_J.Ethnopharmacol__112983
PubMedID: 32442589

Title : Rv3091, An Extracellular Patatin-Like Phospholipase in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Prolongs Intracellular Survival of Recombinant Mycolicibacterium smegmatis by Mediating Phagosomal Escape - Cui_2020_Front.Microbiol_11_2204
Author(s) : Cui Z , Dang G , Song N , Cui Y , Li Z , Zang X , Liu H , Wang Z , Liu S
Ref : Front Microbiol , 11 :2204 , 2020
Abstract : Patatin-like phospholipases (PLPs) are important virulence factors of many pathogens. However, there are no prevailing studies regarding PLPs as a virulence factor of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Analysis of Rv3091, a putative protein of Mtb, shows that it belongs to the PLPs family. Here, we cloned and expressed the rv3091 gene in Mycobacterium smegmatis and, subsequently, conducted protein purification and characterization. We show that it possesses phospholipase A(1), phospholipase A(2), and lipase activity. We confirm the putative active site residues, namely, Ser214 and Asp407, using site directed mutagenesis. The Rv3091 is an extracellular protein that alters the colony morphology of M. smegmatis. The presence of Rv3091 enhances the intracellular survival capability of M. smegmatis in murine peritoneal macrophages. Additionally, it promotes M. smegmatis phagosomal escape from macrophages. Moreover, Rv3091 significantly increased the survival of M. smegmatis and aggravated lesions in C57BL/6 J murine lungs in vivo. Taken together, our results indicate that Rv3091 as an extracellular PLP that is critical to the pathogenicity of mycobacterium as it allows mycobacterium to utilize phospholipids for its growth and provides resistance to phagosome killing, resulting in its enhanced intracellular survival.
ESTHER : Cui_2020_Front.Microbiol_11_2204
PubMedSearch : Cui_2020_Front.Microbiol_11_2204
PubMedID: 33042041

Title : The genome sequence of the grape phylloxera provides insights into the evolution, adaptation, and invasion routes of an iconic pest - Rispe_2020_BMC.Biol_18_90
Author(s) : Rispe C , Legeai F , Nabity PD , Fernandez R , Arora AK , Baa-Puyoulet P , Banfill CR , Bao L , Barbera M , Bouallegue M , Bretaudeau A , Brisson JA , Calevro F , Capy P , Catrice O , Chertemps T , Couture C , Deliere L , Douglas AE , Dufault-Thompson K , Escuer P , Feng H , Forneck A , Gabaldon T , Guigo R , Hilliou F , Hinojosa-Alvarez S , Hsiao YM , Hudaverdian S , Jacquin-Joly E , James EB , Johnston S , Joubard B , Le Goff G , Le Trionnaire G , Librado P , Liu S , Lombaert E , Lu HL , Maibeche M , Makni M , Marcet-Houben M , Martinez-Torres D , Meslin C , Montagne N , Moran NA , Papura D , Parisot N , Rahbe Y , Lopes MR , Ripoll-Cladellas A , Robin S , Roques C , Roux P , Rozas J , Sanchez-Gracia A , Sanchez-Herrero JF , Santesmasses D , Scatoni I , Serre RF , Tang M , Tian W , Umina PA , van Munster M , Vincent-Monegat C , Wemmer J , Wilson ACC , Zhang Y , Zhao C , Zhao J , Zhao S , Zhou X , Delmotte F , Tagu D
Ref : BMC Biol , 18 :90 , 2020
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Although native to North America, the invasion of the aphid-like grape phylloxera Daktulosphaira vitifoliae across the globe altered the course of grape cultivation. For the past 150 years, viticulture relied on grafting-resistant North American Vitis species as rootstocks, thereby limiting genetic stocks tolerant to other stressors such as pathogens and climate change. Limited understanding of the insect genetics resulted in successive outbreaks across the globe when rootstocks failed. Here we report the 294-Mb genome of D. vitifoliae as a basic tool to understand host plant manipulation, nutritional endosymbiosis, and enhance global viticulture. RESULTS: Using a combination of genome, RNA, and population resequencing, we found grape phylloxera showed high duplication rates since its common ancestor with aphids, but similarity in most metabolic genes, despite lacking obligate nutritional symbioses and feeding from parenchyma. Similarly, no enrichment occurred in development genes in relation to viviparity. However, phylloxera evolved > 2700 unique genes that resemble putative effectors and are active during feeding. Population sequencing revealed the global invasion began from the upper Mississippi River in North America, spread to Europe and from there to the rest of the world. CONCLUSIONS: The grape phylloxera genome reveals genetic architecture relative to the evolution of nutritional endosymbiosis, viviparity, and herbivory. The extraordinary expansion in effector genes also suggests novel adaptations to plant feeding and how insects induce complex plant phenotypes, for instance galls. Finally, our understanding of the origin of this invasive species and its genome provide genetics resources to alleviate rootstock bottlenecks restricting the advancement of viticulture.
ESTHER : Rispe_2020_BMC.Biol_18_90
PubMedSearch : Rispe_2020_BMC.Biol_18_90
PubMedID: 32698880

Title : [Value of serum cholinesterase in the prognosis of septic shock] - Zhao_2020_Zhonghua.Wei.Zhong.Bing.Ji.Jiu.Yi.Xue_32_44
Author(s) : Zhao R , Zhang X , Wang H , Zhang R , Duan X , Liu S , Han B , Ding X , Wang D , Sun T
Ref : Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue , 32 :44 , 2020
Abstract : OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between serum cholinesterase (SChE) level and the prognosis of patients with septic shock (SS). METHODS: A total of 594 patients with SS admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from June 2013 to June 2017 were enrolled. General data such as gender, age, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) score were recorded as well as routine blood test, procalcitonin (PCT), hepatic function, renal function, coagulation function and blood gas analysis parameters within 48 hours of SS diagnosis. The patients were followed by telephone from September to October in 2019, and the outcome was recorded. The primary outcome was all-cause death 28 days after discharge. The secondary outcomes were all-cause death in intensive care unit (ICU) and 2 years after discharge, and the length of ICU stay. The patients were divided into two groups according to prognosis of 28 days: the survival group and the death group. The clinical data of the two groups were compared. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to screen prognostic risk factors of 28 days in patients with SS. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to explore predictive value of liver function parameter SChE for 28-day prognosis of patients with SS. The patients were divided into two groups according to the levels of SChE: the low SChE group (SChE 4 000 U/L). Kaplan-Meier survival curves were used to compare the cumulative survival rates without endpoint event of patients with different SChE levels. RESULTS: A total of 385 patients with SS were enrolled according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and a total of 356 patients were followed up successfully, with a follow-up rate of 92.5% (356/385). There were 142 survival patients and 214 death patients at 28 days, with a 28-day mortality rate of 60.1% (214/356). There were 116 survival patients and 240 death patients at 2 years, with a 2-year mortality rate of 67.4% (240/356). Compared with the 28-day survival group, the patients in the death group were older and had higher APACHE II score, partial hepatic and renal function parameters, higher level of blood lactate (Lac) and lower levels of white blood cell count (WBC), platelet count (PLT) and SChE with statistically significant differences. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that the age [relative risk (RR) = 1.444, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) was 1.090-1.914, P = 0.010], APACHE II score (RR = 2.249, 95%CI was 1.688-2.997, P = 0.000), SChE (RR = 1.469, 95%CI was 1.057-2.043, P = 0.022), and Lac (RR = 2.190, 95%CI was 1.636-2.931, P = 0.000) were independent risk factors for 28-day mortality of patients with SS. The ROC curve analysis showed that SChE had a weak prognostic value for 28-day prognosis of patients with SS [the area under ROC curve (AUC) was 0.574]. However, the combined predictive value of SChE, APACHE II score and Lac was greater than APACHE II score or Lac alone for prediction (AUC: 0.807 vs. 0.785, 0.697), with a sensitivity of 79.9% and a specificity of 68.5%. Compared with the normal SChE group (n = 88), the 28-day mortality of patients in the low SChE group (n = 268) was significantly increased [63.1% (169/268) vs. 51.1% (45/88), P < 0.05], but ICU mortality [59.7% (160/268) vs. 48.9% (43/88)], 2-year mortality [69.8% (187/268) vs. 60.2% (53/88)] or the length of ICU stay [days: 4 (2, 7) vs. 5 (2, 9)] between the two groups showed no statistical significance (all P > 0.05). Kaplan-Meier survival curve analysis showed that the cumulative survival rate without endpoint event of patients in the low SChE group was significantly lower than that in the normal SChE group (Log-Rank test: chi(2) = 5.852, P = 0.016). CONCLUSIONS: Increased risk of 28-day mortality in patients with SS whose SChE is below normal. The level of SChE is an independent risk factor for 28-day death in SS patients, and it is one of the indicators to evaluate the short-term prognosis of patients with SS.
ESTHER : Zhao_2020_Zhonghua.Wei.Zhong.Bing.Ji.Jiu.Yi.Xue_32_44
PubMedSearch : Zhao_2020_Zhonghua.Wei.Zhong.Bing.Ji.Jiu.Yi.Xue_32_44
PubMedID: 32148230

Title : miR-4454 up-regulated by HPV16 E6\/E7 promotes invasion and migration by targeting ABHD2\/NUDT21 in cervical cancer - Wang_2020_Biosci.Rep_40_
Author(s) : Wang H , Hu H , Luo Z , Liu S , Wu W , Zhu M , Wang J , Liu Y , Lu Z
Ref : Bioscience Reports , 40 : , 2020
Abstract : The abnormal expression of HPV16 E6/E7 activates oncogenes and/or inactivates tumor suppressor genes, resulting in the selective growth and malignant transformation of cancer cells. miR-4454 was selected by sequencing due to its abnormal high expression in HPV16 E6/E7 positive CaSki cell compared with HPV16 E6/E7 negative C33A cell. Overexpression of miR-4454 enhances cervical cancer cell invasion and migration. ABHD2 and NUDT21 are identified as a target gene of miR-4454.The effects of ABHD2 and NUDT21 on migration and invasion of CaSki and C33A cells were determined. The dual luciferase and RT-qPCR assays confirmed that miR-4454 might regulate its targets ABHD2 and NUDT21 to promote the proliferation, invasion and migration, whereas, inhibit the apoptosis in CaSki and C33A cells.
ESTHER : Wang_2020_Biosci.Rep_40_
PubMedSearch : Wang_2020_Biosci.Rep_40_
PubMedID: 32816024

Title : Novel deoxyvasicinone and tetrahydro-beta-carboline hybrids as inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase and amyloid beta aggregation - Du_2020_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett__127659
Author(s) : Du H , Jiang X , Ma M , Xu H , Liu S , Ma F
Ref : Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Lett , :127659 , 2020
Abstract : A novel series of deoxyvasicinone-tetrahydro-beta-carboline hybrids were synthesized and evaluated as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and beta-amyloid peptide (Abeta) aggregation inhibitors for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. The results revealed that the derivatives had multifunctional profiles, including AChE inhibition, Abeta(1-42) aggregation inhibition, and neuroprotective properties. Inspiringly, hybrids 8b and 8d displayed excellent inhibitory activities against hAChE (IC(50) = 0.93 and 1.08 nM, respectively) and Abeta(1-42) self-aggregation (IC(50) = 19.71 and 2.05 M, respectively). In addition, 8b and 8d showed low cytotoxicity and good neuroprotective activity against Abeta(1-42)-induced damage in SH-SY5Y cells.
ESTHER : Du_2020_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett__127659
PubMedSearch : Du_2020_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett__127659
PubMedID: 33137375

Title : Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel carbamates as potential inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase - Wu_2020_Bioorg.Med.Chem__115324
Author(s) : Wu J , Pistolozzi M , Liu S , Tan W
Ref : Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry , :115324 , 2020
Abstract : Rivastigmine, a dual inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), has been approved by U.S. Food and Drug Administration to treat Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) dementia. In the current work, a bambuterol derivative lacking one of the carbamoyloxy groups on the benzene ring (BMC-1) and its analogues were synthesized using 1-(3-hydroxyphenyl) ethan-1-one and 1-(4-hydroxyphenyl) ethan-1-one as starting materials. In-vitro cholinesterase assay established that nine compounds were more potent to inhibit both electric eel AChE and equine serum BChE than rivastigmine under the same experimental conditions. Further study confirmed that among the nine carbamates, BMC-3 (IC50(AChE) = 792 nM, IC50(BChE) = 2.2 nM) and BMC-16 (IC50(AChE) = 266 nM, IC50(BChE) = 10.6 nM) were excellent cholinesterase inhibitors with potential of permeating through the blood-brain barrier. These carbamates could be used as potential dual inhibitors of AChE and BChE and to discover novel drugs for the treatment of AD and PD dementia.
ESTHER : Wu_2020_Bioorg.Med.Chem__115324
PubMedSearch : Wu_2020_Bioorg.Med.Chem__115324
PubMedID: 32008882

Title : An OliGreen-responsive fluorescence sensor for sensitive detection of organophosphorus pesticide based on its specific selectivity towards T-Hg(2+)-T DNA structure - Zhou_2020_Spectrochim.Acta.A.Mol.Biomol.Spectrosc_247_119155
Author(s) : Zhou X , Wang C , Wu L , Wei W , Liu S
Ref : Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc , 247 :119155 , 2020
Abstract : In this paper, it was found that OliGreen emitted much stronger fluorescence in rigid T-Hg(2+)-T DNA structure than that in the presence of poly T. Thus, an OliGreen-responsive label-free fluorescent sensor was proposed for sensitive detection of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) by constructing T-Hg(2+)-T DNA structure. OliGreen emits strong fluorescence in T-Hg(2+)-T structures. The rigid DNA structure of T-Hg(2+)-T is prone to be destroyed by thiocholine (TCh) that hydrolyzed by acetylcholinesterase (AChE) because of the high affinity of TCh with Hg(2+). As a result, T-Hg(2+)-T DNA structure broke down and the fluorescence intensity of OliGreen decreased greatly. With the inhibition of AChE by OPs, fluorescence intensity of OliGreen remained strong because of the rigid T-Hg(2+)-T DNA structure. Thus, a "turn-on" fluorescent sensor which avoids synthesis of nanomaterials and complex label procedures is proposed based on the fluorescence intensity of OliGreen. DDVP were detected with a wide linear range from 0.005 to 25.0 ng/mL and the detection limit was 2.9 pg/mL, which is more sensitive than previously reported methods.
ESTHER : Zhou_2020_Spectrochim.Acta.A.Mol.Biomol.Spectrosc_247_119155
PubMedSearch : Zhou_2020_Spectrochim.Acta.A.Mol.Biomol.Spectrosc_247_119155
PubMedID: 33186818

Title : Amino acid, fatty acid, and carbohydrate metabolomic profiles with ginsenoside-induced insecticidal efficacy against Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenee) - Liu_2020_J.Ginseng.Res_44_544
Author(s) : Liu S , Wang X , Zhang R , Song M , Zhang N , Li W , Wang Y , Xu Y , Zhang L
Ref : J Ginseng Res , 44 :544 , 2020
Abstract : Background: Previous studies have shown the insecticidal efficacy of ginsenosides. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the metabolic mechanism related to the inhibitory effect of panaxadiol saponins (PDSs) against the Asian corn borer Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenee). Methods: Third instar larvae of O. furnacalis were fed normal diets with different concentrations of PDSs for 4 days. The consumption index, relative growth rate, approximate digestibility, and conversion of ingested and digested food were recorded. A targeted gas chromatography-mass spectrometry assay was performed to detect the profiles of amino acids, fatty acids, and carbohydrates in larvae of O. furnacalis. In addition, the activity of detoxification-related enzymes was determined. Results and Conclusions: PDSs decreased the consumption index, relative growth rate, approximate digestibility, and conversion of ingested and digested food in the 3rd instar larvae of O. furnacalis in a dose-dependent manner. PDSs decreased 15 free amino acids, 16 free fatty acids, and 5 carbohydrates and increased the levels of palmitoleic acid, palmitic acid, and 9-octadecenoic acid in the 3rd instar larvae. The activity of detoxification-related enzymes, such as acetylcholinesterase, glutathione S-transferase, cytochrome P450, carboxylesterase, trehalase, acid phosphatase, and alkaline phosphatase, was reduced in a dose-dependent manner in the 3rd instar larvae exposed to PDSs. These data confirmed the inhibitory effect of PDSs against growth, food utilization, and detoxification in the 3rd instar larvae of O. furnacalis and the potential for using PDSs as an efficient tool for insect pest management for O. furnacalis larvae.
ESTHER : Liu_2020_J.Ginseng.Res_44_544
PubMedSearch : Liu_2020_J.Ginseng.Res_44_544
PubMedID: 32617034

Title : Toxic effects of different-sized graphene oxide particles on zebrafish embryonic development - Chen_2020_Ecotoxicol.Environ.Saf_197_110608
Author(s) : Chen Z , Yu C , Khan IA , Tang Y , Liu S , Yang M
Ref : Ecotoxicology & Environmental Safety , 197 :110608 , 2020
Abstract : Graphene oxide (GO) has broad application potential in many fields, such as biomedicine and energy. Due to the wide-ranging GO applications, its entry into the environment is inevitable along with the potential for ecological and environmental risks. In the present study, we systematically investigated the dose-dependent effects of three different-sized GO particles (50-200 nm, <500 nm, and >500 nm) on zebrafish during the very early developmental stages (4-124 h post-fertilization). The results showed that GOs could accumulate in the eyes, heart, yolk sac, and blood vessels of fish larvae. Consequently, their effects on multiple toxic endpoints were observed, including delayed hatching times, shortened body lengths, alterations in heart rate and blood flow, changes in swimming activity and responses to photoperiod stimulation, and the enhanced activity of total superoxide dismutase, inducible nitric oxide synthase, acetylcholinesterase, caspase-3, and induction of apoptosis-related gene expression. As a result, the occurrence of oxidative stress and the induction of apoptosis are suggested in fish larvae exposed to all three different-sized GO particles. In addition, our results highlight the impacts of waterborne-GO exposure on zebrafish during early development, which were not merely dependent on GO concentration but also on the associated GO sizes. This study hereby provides a basis for the potential ecological and health risks of GO exposure.
ESTHER : Chen_2020_Ecotoxicol.Environ.Saf_197_110608
PubMedSearch : Chen_2020_Ecotoxicol.Environ.Saf_197_110608
PubMedID: 32305822

Title : Instrument-free and visual detection of organophosphorus pesticide using a smartphone by coupling aggregation-induced emission nanoparticle and two-dimension MnO(2) nanoflake - Chen_2020_Biosens.Bioelectron_170_112668
Author(s) : Chen J , Chen X , Zhao J , Liu S , Chi Z
Ref : Biosensors & Bioelectronics , 170 :112668 , 2020
Abstract : Given the importance of food safety, it is highly desirable to develop a convenient, low-cost, and practical sensor for organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) detection. Here, a fluorescent paper analytical device (FPAD) based on aggregation-induced emission (AIE) nanoparticles (PTDNPs-0.10) and two-dimension MnO(2) nanoflakes (2D-MnNFs) was developed for instrument-free and naked-eye analysis of OPs. PTDNP-MnNFs composites were obtained through 2D-MnNFs and PTDNPs-0.10 by electrostatic interaction and the fluorescence emission of PTDNPs-0.10 was quenched through fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). When acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was present, acetylthiocholine (ATCh) was catalytically hydrolyzed into thiocholine, which reduced MnO(2) of PTDNP-MnNFs into Mn(2+), subsequently blocking the FRET and enhancing the fluorescence. Upon the addition of OP, AChE activity was depressed and thus the FRET between 2D-MnNFs and PTDNPs-0.10 was not affected, resulting in a slight change in fluorescence. On the basis of the variation in fluorescence intensity, highly sensitive detection of OP was readily achieved with a detection limit of 0.027 ng/mL; on the basis of the variation in brightness of FPAD, instrument-free and visual detection of OP was realized using a smartphone with a detection limit of 0.73 ng/mL. The application of FPAD has significantly simplified the detection procedure and decreased the test cost, supplying a new approach for on-site detection of OPs.
ESTHER : Chen_2020_Biosens.Bioelectron_170_112668
PubMedSearch : Chen_2020_Biosens.Bioelectron_170_112668
PubMedID: 33032200

Title : Ratiometric fluorescence sensor for organophosphorus pesticide detection based on opposite responses of two fluorescence reagents to MnO2 nanosheets - Yao_2019_Biosens.Bioelectron_145_111705
Author(s) : Yao T , Liu A , Liu Y , Wei M , Wei W , Liu S
Ref : Biosensors & Bioelectronics , 145 :111705 , 2019
Abstract : The detection of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) has received considerable attention for their great harm to human beings. Herein, a novel ratiometric fluorescence biosensor was constructed for the determination of OPs by using Scopoletin (SC) and Amplex Red (AR) as probe pairs that have opposite responses to MnO2 nanosheets (MnO2 NS). MnO2 NS possess peroxidase-like catalytic activity, which could quench the fluorescence of SC as well as enhance the fluorescence of the non-fluorescent substance AR by oxidation. In the absence of OPs, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) hydrolyzed acetylcholine chloride (ATCh) into choline (TCh) and acetate. TCh led the decomposition of MnO2 NS to manganese ions (Mn(2+)), increasing signal of SC and decreasing signal of AR. In the presence of OPs, the activity of AChE was inhibited and the decomposition of MnO2 NS was hindered, therefore the fluorescence intensity of SC was weak and the fluorescence intensity of AR had an obvious increase. Moreover, under the optimal conditions, the ratio of fluorescence intensity response recorded on the AR/SC increases with increasing the concentration of DDVP. The method has wider linear range of 5.0pg/mL approximately 500ng/mL with a detection limit of 1.6pg/mL, which is superior to previously reported methods. This strategy has also been applied to a visual observation based on the color change of the solution under UV light.
ESTHER : Yao_2019_Biosens.Bioelectron_145_111705
PubMedSearch : Yao_2019_Biosens.Bioelectron_145_111705
PubMedID: 31550630

Title : The in silico and in vivo evaluation of puerarin against Alzheimer's disease - Liu_2019_Food.Funct_10_799
Author(s) : Liu S , Cao XL , Liu GQ , Zhou T , Yang XL , Ma BX
Ref : Food Funct , 10 :799 , 2019
Abstract : The root of Pueraria lobata has been utilized as a food source for thousands of years in China. Puerarin is the major bioactive and the most abundant secondary metabolite obtained from the root of P. lobata. The potential therapeutic effect of puerarin against Alzheimer's disease was screened by in silico methods and confirmed by the amyloid beta-peptide-induced Alzheimer's disease (AD) rat model. The in silico study displayed that puerarin had the potential to penetrate across the blood-brain barrier and had high stability in molecular docking and dynamics simulation with acetylcholinesterase (AChE), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and caspase-3 (C3), which play a central role in the development of AD. The in vivo results showed that puerarin could restrain the AChE activity, restore the activities of antioxidant defense substances toward normal levels, and decrease the expression of inflammatory factors and apoptosis genes in the brain, especially down-regulating the expressions of COX-2 and C3. The histopathological examination of brain sections and behavioral testing also verified the biochemical observations, which further validates the in silico study. These results not only suggest that puerarin, as a potential compound, could relieve AD, but also broaden the applications of puerarin.
ESTHER : Liu_2019_Food.Funct_10_799
PubMedSearch : Liu_2019_Food.Funct_10_799
PubMedID: 30675620

Title : Bacteria-Responsive Single and Core-Shell Nanofibrous Membranes Based on Polycaprolactone\/Poly(ethylene succinate) for On-Demand Release of Biocides - Abdali_2019_ACS.Omega_4_4063
Author(s) : Abdali Z , Logsetty S , Liu S
Ref : ACS Omega , 4 :4063 , 2019
Abstract : Traditional antibacterial dressings continuously elute biocides, even if there are no bacteria. This unneeded release can cause cytotoxicity, increase costs, and delay healing. We designed a bacteria-responsive nanofibrous wound dressing, which can be degraded in the presence of bacteria to release antimicrobial agents. A model biocide, benzyl dimethyl tetradecyl ammonium chloride (BTAC), was incorporated into bacteria-degradable polymers [polycaprolactone and poly(ethylene succinate)] in two ways: evenly distributed inside the polymers as single nanofibers and encapsulated in a core surrounded by the same polymers as core-shell nanofibers. Because of bacterial activity (both lipase secretion and acidic pH), degradation of the fibers was facilitated and caused the release of incorporated BTAC. BTAC-loaded single and core-shell nanofibers presented >1 log reduction of both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli within 2 h. Additionally, the core-shell structure provided a more controlled release of BTAC with prolonged antibacterial properties than single nanofibers. The core-shell nanofibers also exhibited minimal cytotoxicity against human fibroblast cells (>80% viable cells after 24 h contact). These nanofibrous mats have the potential to selectively release antibacterial agents to prevent wound infections without delaying wound healing.
ESTHER : Abdali_2019_ACS.Omega_4_4063
PubMedSearch : Abdali_2019_ACS.Omega_4_4063
PubMedID: 31459615

Title : Designing of a Cofactor Self-Sufficient Whole-Cell Biocatalyst System for Production of 1,2-Amino Alcohols from Epoxides - Liu_2019_ACS.Synth.Biol_8_734
Author(s) : Liu S , Zhang X , Liu F , Xu M , Yang T , Long M , Zhou J , Osire T , Yang S , Rao Z
Ref : ACS Synth Biol , 8 :734 , 2019
Abstract : Optically pure 1,2-amino alcohols are highly valuable products as intermediates for chiral pharmaceutical products. Here we designed an environmentally friendly non-natural biocatalytic cascade for efficient synthesis of 1,2-amino alcohols from cheaper epoxides. A redesignated omega-transaminase PAKomega-TA was tested and showed good bioactivity at a lower pH than other reported transaminases. The cascade was efficiently constructed as a single one-pot E. coli recombinant, by coupling SpEH (epoxide hydrolase), MnADH (alcohol dehydrogenase), and PAKomega-TA. Furthermore, RBS regulation strategy was used to overcome the rate limiting step by increasing expression of MnADH. For cofactor regeneration and amino donor source, an interesting point was involved as that a cofactor self-sufficient system was designed by expression of GluDH. It established a "bridge" between the cofactor and the cosubstrate, such that the cofactor self-sufficient system could release cofactor (NADP(+)) and cosubstrate (l-Glutamine) regenerated simultaneously. The recombinant E. coli BL21 (SGMP) with cofactor self-sufficient whole-cell cascade biocatalysis showed high ee value (>99%) and high yield, with 99.6% conversion of epoxide ( S)-1a to 1,2-amino alcohol ( S)-1d in 10 h. It further converted ( S)-2a-5a to ( S)-2d-5d with varying conversion rates ranging between 65-96.4%. This study first provides one-step synthesis of optically pure 1,2-amino alcohols from ( S)-epoxides employing a synthetic redox-self-sufficient cascade.
ESTHER : Liu_2019_ACS.Synth.Biol_8_734
PubMedSearch : Liu_2019_ACS.Synth.Biol_8_734
PubMedID: 30840437

Title : Screening of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and characterizing of phytochemical constituents from Dichocarpum auriculatum (Franch.) W.T. Wang & P. K. Hsiao through UPLC-MS combined with an acetylcholinesterase inhibition assay in vitro - Li_2019_J.Ethnopharmacol_245_112185
Author(s) : Li P , Liu S , Liu Q , Shen J , Yang R , Jiang B , He C , Xiao P
Ref : J Ethnopharmacol , 245 :112185 , 2019
Abstract : ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The genus Dichocarpum is endemic to East Asia, and many of them are traditionally used folk medicine in China. Dichocarpum auriculatum (Franch.) W. T. Wang et P. K. Hsiao has the effect of clearing away heat, removing toxicity, and relieving swelling in southwestern China. Intriguingly, its root and whole herb also used as remedy for the neurological disease epilepsy. However, there are not any scientific reports on the phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of D. auriculatum. AIM OF STUDY: Traditional and folk medicinal knowledge would be useful for finding new pharmaceutical resources. There are many evidences over the years reported that an interaction probably exists between epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aim of the study was to investigate the potential AChE inhibitors and the phytochemical profiles of the specie D. auriculatum. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The AChE inhibitory activity of plant extracts of D. auriculatum and other 6 species from different regions of the genus Dichocarpum were evaluated in vitro assays and the UPLC-Q-TOF-MS technique was used to analyze the chemical constituents. Moreover, UPLC-ESI-MS/MS was used to determine the distribution of 12 standard compounds in samples. RESULTS: As a preferred source of potential acetylcholinesterase inhibitors of the genus Dichocarpum, D. auriculatum has been further investigated. The screening results show that the ability of root extracts from D. auriculatum (IC50=0.15mg.mL(-)(1)) to inhibit AChE was better than other samples, it is consistent with traditional medicinal records. The phytochemical constituents of D. auriculatum was surveyed firstly by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS analysis, and 36 compounds, including 14 alkaloids, 16 flavonoids, 6 others, were identified tentatively. Further experiments showed that five compounds (columbamine, palmatine, dauricine, jatrorrhizine and berberine) from D. auriculatum were confirmed the potential inhibition of AChE activity in vitro (IC50: 0.24-6.37muM) and UPLC-ESI-MS/MS results showed that the content of most active compounds in roots was much higher than in aerial parts. Palmatine (IC50=0.34muM) and columbamine (IC50=0.24muM) showed prominent AChE inhibitory activity among the tested compounds. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report about the evaluation of AChE inhibitory activity and phytochemical profiles of D. auriculatum, led to the identification of 36 compounds including alkaloids and flavonoids, and five alkaloids exhibited a significant AChE inhibitory activity and had the potential as AChE inhibitors. This study provided scientific experimental basis for the traditional efficacy of neurological disease of the plant.
ESTHER : Li_2019_J.Ethnopharmacol_245_112185
PubMedSearch : Li_2019_J.Ethnopharmacol_245_112185
PubMedID: 31446073

Title : Integrated Approaches to Reveal Genes Crucial for Tannin Degradation in Aureobasidium melanogenum T9 - Zhang_2019_Biomolecules_9_439
Author(s) : Zhang LL , Li J , Wang YL , Liu S , Wang ZP , Yu XJ
Ref : Biomolecules , 9 :439 , 2019
Abstract : Tannins biodegradation by a microorganism is one of the most efficient ways to produce bioproducts of high value. However, the mechanism of tannins biodegradation by yeast has been little explored. In this study, Aureobasidium melanogenum T9 isolated from red wine starter showed the ability for tannins degradation and had its highest biomass when the initial tannic acid concentration was 20 g/L. Furthermore, the genes involved in the tannin degradation process were analyzed. Genes tan A, tan B and tan C encoding three different tannases respectively were identified in the A. melanogenum T9. Among these genes, tan A and tan B can be induced by tannin acid simultaneously at both gene transcription and protein expression levels. Our assay result showed that the deletion of tanA and tanB resulted in tannase activity decline with 51.3 +/- 4.1 and 64.1 +/- 1.9 U/mL, respectively, which is much lower than that of A. melanogenum T9 with 91.3 +/- 5.8 U/mL. In addition, another gene coding gallic acid decarboxylase (gad) was knocked out to better clarify its function. Mutant deltagad completely lost gallic acid decarboxylase activity and no pyrogallic acid was seen during the entire cultivation process, confirming that there was a sole gene encoding decarboxylase in the A. melanogenum T9. These results demonstrated that tanA, tanB and gad were crucial for tannin degradation and provided new insights for the mechanism of tannins biodegradation by yeast. This finding showed that A. melanogenum has potential in the production of tannase and metabolites, such as gall acid and pyrogallol.
ESTHER : Zhang_2019_Biomolecules_9_439
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2019_Biomolecules_9_439
PubMedID: 31480670
Gene_locus related to this paper: 9pezi-a0a5c2gyu2 , 9pezi-a0a5c2gyv0 , 9pezi-a0a5c2h0r5

Title : Effects of Panax Notoginseng Saponins on Esterases Responsible for Aspirin Hydrolysis In Vitro - Sun_2018_Int.J.Mol.Sci_19_
Author(s) : Sun Z , Wu Y , Liu S , Hu S , Zhao B , Li P , Du S
Ref : Int J Mol Sci , 19 : , 2018
Abstract : Herb(-)drug interactions strongly challenge the clinical combined application of herbs and drugs. Herbal products consist of complex pharmacological-active ingredients and perturb the activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes. Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS)-based drugs are often combined with aspirin in vascular disease treatment in China. PNS was found to exhibit inhibitory effects on aspirin hydrolysis using Caco-2 cell monolayers. In the present study, a total of 22 components of PNS were separated and identified by UPLC-MS/MS. Using highly selective probe substrate analysis, PNS exerted robust inhibitory potency on human carboxylesterase 2 (hCE2), while had a minor influence on hCE1, butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and paraoxonase (PON). These effects were also verified through molecular docking analysis. PNS showed a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on hydrolytic activity of aspirin in HepaRG cells. The protein level of hCE2 in HepaRG cells was suppressed after PNS treatment, while the level of BChE or PON1 in the extracellular matrix were elevated after PNS treatment. Insignificant effect was observed on the mRNA expression of the esterases. These findings are important to understand the underlying efficacy and safety of co-administration of PNS and aspirin in clinical practice.
ESTHER : Sun_2018_Int.J.Mol.Sci_19_
PubMedSearch : Sun_2018_Int.J.Mol.Sci_19_
PubMedID: 30322078

Title : Genetic background effects in Neuroligin-3 mutant mice: Minimal behavioral abnormalities on C57 background - Jaramillo_2018_Autism.Res_11_234
Author(s) : Jaramillo TC , Escamilla CO , Liu S , Peca L , Birnbaum SG , Powell CM
Ref : Autism Res , 11 :234 , 2018
Abstract : Neuroligin-3 (NLGN3) is a postsynaptic cell adhesion protein that interacts with presynaptic ligands including neurexin-1 (NRXN1) [Ichtchenko et al., Journal of Biological Chemistry, 271, 2676-2682, 1996]. Mice harboring a mutation in the NLGN3 gene (NL3R451C) mimicking a mutation found in two brothers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were previously generated and behaviorally phenotyped for autism-related behaviors. In these NL3R451C mice generated and tested on a hybrid C57BL6J/129S2/SvPasCrl background, we observed enhanced spatial memory and reduced social interaction [Tabuchi et al., Science, 318, 71-76, 2007]. Curiously, an independently generated second line of mice harboring the same mutation on a C57BL6J background exhibited minimal aberrant behavior, thereby providing apparently discrepant results. To investigate the origin of the discrepancy, we previously replicated the original findings of Tabuchi et al. by studying the same NL3R451C mutation on a pure 129S2/SvPasCrl genetic background. Here we complete the behavioral characterization of the NL3R451C mutation on a pure C57BL6J genetic background to determine if background genetics play a role in the discrepant behavioral outcomes involving NL3R451C mice. NL3R451C mutant mice on a pure C57BL6J background did not display spatial memory enhancements or social interaction deficits. We only observed a decreased startle response and mildly increased locomotor activity in these mice suggesting that background genetics influences behavioral outcomes involving the NL3R451C mutation. LAY SUMMARY: Behavioral symptoms of autism can be highly variable, even in cases that involve identical genetic mutations. Previous studies in mice with a mutation of the Neuroligin-3 gene showed enhanced learning and social deficits. We replicated these findings on the same and different genetic backgrounds. In this study, however, the same mutation in mice on a different genetic background did not reproduce our previous findings. Our results suggest that genetic background influences behavioral symptoms of this autism-associated mutation.
ESTHER : Jaramillo_2018_Autism.Res_11_234
PubMedSearch : Jaramillo_2018_Autism.Res_11_234
PubMedID: 29028156
Gene_locus related to this paper: mouse-3neur

Title : Altered Amygdala Excitation and CB1 Receptor Modulation of Aggressive Behavior in the Neuroligin-3(R451C) Mouse Model of Autism - Hosie_2018_Front.Cell.Neurosci_12_234
Author(s) : Hosie S , Malone DT , Liu S , Glass M , Adlard PA , Hannan AJ , Hill-Yardin EL
Ref : Front Cell Neurosci , 12 :234 , 2018
Abstract : Understanding neuronal mechanisms underlying aggression in patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) could lead to better treatments and prognosis. The Neuroligin-3 (NL3)(R451C) mouse model of ASD has a heightened aggressive phenotype, however the biological mechanisms underlying this behavior are unknown. It is well established that NL3(R451C) mice have imbalanced excitatory and inhibitory synaptic activity in the hippocampus and somatosensory cortex. The amygdala plays a role in modulating aggressive behavior, however potential changes in synaptic activity in this region have not previously been assessed in this model. We investigated whether aggressive behavior is robustly present in mice expressing the R451C mutation, following back-crossing onto a congenic background strain. Endocannabinoids influence social interaction and aggressive behavior, therefore we also studied the effects of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) agonist on NL3(R451C) mice. We report that NL3(R451C) mice have increased amplitude of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) with a concomitant decrease in the amplitude of inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) in the basolateral amygdala. Importantly, we demonstrated that NL3(R451C) mice bred on a C57Bl/6 background strain exhibit an aggressive phenotype. Following non-sedating doses (0.3 and 1.0 mg/kg) of the CB1 receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (WIN), we observed a significant reduction in aggressive behavior in NL3(R451C) mice. These findings demonstrate altered synaptic activity in the basolateral amygdala and suggest that the NL3(R451C) mouse model is a useful preclinical tool to understand the role of CB1 receptor function in aggressive behavior.
ESTHER : Hosie_2018_Front.Cell.Neurosci_12_234
PubMedSearch : Hosie_2018_Front.Cell.Neurosci_12_234
PubMedID: 30123111
Gene_locus related to this paper: mouse-3neur

Title : Monitoring and biochemical characterization of beta-cypermethrin resistance in Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Sichuan Province, China - Wang_2018_Pestic.Biochem.Physiol_146_71
Author(s) : Wang X , Xiang X , Yu H , Liu S , Yin Y , Cui P , Wu Y , Yang J , Jiang C , Yang Q
Ref : Pestic Biochem Physiol , 146 :71 , 2018
Abstract : The beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua, a major pest affecting numerous cultivated crops in China, has developed a serious resistance to many traditional chemical insecticides. The resistance levels of the field-collected populations from different districts in Sichuan Province, China, to nine insecticides were detected with a diet-incorporation bioassay. Compared to the Lab-ZN strain, five (in 2014) and three (in 2016) field populations displayed either high or extremely high levels of resistance to beta-cypermethrin. All the field populations collected in 2014 were susceptible to emamectin benzoate, hexaflumuron, methoxyfenozide, chlorantraniliprole, cyantraniliprole and indoxacarb but exhibited low or moderate levels of resistance to abamectin. The resistances of field populations collected in 2016 were significantly higher than two years earlier, especial for chlorantraniliprole and cyantraniliprole with RRs rising from 173.4- to 582.6-fold and 175.3- to 287.6-fold, respectively, even though the field populations had retained moderate or low levels of resistance to chlorpyrifos and hexaflumuron. The synergism experiment revealed that the resistance of the LS16 population to beta-cypermethrin may be mainly related to cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s), which was responsible for the highest increase ratio of 37.97-fold, for piperonyl butoxide, rather than either carboxylesterase (CarE) or glutathione S-transferase (GST). The cytochrome P450 ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase activity of the LS16 population was also the strongest among the treatments (P<0.05). Non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (native PAGE) indicated that enhanced E11, E13 and E15-E16 bands in the LS16 population likely contribute to the development of resistance to beta-cypermethrin.
ESTHER : Wang_2018_Pestic.Biochem.Physiol_146_71
PubMedSearch : Wang_2018_Pestic.Biochem.Physiol_146_71
PubMedID: 29626995

Title : High expression of NDRG3 associates with unfavorable overall survival in non-small cell lung cancer - Luo_2018_Cancer.Biomark_21_461
Author(s) : Luo X , Hou N , Chen X , Xu Z , Xu J , Wang L , Yang S , Liu S , Xu L , Chen Y , Xiong L , Wang J , Fan W
Ref : Cancer Biomark , 21 :461 , 2018
Abstract : BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: N-myc downstream-regulated gene 3 (NDRG3) is one of the important members of the NDRG family which crucially take part in cell proliferation, differentiation and other biological processes. METHODS: In this present study, western-blotting analysis was performed to evaluate NDRG3 expression in NSCLC cell lines. One-step quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) with 16 fresh-frozen NSCLC samples and immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis in 100 NSCLC cases were conducted to explore the relationship between NDRG3 expression and the clinicopathological characteristics of NSCLC. RESULTS: NDRG3 expression levels were statistically higher in NSCLC cell lines and tissue samples, compared with that of in non-cancerous cell line and tissue samples (p< 0.05). The IHC data demonstrated that the NDRG3 expression was significantly correlated with pathological grade (p= 0.038), N (p= 0.020) and TNM stage (p= 0.002). Survival analysis and Kaplan-Meier curve indicated that NDRG3 expression (p= 0.002) and T (p= 0.047) were independently associated with the unfavorable overall survival of patients with NSCLC. CONCLUSIONS: The data implied that NDRG3 expression may be identified as a new predictor in NSCLC prognosis.
ESTHER : Luo_2018_Cancer.Biomark_21_461
PubMedSearch : Luo_2018_Cancer.Biomark_21_461
PubMedID: 29171988

Title : A Human DPP4-Knockin Mouse's Susceptibility to Infection by Authentic and Pseudotyped MERS-CoV - Fan_2018_Viruses_10_
Author(s) : Fan C , Wu X , Liu Q , Li Q , Liu S , Lu J , Yang Y , Cao Y , Huang W , Liang C , Ying T , Jiang S , Wang Y
Ref : Viruses , 10 : , 2018
Abstract : Infection by the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes respiratory illness and has a high mortality rate (~35%). The requirement for the virus to be manipulated in a biosafety level three (BSL-3) facility has impeded development of urgently-needed antiviral agents. Here, we established anovel mouse model by inserting human dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (hDPP4) into the Rosa26 locus using CRISPR/Cas9, resulting in global expression of the transgene in a genetically stable mouse line. The mice were highly susceptible to infection by MERS-CoV clinical strain hCoV-EMC, which induced severe diffuse pulmonary disease in the animals, and could also be infected by an optimized pseudotyped MERS-CoV. Administration of the neutralizing monoclonal antibodies, H111-1 and m336, as well as a fusion inhibitor peptide, HR2P-M2, protected mice from challenge with authentic and pseudotyped MERS-CoV. These results confirmed that the hDPP4-knockin mouse is a novel model for studies of MERS-CoV pathogenesis and anti-MERS-CoV antiviral agents in BSL-3 and BSL-2facilities, respectively.
ESTHER : Fan_2018_Viruses_10_
PubMedSearch : Fan_2018_Viruses_10_
PubMedID: 30142928

Title : Molecular Characterization and Expression Analysis of Two Acetylcholinesterase Genes From the Small White Butterfly Pieris rapae (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) - Jiang_2018_J.Insect.Sci_18_
Author(s) : Jiang XC , Jiang XY , Liu S
Ref : J Insect Sci , 18 : , 2018
Abstract : Acetylcholinesterases (AChEs) are essential for the hydrolysis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and play crucial roles in the termination of neurotransmission. AChEs are encoded by the ace genes. However, the ace genes from the small white butterfly, Pieris rapae (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae), remained uncharacterized. In this study, two aces (Prace1 and Prace2) were identified from P. rapae. Prace1 encoded a PrAChE1 protein consisting of 694 amino acid residues, and Prace2 encoded the 638-amino-acid PrAChE2. The two identified PrAChEs both had features typical of AChEs, including the catalytic triad, choline-binding sites, an oxyanion hole, an acyl pocket, a peripheral anionic subsite, an FGESAG motif and 14 conserved aromatic amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Prace1 and Prace2 were clustered into two distinct groups: ace1 and ace2, respectively. The two Praces were distributed on different genomic scaffolds: Prace1 on scaffold 156 and Prace2 on scaffold 430. Additionally, Prace1 consisted of three exons and two introns, whereas Prace2 consisted of six exons and five introns. One amino acid mutation (Gly324Ala) in PrAChE1 and two (Ser291Gly and Ser431Phe) in PrAChE2 were consistent with mutations in other insect AChEs that are associated with insecticide insensitivity. Both Prace1 and Prace2 were highly expressed at the fifth-instar larval stage and in the larval head, and the transcriptional levels of Prace1 were significantly higher than those of Prace2 in all of the tested life stages and tissues. This is the first report characterizing two ace genes in P. rapae. The results pave the way for functional study of these genes.
ESTHER : Jiang_2018_J.Insect.Sci_18_
PubMedSearch : Jiang_2018_J.Insect.Sci_18_
PubMedID: 30184214
Gene_locus related to this paper: piera-a0a1u9x1z7 , piera-a0a1u9x205

Title : Association of genetic polymorphisms of telomere binding proteins with cholinesterase activity in omethoate-exposed workers - Ding_2018_Ecotoxicol.Environ.Saf_161_563
Author(s) : Ding M , Yang Y , Duan X , Wang S , Feng X , Wang T , Wang P , Liu S , Li L , Liu J , Tang L , Niu X , Zhang Y , Li G , Yao W , Cui L , Wang W
Ref : Ecotoxicology & Environmental Safety , 161 :563 , 2018
Abstract : Omethoate, an organophosphorous pesticide, can cause a variety of health effects, especially the decrease of cholinesterase activity. The aim of this study is to explore the association of genetic polymorphisms of telomere binding proteins with cholinesterase activity in omethoate-exposed population. Cholinesterase activities in whole blood, red blood cell and plasma were detected using acetylthiocholine and dithio-bis-(nitrobenzoic acid) method; Genetic Genotyping of POT1 rs1034794, POT1 rs10250202, TERF1 rs3863242 and TERT rs2736098 were performed with PCR-RFLP. The cholinesterase activities of whole blood, red blood cells and plasma in exposure group are significantly lower than that of the control group (P<0.001). Multivariate analysis indicates that exposure group (b=-1.016, P<0.001), agender (b=0.365, P<0.001), drinking (b=0.271, P=0.004) and TERF1rs3863242 (b=-0.368, P=0.016) had an impact on cholinesterase activities. The results suggest that individual carrying AG+GG genotypes in TERF1 gene rs3863242 polymorphism were susceptible to damage in cholinesterase induced by omethoate.
ESTHER : Ding_2018_Ecotoxicol.Environ.Saf_161_563
PubMedSearch : Ding_2018_Ecotoxicol.Environ.Saf_161_563
PubMedID: 29929132

Title : Application of hemoperfusion in severe acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning - Li_2017_Turk.J.Med.Sci_47_1277
Author(s) : Li Z , Wang G , Zhen G , Zhang Y , Liu J , Liu S
Ref : Turk J Med Sci , 47 :1277 , 2017
Abstract : Background/aim: The aim of this research is to investigate the clinical efficacy of hemoperfusion in the treatment of severe acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning (AOPP). Materials and methods: Patients meeting the inclusion criteria were divided into Groups 1 and 2 according to whether hemoperfusion was applied or not. Group 2 was observed as the control group. Conventional therapy for AOPP was given to Groups 1 and 2. Besides conventional treatment, patients in Group 1 were also treated with hemoperfusion therapy. Cholinesterase activity and blood glucose concentration were tested before hemoperfusion and for the first 3 days afterwards. The recovery time of 50% cholinesterase was recorded. At the same time, the incidence and mortality of intermediate syndrome was observed and compared. Results: The incidence and mortality of intermediate syndrome in Group 1 was obviously decreased, and the recovery time of cholinesterase activity was significantly shortened compared with Group 2. Conclusion: Hemoperfusion, used for treating severe AOPP, contributes to the improvement of cholinesterase activity, low incidence and mortality of intermediate syndrome, and increase in curative rate.
ESTHER : Li_2017_Turk.J.Med.Sci_47_1277
PubMedSearch : Li_2017_Turk.J.Med.Sci_47_1277
PubMedID: 29156874

Title : Synthesis, characterization, bioactivity and potential application of phenolic acid grafted chitosan: A review - Liu_2017_Carbohydr.Polym_174_999
Author(s) : Liu J , Pu H , Liu S , Kan J , Jin C
Ref : Carbohydr Polym , 174 :999 , 2017
Abstract : In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to the grafting of phenolic acid onto chitosan in order to enhance the bioactivity and widen the application of chitosan. Here, we present a comprehensive overview on the recent advances of phenolic acid grafted chitosan (phenolic acid-g-chitosan) in many aspects, including the synthetic method, structural characterization, biological activity, physicochemical property and potential application. In general, four kinds of techniques including carbodiimide based coupling, enzyme catalyzed grafting, free radical mediated grafting and electrochemical methods are frequently used for the synthesis of phenolic acid-g-chitosan. The structural characterization of phenolic acid-g-chitosan can be determined by several instrumental methods. The physicochemical properties of chitosan are greatly altered after grafting. As compared with chitosan, phenolic acid-g-chitosan exhibits enhanced antioxidant, antimicrobial, antitumor, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities. Notably, phenolic acid-g-chitosan shows potential applications in many fields as coating agent, packing material, encapsulation agent and bioadsorbent.
ESTHER : Liu_2017_Carbohydr.Polym_174_999
PubMedSearch : Liu_2017_Carbohydr.Polym_174_999
PubMedID: 28821158

Title : The dual DPP4 inhibitor and GPR119 agonist HBK001 regulates glycemic control and beta cell function ex and in vivo - Huan_2017_Sci.Rep_7_4351
Author(s) : Huan Y , Jiang Q , Li G , Bai G , Zhou T , Liu S , Li C , Liu Q , Sun S , Yang M , Guo N , Wang X , Wang S , Liu Y , Wang G , Huang H , Shen Z
Ref : Sci Rep , 7 :4351 , 2017
Abstract : Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) plays a vital role in glucose homeostasis and sustaining beta-cell function. Currently there are two major methods to enhance endogenous GLP-1 activity; inhibiting dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) or activating G protein-coupled receptor 119 (GPR119). Here we describe and validate a novel dual-target compound, HBK001, which can both inhibit DPP4 and activate GPR119 ex and in vivo. We show that HBK001 can promote glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in mouse and human primary islets. A single administration of HBK001 in ICR mice can increase plasma incretins levels much more efficiently than linagliptin, a classic DPP4 inhibitor. Long-term treatment of HBK001 in KKAy mice can ameliorate hyperglycemia as well as improve glucose tolerance, while linagliptin fails to achieve such glucose-lowing effects despite inhibiting 95% of serum DPP4 activity. Moreover, HBK001 can increase first-phase insulin secretion in KKAy mice, suggesting a direct effect on islet beta-cells via GPR119 activation. Furthermore, HBK001 can improve islet morphology, increase beta-cell proliferation and up-regulate genes involved in improved beta-cell function. Thus, we have identified, designed and synthesized a novel dual-target compound, HBK001, which represents a promising therapeutic candidate for type 2 diabetes, especially for patients who are insensitive to current DPP4 inhibitors.
ESTHER : Huan_2017_Sci.Rep_7_4351
PubMedSearch : Huan_2017_Sci.Rep_7_4351
PubMedID: 28659588

Title : Non-neuronal cholinergic activity is potentiated in myasthenia gravis - Han_2017_BMC.Neurol_17_28
Author(s) : Han B , Zhang C , Liu S , Xia Y , Sun H , Gong Z , Simard AR , Liu Q , Hao J
Ref : BMC Neurol , 17 :28 , 2017
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Non-neuronal acetylcholine (ACh) restricts autoimmune responses and attenuates inflammation by cholinergic anti-inflammation pathway. To date, the implication of ACh in myasthenia gravis (MG) remained unexplored. This study aimed to investigate the possible relationship between ACh levels, anti-muscle-specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK) antibody titers, main clinical features and outcomes of MG patients. METHODS: We successfully measured ACh levels in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 125 MG patients and 50 matched healthy controls by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). We assessed the quantitative MG (QMG) scores for each patient and titered anti-MuSK antibody. RESULTS: We found that PBMC-derived ACh level was significantly higher in MG patients, especially in patients of class III, IV-V, compared with that in controls (0.142 +/- 0.108 vs. 0.075 +/- 0.014 ng/million cells, p = 0.0003) according to the Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America clinical classification. Importantly, we also found that ACh levels were positively correlated with QMG scores (r = 0.83, p < 0.0001) and anti-MuSK Ab levels (r = 0.85, p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Our demonstration of elevated ACh levels in PBMCs of MG patients foreshadows potential new avenues for MG research and treatment.
ESTHER : Han_2017_BMC.Neurol_17_28
PubMedSearch : Han_2017_BMC.Neurol_17_28
PubMedID: 28178923

Title : The sea cucumber genome provides insights into morphological evolution and visceral regeneration - Zhang_2017_PLoS.Biol_15_e2003790
Author(s) : Zhang X , Sun L , Yuan J , Sun Y , Gao Y , Zhang L , Li S , Dai H , Hamel JF , Liu C , Yu Y , Liu S , Lin W , Guo K , Jin S , Xu P , Storey KB , Huan P , Zhang T , Zhou Y , Zhang J , Lin C , Li X , Xing L , Huo D , Sun M , Wang L , Mercier A , Li F , Yang H , Xiang J
Ref : PLoS Biol , 15 :e2003790 , 2017
Abstract : Apart from sharing common ancestry with chordates, sea cucumbers exhibit a unique morphology and exceptional regenerative capacity. Here we present the complete genome sequence of an economically important sea cucumber, A. japonicus, generated using Illumina and PacBio platforms, to achieve an assembly of approximately 805 Mb (contig N50 of 190 Kb and scaffold N50 of 486 Kb), with 30,350 protein-coding genes and high continuity. We used this resource to explore key genetic mechanisms behind the unique biological characters of sea cucumbers. Phylogenetic and comparative genomic analyses revealed the presence of marker genes associated with notochord and gill slits, suggesting that these chordate features were present in ancestral echinoderms. The unique shape and weak mineralization of the sea cucumber adult body were also preliminarily explained by the contraction of biomineralization genes. Genome, transcriptome, and proteome analyses of organ regrowth after induced evisceration provided insight into the molecular underpinnings of visceral regeneration, including a specific tandem-duplicated prostatic secretory protein of 94 amino acids (PSP94)-like gene family and a significantly expanded fibrinogen-related protein (FREP) gene family. This high-quality genome resource will provide a useful framework for future research into biological processes and evolution in deuterostomes, including remarkable regenerative abilities that could have medical applications. Moreover, the multiomics data will be of prime value for commercial sea cucumber breeding programs.
ESTHER : Zhang_2017_PLoS.Biol_15_e2003790
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2017_PLoS.Biol_15_e2003790
PubMedID: 29023486
Gene_locus related to this paper: stija-a0a2g8k9s2 , stija-a0a2g8ka54 , stija-a0a2g8jd52 , stija-a0a2g8l0w8

Title : DWARF14, A Receptor Covalently Linked with the Active Form of Strigolactones, Undergoes Strigolactone-Dependent Degradation in Rice - Hu_2017_Front.Plant.Sci_8_1935
Author(s) : Hu Q , He Y , Wang L , Liu S , Meng X , Liu G , Jing Y , Chen M , Song X , Jiang L , Yu H , Wang B , Li J
Ref : Front Plant Sci , 8 :1935 , 2017
Abstract : Strigolactones (SLs) are the latest confirmed phytohormones that regulate shoot branching by inhibiting bud outgrowth in higher plants. Perception of SLs depends on a novel mechanism employing an enzyme-receptor DWARF14 (D14) that hydrolyzes SLs and becomes covalently modified. This stimulates the interaction between D14 and D3, leading to the ubiquitination and degradation of the transcriptional repressor protein D53. However, the regulation of SL perception in rice remains elusive. In this study, we provide evidences that D14 is ubiquitinated after SL treatment and degraded through the 26S proteasome system. The Lys280 site of the D14 amino acid sequence was important for SL-induced D14 degradation, but did not change the subcellular localization of D14 nor disturbed the interaction between D14 and D3, nor D53 degradation. Biochemical and genetic analysis indicated that the key amino acids in the catalytic center of D14 were essential for D14 degradation. We further showed that D14 degradation is dependent on D3 and is tightly correlated with protein levels of D53. These findings revealed that D14 degradation takes place following D53 degradation and functions as an important feedback regulation mechanism of SL perception in rice.
ESTHER : Hu_2017_Front.Plant.Sci_8_1935
PubMedSearch : Hu_2017_Front.Plant.Sci_8_1935
PubMedID: 29170677

Title : Effects of the antidepressant, mianserin, on early development of fish embryos at low environmentally relevant concentrations - Yang_2017_Ecotoxicol.Environ.Saf_150_144
Author(s) : Yang M , Liu S , Hu L , Zhan J , Lei P , Wu M
Ref : Ecotoxicology & Environmental Safety , 150 :144 , 2017
Abstract : Pharmaceuticals have been considered as emerging organic contaminants in the environment that might pose huge risk to the non-target aquatic organisms. Mianserin, a tetracyclic antidepressant, is present at low detectable concentrations in the aquatic environment; however, limited attention has been devoted to its potential adverse effects on the aquatic animals. In the present study, we first performed an acute toxicity test for mianserin exposure using zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos during 4-124h post fertilization (hpf). Time-dependent lethal concentrations of mianserin exposure on the zebrafish embryos were firstly determined at mg/L levels. Then, a series of sublethal concentrations of 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, 100, and 1000mug/L of mianserin were prepared for the short-term exposure of zebrafish embryos for 120h. The results showed that mianserin exposure reduced the body length of zebrafish larvae, in addition to altering multiple physiological and biochemical parameters in the exposed embryos/larvae. A dose-dependent inhibition of the total antioxidant capacity and total cholinesterase activity was revealed in the exposed fish larvae upon increasing the concentrations of mianserin exposure. A U-shaped concentration-dependent response curve was observed for the adrenocorticotropic hormone; however, an inversed U-shaped response curve was obtained for the monoamine oxidase level in response to mianserin exposure. Activities of the total adenosine triphosphatase (T-ATPase), Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, and Ca(2+)/Mg(2+)-ATPase were significantly increased in the fish larvae exposed to relatively high doses of mianserin; interestingly however, low dose of mianserin at 10ng/L inhibited their Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and T-ATPase activities. Additionally, the coordinated regulation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate and protein kinase A was observed in the mianserin-exposed fish larvae, implying a reserved signaling pathway involved in the fish response to the antidepressant. Therefore, our study demonstrated that mianserin exposure significantly affected the early development of fish embryos at environmentally relevant concentrations, and suggested that the risk of pharmaceutical contamination of the aquatic environment, even at low doses, should receive more attention.
ESTHER : Yang_2017_Ecotoxicol.Environ.Saf_150_144
PubMedSearch : Yang_2017_Ecotoxicol.Environ.Saf_150_144
PubMedID: 29272719

Title : Phylogenetic classification of Aureobasidium pullulans strains for production of feruloyl esterase - Rich_2016_Biotechnol.Lett_38_863
Author(s) : Rich JO , Manitchotpisit P , Peterson SW , Liu S , Leathers TD , Anderson AM
Ref : Biotechnol Lett , 38 :863 , 2016
Abstract : OBJECTIVE: The objective was to phylogenetically classify diverse strains of Aureobasidium pullulans and determine their production of feruloyl esterase.
RESULTS: Seventeen strains from the A. pullulans literature were phylogenetically classified. Phenotypic traits of color variation and endo-beta-1,4-xylanase overproduction were associated with phylogenetic clade 10 and particularly clade 8. Literature strains used for pullulan production all belonged to clade 7. These strains and 36 previously classified strains were tested for feruloyl esterase production, which was found to be associated with phylogenetic clades 4, 11, and particularly clade 8. Clade 8 strains NRRL 58552 and NRRL 62041 produced the highest levels of feruloyl esterase among strains tested.
CONCLUSIONS: Production of both xylanase and feruloyl esterase are associated with A. pullulans strains in phylogenetic clade 8, which is thus a promising source of enzymes with potential biotechnological applications.
ESTHER : Rich_2016_Biotechnol.Lett_38_863
PubMedSearch : Rich_2016_Biotechnol.Lett_38_863
PubMedID: 26875091

Title : Overexpression of CXCL3 can enhance the oncogenic potential of prostate cancer - Gui_2016_Int.Urol.Nephrol_48_701
Author(s) : Gui SL , Teng LC , Wang SQ , Liu S , Lin YL , Zhao XL , Liu L , Sui HY , Yang Y , Liang LC , Wang ML , Li XY , Cao Y , Li FY , Wang WQ
Ref : International Urology & Nephrology , 48 :701 , 2016
Abstract : PURPOSE: CXCL3 and its receptor CXCR2 were considered to play particularly important roles in the progression of malignancies. However, the investigations about CXCL3/CXCR2 axis in prostate cancer have been poorly involved. Herein we firstly reported our studies on the expression and biological roles of CXCL3 and CXCR2 in prostate cancer. METHODS: Expression levels of CXCL3 and CXCR2 in prostate cancer cell lines (PC-3, DU145 and LNCaP), immortalized prostate stromal cell line (WPMY-1) and immortalized prostate epithelial cell line (RWPE-1) were investigated by RT-PCR, ELISA and western blot, whereas expression levels of CXCL3 in a prostate tissue microarray were detected by immunohistochemistry. Cell counting kit-8 and transwell assays were, respectively, utilized to determine the effects of exogenous CXCL3 on the cell proliferation and migration. We further examined whether CXCL3 could regulate the expression of genes correlated with prostate tumorigenesis by RT- PCR. RESULTS: Elevated expression of CXCR2 was detected in DU145, LNCaP and RWPE-1. Moreover, high-level CXCL3 can be secreted by PC-3 and RWPE-1, and CXCL3 protein expression level in tissue microarray is concordant with prostate cancer metastasis. Exogenous CXCL3 does not contribute to proliferation, but has a significant effect on migration of prostate cancer cells and RWPE-1. Finally, our data showed that exogenous CXCL3 can regulate the expression of genes including ERK, TP73, NUMB, BAX and NDRG3. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that CXCL3 and its receptor CXCR2 are overexpressed in prostate cancer cells, prostate epithelial cells and prostate cancer tissues, which may play multiple roles in prostate cancer progression and metastasis.
ESTHER : Gui_2016_Int.Urol.Nephrol_48_701
PubMedSearch : Gui_2016_Int.Urol.Nephrol_48_701
PubMedID: 26837773

Title : Inkjet-assisted layer-by-layer printing of quantum dot\/enzyme microarrays for highly sensitive detection of organophosphorous pesticides - Luan_2016_Anal.Chim.Acta_916_77
Author(s) : Luan E , Zheng Z , Li X , Gu H , Liu S
Ref : Anal Chim Acta , 916 :77 , 2016
Abstract : We present a facile fabrication of layer-by-layer (LbL) microarrays of quantum dots (QDs) and acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AChE). The resulting arrays had several unique properties, such as low cost, high integration and excellent flexibility and time-saving. The presence of organophosphorous pesticides (OPs) can inhibit the AChE activity and thus changes the fluorescent intensity of QDs/AChE microscopic dot arrays. Therefore, the QDs/AChE microscopic dot arrays were used for the sensitive visual detection of OPs. Linear calibration for parathion and paraoxon was obtained in the range of 5-100 mug L(-1) under the optimized conditions with the limit of detection (LOD) of 10 mug L(-1). The arrays have been successfully used for detection of OPs in fruits and water real samples. The new array was validated by comparison with conventional high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS).
ESTHER : Luan_2016_Anal.Chim.Acta_916_77
PubMedSearch : Luan_2016_Anal.Chim.Acta_916_77
PubMedID: 27016441

Title : Conifer flavonoid compounds inhibit detoxification enzymes and synergize insecticides - Wang_2016_Pestic.Biochem.Physiol_127_1
Author(s) : Wang Z , Zhao Z , Cheng X , Liu S , Wei Q , Scott IM
Ref : Pestic Biochem Physiol , 127 :1 , 2016
Abstract : Detoxification by glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and esterases are important mechanisms associated with insecticide resistance. Discovery of novel GST and esterase inhibitors from phytochemicals could provide potential new insecticide synergists. Conifer tree species contain flavonoids, such as taxifolin, that inhibit in vitro GST activity. The objectives were to test the relative effectiveness of taxifolin as an enzyme inhibitor and as an insecticide synergist in combination with the organophosphorous insecticide, Guthion (50% azinphos-methyl), and the botanical insecticide, pyrethrum, using an insecticide-resistant Colorado potato beetle (CPB) Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) strain. Both taxifolin and its isomer, quercetin, increased the mortality of 1(st) instar CPB larvae after 48h when combined with Guthion, but not pyrethrum. Taxifolin had greater in vitro esterase inhibition compared with the commonly used esterase inhibitor, S, S, S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF). An in vivo esterase and GST inhibition effect after ingestion of taxifolin was measured, however DEF caused a greater suppression of esterase activity. This study demonstrated that flavonoid compounds have both in vitro and in vivo esterase inhibition, which is likely responsible for the insecticide synergism observed in insecticide-resistant CPB.
ESTHER : Wang_2016_Pestic.Biochem.Physiol_127_1
PubMedSearch : Wang_2016_Pestic.Biochem.Physiol_127_1
PubMedID: 26821651

Title : Donepezil delays photoreceptor apoptosis induced by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea in mice - Wu_2016_Exp.Ther.Med_11_2446
Author(s) : Wu L , Xu M , Liu S , Chen G , Zhang F , Zhao Y , Yi J
Ref : Exp Ther Med , 11 :2446 , 2016
Abstract : Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a group of inherited retinal degeneration diseases characterized by photoreceptor cell death that causes visual disturbances and eventual blindness. Intraperitoneal injection of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) causes photoreceptor loss, and is used to create an animal model for investigating the mechanisms that cause retinal degeneration diseases. Donepezil is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor that has a protective effect on retinal ganglion cells in vitro and in vivo, and it is understood that donepezil increases the expression of a heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), which serves to protect neurons. Hsp70 functions as a chaperone molecule that protects cells from protein aggregation and assists in the refolding of denatured proteins. In the present study, the effects of donepezil on photoreceptor survival in mice was investigated. It was observed that donepezil upregulates the expression of Hsp70, to increase resistance to MNU-induced photoreceptor cell apoptosis by using its anti-apoptotic properties. In addition, the present study observed that Hsp70 promotes photoreceptor cell survival by upregulating the expression levels of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2). In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that donepezil has the potential to be used as a treatment for retinal degenerative diseases.
ESTHER : Wu_2016_Exp.Ther.Med_11_2446
PubMedSearch : Wu_2016_Exp.Ther.Med_11_2446
PubMedID: 27284332

Title : High expression of NDRG3 associates with positive lymph node metastasis and unfavourable overall survival in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma - Ma_2016_Pathology_48_691
Author(s) : Ma J , Liu S , Zhang W , Zhang F , Wang S , Wu L , Yan R , Wang C , Zha Z , Sun J
Ref : Pathology , 48 :691 , 2016
Abstract : N-myc downstream-regulated gene 3 (NDRG3), which belongs to the NDRG family, is believed to play important roles in human cancer. In this present study, one-step quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and western blotting tests with 10 fresh-frozen laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) samples and immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis in 109 LSCC cases were performed to investigate the relationship between NDRG3 expression and the clinicopathological characteristics of LSCC. Results demonstrated that NDRG3 mRNA and protein expression levels were statistically higher in LSCC tissues than that in non-cancerous tissues (all p<0.05). IHC data showed that the NDRG3 protein expression was remarkably correlated with lymph node metastasis (p=0.043). Univariate and multivariate survival analysis implied that high NDRG3 expression (p=0.004), lymph node metastasis (p=0.044) and TNM stage (p=0.020) were independently associated with the unfavourable overall survival of patients with LSCC. The above findings suggested that NDRG3 may be identified as a novel biomarker predicting the prognosis of LSCC.
ESTHER : Ma_2016_Pathology_48_691
PubMedSearch : Ma_2016_Pathology_48_691
PubMedID: 27780595

Title : Molecular characterization of two acetylcholinesterase genes from the rice leaffolder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Lepidoptera: pyralidae) - Wang_2016_Arch.Insect.Biochem.Physiol_93_129
Author(s) : Wang DM , Zhang BX , Liu XM , Rao XJ , Li SG , Li MY , Liu S
Ref : Archives of Insect Biochemistry & Physiology , 93 :129 , 2016
Abstract : In this study, two full-length cDNA sequences (Cmace1 and Cmace2) encoding putative acetylcholinesterases (AChEs) were cloned and characterized from the rice leaffolder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis, an important lepidopteran rice pest in Asia. Cmace1 encodes a CmAChE1 consisting of 689 amino acid residues, while Cmace2 encodes a 639 amino acids CmAChE2. The two CmAChEs both have N-terminal signal peptides and conserved motifs including the catalytic triad, choline-binding sites, oxianion hole, acyl pocket, peripheral anionic subsite, and the characteristic FGESAG motif and conserved 14 aromatic amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Cmace1 and Cmace2 are clustered into distinct clusters that are completely diverged from each other. Reverse-transcription quantitative PCR analysis revealed that Cmace1 and Cmace2 were predominately expressed in the larval brain and at the fifth-instar larvae stage, and the transcription levels of Cmace1 were significantly higher than those of Cmace2 in all the tested samples. Recombinant CmAChE1 and CmAChE2 were heterologously expressed in baculovirus system. Using acetylthiocholine iodide (ATChI) as substrate, the Michaelis constant (Km ) values of rCmAChE1 and rCmAChE2 were 39.81 +/- 6.49 and 68.29 +/- 6.72 mumol/l, respectively; and the maximum velocity (Vmax ) values of the two rCmAChEs were 0.60 +/- 0.02 and 0.31 +/- 0.06 mumol/min/mg protein, respectively. Inhibition assay indicated that rCmAChE1 was more sensitive to the organophosphate insecticides chlorpyrifos and triazophos than rCmAChE2. This study is the first report of molecular cloning and biochemical characterization of two acetylcholinesterase genes/enzymes in C. medinalis.
ESTHER : Wang_2016_Arch.Insect.Biochem.Physiol_93_129
PubMedSearch : Wang_2016_Arch.Insect.Biochem.Physiol_93_129
PubMedID: 27447944
Gene_locus related to this paper: cname-ACHE2

Title : Aphicidal Activity of Illicium verum Fruit Extracts and Their Effects on the Acetylcholinesterase and Glutathione S-transferases Activities in Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) - Zhou_2016_J.Insect.Sci_16_
Author(s) : Zhou BG , Wang S , Dou TT , Liu S , Li MY , Hua RM , Li SG , Lin HF
Ref : J Insect Sci , 16 : , 2016
Abstract : This study aims to explore the aphicidal activity and underlying mechanism of Illicium verum Hook. f. that is used as both food and medicine. The contact toxicity of the extracts from I. verum fruit with methyl alcohol (MA), ethyl acetate (EA), and petroleum ether (PE) against Myzus persicae (Sulzer), and the activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) of M. persicae after contact treatment were tested. The results showed that MA, EA, and PE extracts of 1.000 mg/l caused, respectively, M. persicae mortalities of 68.93%, 89.95% and 74.46%, and the LC50 of MA, EA, and PE extracts were 0.31, 0.14 and 0.27 mg/l at 72 h after treatment, respectively; the activities of AChE and GSTs in M. persicae were obviously inhibited by the three extracts, as compared with the control, with strong dose and time-dependent effects, the inhibition rates on the whole reached more than 50.00% at the concentration of 1.000 mg/l at 72 h after treatment. The inhibition of the extracts on AChE and GSTs activities (EA extract > PE extract > MA extract) were correlated with theirs contact toxic effects, so it is inferred that the decline of the metabolic enzymes activities may be one of important reasons of M. persicae death. The study results suggested that I. verum extracts have potential as a eco-friendly biopesticide in integrated pest management against M. persicae.
ESTHER : Zhou_2016_J.Insect.Sci_16_
PubMedSearch : Zhou_2016_J.Insect.Sci_16_
PubMedID: 26826651

Title : Neuroligin 1 modulates striatal glutamatergic neurotransmission in a pathway and NMDAR subunit-specific manner - Espinosa_2015_Front.Synaptic.Neurosci_7_11
Author(s) : Espinosa F , Xuan Z , Liu S , Powell CM
Ref : Front Synaptic Neurosci , 7 :11 , 2015
Abstract : Together with its presynaptic partner Neurexin 1 (Nxn1), Neuroligin 1 (NL1) participates in synapse specification and synapse maintenance. We and others have shown that NL1 can also modulate glutamatergic synaptic function in the central nervous system of rodent models. These molecular/cellular changes can translate into altered animal behaviors that are thought to be analogous to symptomatology of neuropsychiatric disorders. For example, in dorsal striatum of NL1 deletion mice, we previously reported that the ratio N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) mediated synaptic currents to alpha-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate receptor (AMPAR) mediated synaptic currents (NMDA/AMPA) is reduced in medium spiny neuron (MSNs). Importantly, this reduction in NMDA/AMPA ratio correlated with increased repetitive grooming. The striatum is the input nucleus of the basal ganglia (BG). Classical models of this circuitry imply that there are two principal pathways that render distinct and somewhat opposite striatal outputs critical to the function of these nuclei in modulating motor behavior. Thus, we set out to better characterize the effects of NL1 deletion on direct and indirect pathways of the dorsal striatum by genetically labeling MSNs participating in the direct and indirect pathways. We demonstrate that a decrease in NMDAR-mediated currents is limited to MSNs of the direct pathway. Furthermore, the decrease in NMDAR-mediated currents is largely due to a reduction in function of NMDARs containing the GluN2A subunit. In contrast, indirect pathway MSNs in NL1 knockout (KO) mice showed a reduction in the frequency of miniature excitatory neurotransmission not observed in the direct pathway. Thus, NL1 deletion differentially affects direct and indirect pathway MSNs in dorsal striatum. These findings have potential implications for striatal function in NL1 KO mice.
ESTHER : Espinosa_2015_Front.Synaptic.Neurosci_7_11
PubMedSearch : Espinosa_2015_Front.Synaptic.Neurosci_7_11
PubMedID: 26283958

Title : Effect of Venom from the Jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai on the Silkworm Bombyx mori L - Yu_2015_Toxins.(Basel)_7_3876
Author(s) : Yu H , Li R , Chen X , Yue Y , Xing R , Liu S , Li P
Ref : Toxins (Basel) , 7 :3876 , 2015
Abstract : The silkworm Bombyx mori L. (B. mori) has a significant impact on the economy by producing more than 80% of the globally produced raw silk. The exposure of silkworm to pesticides may cause adverse effects on B. mori, such as a reduction in the production and quality of silk. This study aims to assay the effect of venom from the jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai on growth, cuticle and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity of the silkworm B. mori by the leaf dipping method. The experimental results revealed that the four samples caused neither antifeeding nor a lethal effect on B. mori. The sample SFV inhibited B. mori growth after 6 days of treatment in a dose-dependent manner. The samples SFV, DSFV and Fr-1 inhibited the precipitation and synthesis of chitin in the cuticle after 12 and 14 days of treatment. In the case of the four samples, the AChE was significantly improved after 14 days of treatment.
ESTHER : Yu_2015_Toxins.(Basel)_7_3876
PubMedSearch : Yu_2015_Toxins.(Basel)_7_3876
PubMedID: 26404374

Title : Effects of supplementation of rumen-protected choline on growth performance, meat quality and gene expression in longissimus dorsi muscle of lambs - Li_2015_Arch.Anim.Nutr_69_340
Author(s) : Li H , Wang H , Yu L , Wang M , Liu S , Sun L , Chen Q
Ref : Arch Anim Nutr , 69 :340 , 2015
Abstract : This study determined the effects of rumen-protected choline (RPC) on growth performance, blood lipids, meat quality and expression of genes involved in fatty-acid metabolism in young lambs. A total of 24 Dorper x Hu lambs (about 20 kg body weight) were kept in individual pens and fed diets with 0%, 0.25%, 0.50% and 0.75% RPC for 60 d. Supplementation of 0.25% RPC increased average daily gain of lambs, whereas treatments had no significant effect on feed intake. The pH values of meat were increased at 0.25% RPC and both, dripping loss and shear force of meat, were significantly decreased in RPC-supplemented lambs. No significant changes were observed for dressing percentage and intramuscular fat. RPC supplementations had no significant effect on the concentrations of triglycerides and cholesterols in serum, but the concentration of high-density lipoprotein was decreased at 0.50% RPC and that of low-density lipoprotein was increased at 0.75% RPC. In m. longissimus dorsi, the expressions of cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and fatty-acid synthase (FASN) genes were increased at 0.25% RPC. Supplementation of 0.75% RPC increased the expressions of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and FASN genes, decreased the expression of ACC gene and had no effect on CD36 gene. The results of this study showed that supplementation of 0.25% RPC could promote growth performance of lambs and improve meat quality. This may be mediated by effects on blood lipid profiles and the metabolism of fatty acids in skeleton muscles. However, the beneficial effects of 0.25% RPC supplementation need to be validated with a larger number of animals. Higher doses, particularly 0.75% RPC, showed adverse effects on live weight gain and ACC expression.
ESTHER : Li_2015_Arch.Anim.Nutr_69_340
PubMedSearch : Li_2015_Arch.Anim.Nutr_69_340
PubMedID: 26305383

Title : Discovery a novel organic solvent tolerant esterase from Salinispora arenicola CNP193 through genome mining - Fang_2015_Int.J.Biol.Macromol_80_334
Author(s) : Fang Y , Wang S , Liu S , Jiao Y
Ref : Int J Biol Macromol , 80 :334 , 2015
Abstract : An esterase gene, encoding a 325-amino-acid protein (SAestA), was mined form obligate marine actinomycete strain Salinispora arenicola CNP193 genome sequence. Phylogenetic analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence showed that the enzyme belonged to the family IV of lipolytic enzymes. The gene was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli as a His-tagged protein, purified and characterized. The molecular weight of His-tagged SAestA is approximately 38kDa. SAestA-His6 was active in a temperature (5-40 degrees C) and pH range (7.0-11.0), and maximal activity was determined at pH 9.0 and 30 degrees C. The activity was severely inhibited by Hg2+, Cu2+, and Zn2+. In particular, this enzyme showed remarkable stability in presence of organic solvents (25%, v/v) with log P>2.0 even after incubation for 7 days. All these characteristics suggested that SAestA may be a potential candidate for application in industrial processes in aqueous/organic media.
ESTHER : Fang_2015_Int.J.Biol.Macromol_80_334
PubMedSearch : Fang_2015_Int.J.Biol.Macromol_80_334
PubMedID: 26118483

Title : Identification of Putative Carboxylesterase and Glutathione S-transferase Genes from the Antennae of the Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) - Liu_2015_J.Insect.Sci_15_
Author(s) : Liu S , Gong ZJ , Rao XJ , Li MY , Li SG
Ref : J Insect Sci , 15 : , 2015
Abstract : In insects, rapid degradation of odorants in antennae is extremely important for the sensitivity of olfactory receptor neurons. Odorant degradation in insect antennae is mediated by multiple enzymes, especially the carboxylesterases (CXEs) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). The Asiatic rice borer, Chilo suppressalis, is an economically important lepidopteran pest which causes great economic damage to cultivated rice crops in many Asian countries. In this study, we identified 19 putative CXE and 16 GST genes by analyzing previously constructed antennal transcriptomes of C. suppressalis. BLASTX best hit results showed that these genes are most homologous to their respective orthologs in other lepidopteran species. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that these CXE and GST genes were clustered into various clades. Reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays showed that three CXE genes (CsupCXE8, CsupCXE13, and CsupCXE18) are antennae-enriched. These genes are candidates for involvement in odorant degradation. Unexpectedly, none of the GST genes were found to be antennae-specific. Our results pave the way for future researches of the odorant degradation mechanism of C. suppressalis at the molecular level.
ESTHER : Liu_2015_J.Insect.Sci_15_
PubMedSearch : Liu_2015_J.Insect.Sci_15_
PubMedID: 26198868
Gene_locus related to this paper: chisp-a0a0k0xrs9 , chisp-a0a0k0xrw3 , chisp-a0a0k0xrv9 , chisp-a0a0b4ry26 , chisp-a0a0b4ryb9 , chisp-a0a0b4ryc8

Title : Expression, Purification and Characterisation of Secreted Esterase Rv2525c from Mycobacterium tuberculosis - Dang_2015_Appl.Biochem.Biotechnol_176_1
Author(s) : Dang G , Chen L , Li Z , Deng X , Cui Y , Cao J , Yu S , Pang H , Liu S
Ref : Appl Biochem Biotechnol , 176 :1 , 2015
Abstract : Rv2525c from Mycobacterium tuberculosis belongs to the domain of unknown function (DUF) 1906 superfamily, but it also contains the motif G-X-S-X-G, the consensus active site sequence of the ester/lipid family. Biochemical analysis indicated that the mature Rv2525c protein is secreted. The discovery and characterisation of novel enzymes secreted by M. tuberculosis are vital for understanding the pathogenesis of the most important human bacterial pathogen. The proteome of M. tuberculosis contains over 400 potentially secreted proteins, of which the majority remain uncharacterised. In this study, we cloned and expressed the rv2525c gene in Escherichia coli and purified the recombinant protein using a three-step process (affinity chromatography, ion exchange chromatography, gel filtration chromatography), obtaining more than 99% pure protein. Mass spectrometry was performed to confirm that the purified protein was Rv2525c. Circular dichroism spectroscopy results showed that its conformation was stable at pH ranging from 6.0 to 8.0 and at temperatures <= 40 degrees C. Moreover, we tested the esterase activity using p-nitrophenyl esters (C2, C4, C6, C8, C12, C14, C16). This enzyme exhibited broad substrate acceptance, preferentially hydrolysing p-nitrophenyl butyrate (C4) at pH 7.0 and 37 degrees C. The dynamic activity test demonstrated that the optimal conditions were pH 8.0 and 38 degrees C. Site-directed mutagenesis studies revealed that Gly 113, Ser 115 and Gly 117 residues play catalytic roles in Rv2525c.
ESTHER : Dang_2015_Appl.Biochem.Biotechnol_176_1
PubMedSearch : Dang_2015_Appl.Biochem.Biotechnol_176_1
PubMedID: 25869294

Title : Identification and Characterization of Lipase Activity and Immunogenicity of LipL from Mycobacterium tuberculosis - Cao_2015_PLoS.One_10_e0138151
Author(s) : Cao J , Dang G , Li H , Li T , Yue Z , Li N , Liu Y , Liu S , Chen L
Ref : PLoS ONE , 10 :e0138151 , 2015
Abstract : Lipids and lipid-metabolizing esterases/lipases are highly important for the mycobacterial life cycle and, possibly, for mycobacterial virulence. In this study, we expressed 10 members of the Lip family of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Among the 10 proteins, LipL displayed a significantly high enzymatic activity for the hydrolysis of long-chain lipids. The optimal temperature for the lipase activity of LipL was demonstrated to be 37 degrees C, and the optimal pH was 8.0. The lipase active center was not the conserved motif G-x-S-x-G, but rather the S-x-x-K and GGG motifs, and the key catalytic amino acid residues were identified as G50, S88, and K91, as demonstrated through site-directed mutagenesis experiments. A three-dimensional modeling structure of LipL was constructed, which showed that the GGG motif was located in the surface of a pocket structure. Furthermore, the subcellular localization of LipL was demonstrated to be on the mycobacterial surface by Western blot analysis. Our results revealed that the LipL protein could induce a strong humoral immune response in humans and activate a CD8+ T cell-mediated response in mice. Overall, our study identified and characterized a novel lipase denoted LipL from M. tuberculosis, and demonstrated that LipL functions as an immunogen that activates both humoral and cell-mediated responses.
ESTHER : Cao_2015_PLoS.One_10_e0138151
PubMedSearch : Cao_2015_PLoS.One_10_e0138151
PubMedID: 26398213
Gene_locus related to this paper: myctu-Rv1076 , myctu-Rv2485c , myctu-Rv3097c

Title : Development of ESI-MS-based continuous enzymatic assay for real-time monitoring of enzymatic reactions of acetylcholinesterase - Fu_2015_J.Chromatogr.B.Analyt.Technol.Biomed.Life.Sci_990_169
Author(s) : Fu Q , Tang J , Cui M , Zheng Z , Liu Z , Liu S
Ref : Journal of Chromatography B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sciences , 990 :169 , 2015
Abstract : The continuous enzymatic assay based on ESI-MS was developed to real-time monitoring of enzymatic reactions of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The changes of product concentrations were continuously measured. Calibration curves were established for quantitative calculation. By this method, the Michaelis constant (Km) of acetylcholinesterase was determined to be 70.60+/-0.93muM and Huperzine A as an effective inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase displayed a mixed inhibition with competitive and noncompetitive inhibition behaviors. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) and inhibition constant (Ki) value of Huperzine A were also calculated as 48.51+/-1.16nM and 26.73+/-0.27nM, respectively. This method provides the rapid and accurate ways to monitor enzyme reactions.
ESTHER : Fu_2015_J.Chromatogr.B.Analyt.Technol.Biomed.Life.Sci_990_169
PubMedSearch : Fu_2015_J.Chromatogr.B.Analyt.Technol.Biomed.Life.Sci_990_169
PubMedID: 25875590

Title : Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Deficiency or Inhibition Attenuates MPTP-Induced Parkinsonism - Qin_2015_Mol.Neurobiol_52_187
Author(s) : Qin X , Wu Q , Lin L , Sun A , Liu S , Li X , Cao X , Gao T , Luo P , Zhu X , Wang X
Ref : Molecular Neurobiology , 52 :187 , 2015
Abstract : Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibition has been demonstrated to have beneficial effects on various diseases, such as hypertension, diabetes, and brain ischemia. However, whether sEH inhibition has therapeutic potential in Parkinson's disease is still unknown. In this paper, we found that sEH expression is increased in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydro pyridine (MPTP)-treated mice, and sEH deficiency and inhibition significantly attenuated tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive cell loss and improved rotarod performance. The substrate of sEH, 14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (14,15-EET), protected TH-positive cells and alleviated the rotarod performance deficits of wild-type mice but not sEH-knockout mice. Moreover, the 14,15-EET antagonist 14,15-epoxyeicosa-5(Z)-enoic acid (14,15-EEZE) abolished the neuronal protective effects of sEH deficiency. In primary cultured cortical neurons, MPP(+) induced significant Akt inactivation in neurons from sEH wild-type mice, and this effect was not observed in neurons from knockout mice. Our data indicate that sEH deficiency and inhibition increased 14,15-EET in MPTP-treated mice, which activated the Akt-mediated protection of TH-positive neurons and behavioral functioning. We also found that sEH deficiency attenuated TH-positive cell loss in a paraquat-induced mouse model of Parkinson's. Our data suggest that sEH inhibition might be a powerful tool to protect dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease.
ESTHER : Qin_2015_Mol.Neurobiol_52_187
PubMedSearch : Qin_2015_Mol.Neurobiol_52_187
PubMedID: 25128026

Title : Effects of electroacupuncture on recovery of the electrophysiological properties of the rabbit gastrocnemius after contusion: an in vivo animal study - Liu_2015_BMC.Complement.Altern.Med_15_69
Author(s) : Liu S , Wang R , Luo D , Xu Q , Xiao C , Lin P , Yu Z , Zhao X , Cai R , Ma J , Zhang Q , Wang Y
Ref : BMC Complement Altern Med , 15 :69 , 2015
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Our preliminary studies indicated that electroacupuncture (EA) at the ST36 and Ashi acupoints could promote regeneration of the rabbit gastrocnemius (GM) by improving microcirculation perfusion, promoting the recovery of myofiber structures, and inhibiting excessive fibrosis. However, the effects of EA on recovery of the electrophysiological properties of the GM after contusion are not yet clear. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of EA at the Zusanli (ST36) and Ashi acupoints with regard to recovery of the electrophysiological properties of the rabbit GM after contusion.
METHODS: Forty-five rabbits were randomly divided into three groups: normal, contusion, and EA. After an acute GM contusion was produced (in rabbits in the contusion and EA groups), rabbits in the EA group were treated with electrostimulation at the ST36 and Ashi acupoints with 0.4 mA (2 Hz) for 15 min. The contusion group received no EA treatment. At different time points (7, 14, and 28 days) after contusion, we performed surface electromyography (EMG) and measured the nerve conduction velocity (NCV) of the GM and the GM branch of the tibial nerve. We also examined acetylcholinesterase (AchE) and Agrin expression in the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) via immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: Compared with the contusion group, the EMG amplitude and NCV in rabbits in the EA group were significantly higher at all time points after contusion. AchE and Agrin expression in the EA group were significantly higher than those in the contusion group.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that EA at the ST36 and Ashi acupoints effectively promoted recovery of the electrophysiological properties of the rabbit GM after contusion. The effects of EA were realized by promotion of the regeneration of myofibers and nerve fibers, as well as acceleration of NMJ reconstruction by upregulation of AchE and Agrin expression in the motor endplate area.
ESTHER : Liu_2015_BMC.Complement.Altern.Med_15_69
PubMedSearch : Liu_2015_BMC.Complement.Altern.Med_15_69
PubMedID: 25887510

Title : Deciphering the venomic transcriptome of killer-wasp Vespa velutina - Liu_2015_Sci.Rep_5_9454
Author(s) : Liu Z , Chen S , Zhou Y , Xie C , Zhu B , Zhu H , Liu S , Wang W , Chen H , Ji Y
Ref : Sci Rep , 5 :9454 , 2015
Abstract : Wasp stings have been arising to be a severe public health problem in China in recent years. However, molecular information about lethal or toxic factors in wasp venom is extremely lacking. In this study, we used two pyrosequencing platforms to analyze the transcriptome of Vespa velutina, the most common wasp species native in China. Besides the substantial amount of transcripts encoding for allergens usually regarded as the major lethal factor of wasp sting, a greater abundance of hemostasis-impairing toxins and neurotoxins in the venom of V. velutina were identified, implying that toxic reactions and allergic effects are envenoming strategy for the dangerous outcomes. The pattern of differentially expressed genes before and after venom extraction clearly indicates that the manifestation of V. velutina stings depends on subtle regulations in the metabolic pathway required for toxin recruitment. This comparative analysis offers timely clues for developing clinical treatments for wasp envenoming in China and around the world.
ESTHER : Liu_2015_Sci.Rep_5_9454
PubMedSearch : Liu_2015_Sci.Rep_5_9454
PubMedID: 25896434
Gene_locus related to this paper: vesve-pa1

Title : Synthesis and biological evaluation of 7H-thiazolo[3,2-b]-1,2,4-triazin-7-one derivatives as dual binding site acetylcholinesterase inhibitors - Liu_2014_Eur.J.Med.Chem_81C_237
Author(s) : Liu S , Shang R , Shi L , Wan DC , Lin H
Ref : Eur Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 81C :237 , 2014
Abstract : A series of 7H-thiazolo[3,2-b]-1,2,4-triazin-7-one derivatives 7a-i were synthesized and evaluated as novel acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors. All target compounds were evaluated in vitro for the inhibitory activities against AChE via Ellman colorimetric assay. Compound 7c showed an excellent (89.82%) inhibitory activity. The molecular docking studies revealed that 7c, 7d and 7g, with the lateral chain in the para position of the phenyl ring, possessed an optimal docking pose and can perfectly fit into the catalytic active site (CAS) and peripheral anionic site (PAS), simultaneously, and, consequently, exhibited higher inhibitory potency than 7b that bears the same lateral chain as 7g, but in the ortho position of the phenyl ring.
ESTHER : Liu_2014_Eur.J.Med.Chem_81C_237
PubMedSearch : Liu_2014_Eur.J.Med.Chem_81C_237
PubMedID: 24844448

Title : Autism-related neuroligin-3 mutation alters social behavior and spatial learning - Jaramillo_2014_Autism.Res_7_264
Author(s) : Jaramillo TC , Liu S , Pettersen A , Birnbaum SG , Powell CM
Ref : Autism Res , 7 :264 , 2014
Abstract : Multiple candidate genes have been identified for autism spectrum disorders. While some of these genes reach genome-wide significance, others, such as the R451C point mutation in the synaptic cell adhesion molecule neuroligin-3, appear to be rare. Interestingly, two brothers with the same R451C point mutation in neuroligin-3 present clinically on seemingly disparate sides of the autism spectrum. These clinical findings suggest genetic background may play a role in modifying the penetrance of a particular autism-associated mutation. Animal models may contribute additional support for such mutations as functionally relevant and can provide mechanistic insights. Previously, in collaboration with the Sudhof laboratory, we reported that mice with an R451C substitution in neuroligin-3 displayed social deficits and enhanced spatial learning. While some of these behavioral abnormalities have since been replicated independently in the Sudhof laboratory, observations from the Crawley laboratory failed to replicate these findings in a similar neuroligin-3 mutant mouse model and suggested that genetic background may contribute to variation in observations across laboratories. Therefore, we sought to replicate our findings in the neuroligin-3 R451C point mutant knock-in mouse model (NL3R451C) in a different genetic background. We backcrossed our NL3R451C mouse line onto a 129S2/SvPasCrl genetic background and repeated a subset of our previous behavioral testing. NL3R451C mice on a 129S2/SvPasCrl displayed social deficits, enhanced spatial learning, and increased locomotor activity. These data extend our previous findings that NL3R451C mice exhibit autism-relevant behavioral abnormalities and further suggest that different genetic backgrounds can modify this behavioral phenotype through epistatic genetic interactions. Autism Res 2014, 7: 264-272. (c) 2014 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
ESTHER : Jaramillo_2014_Autism.Res_7_264
PubMedSearch : Jaramillo_2014_Autism.Res_7_264
PubMedID: 24619977
Gene_locus related to this paper: mouse-3neur

Title : Whole-genome sequence of a flatfish provides insights into ZW sex chromosome evolution and adaptation to a benthic lifestyle - Chen_2014_Nat.Genet_46_253
Author(s) : Chen S , Zhang G , Shao C , Huang Q , Liu G , Zhang P , Song W , An N , Chalopin D , Volff JN , Hong Y , Li Q , Sha Z , Zhou H , Xie M , Yu Q , Liu Y , Xiang H , Wang N , Wu K , Yang C , Zhou Q , Liao X , Yang L , Hu Q , Zhang J , Meng L , Jin L , Tian Y , Lian J , Yang J , Miao G , Liu S , Liang Z , Yan F , Li Y , Sun B , Zhang H , Zhu Y , Du M , Zhao Y , Schartl M , Tang Q , Wang J
Ref : Nat Genet , 46 :253 , 2014
Abstract : Genetic sex determination by W and Z chromosomes has developed independently in different groups of organisms. To better understand the evolution of sex chromosomes and the plasticity of sex-determination mechanisms, we sequenced the whole genomes of a male (ZZ) and a female (ZW) half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis). In addition to insights into adaptation to a benthic lifestyle, we find that the sex chromosomes of these fish are derived from the same ancestral vertebrate protochromosome as the avian W and Z chromosomes. Notably, the same gene on the Z chromosome, dmrt1, which is the male-determining gene in birds, showed convergent evolution of features that are compatible with a similar function in tongue sole. Comparison of the relatively young tongue sole sex chromosomes with those of mammals and birds identified events that occurred during the early phase of sex-chromosome evolution. Pertinent to the current debate about heterogametic sex-chromosome decay, we find that massive gene loss occurred in the wake of sex-chromosome 'birth'.
ESTHER : Chen_2014_Nat.Genet_46_253
PubMedSearch : Chen_2014_Nat.Genet_46_253
PubMedID: 24487278
Gene_locus related to this paper: cynse-a0a3p8wch2 , cynse-a0a3p8vd14 , cynse-a0a3p8w747 , cynse-a0a3p8wq40 , cynse-a0a3p8wul3 , cynse-a0a3p8vqr4 , cynse-a0a3p8vmz4

Title : Expression of DPP6 in Meckel's cartilage and tooth germs during mouse facial development - Du_2014_Biotech.Histochem_89_14
Author(s) : Du J , Fan Z , Ma X , Wu Y , Liu S , Gao Y , Shen Y , Fan M , Wang S
Ref : Biotech Histochem , 89 :14 , 2014
Abstract : Dipeptidyl peptidase-like protein 6 (DPP6), a member of the dipeptidyl aminopeptidase family, plays distinct roles in brain development, but its expression in embryonic Meckel's cartilage and tooth germs development is unknown. We analyzed the expression pattern of DPP6 in Meckel's cartilage and tooth germs development using in situ hybridization. DPP6 was detected in different patterns in Meckel's cartilage and tooth germs during mouse facial development from 11.5 to 13.5 days post-coitus (dpc) embryos. The expression pattern of DPP6 suggests that it may be involved in mandible and tooth development.
ESTHER : Du_2014_Biotech.Histochem_89_14
PubMedSearch : Du_2014_Biotech.Histochem_89_14
PubMedID: 23750656

Title : Whole genome sequencing of Ethiopian highlanders reveals conserved hypoxia tolerance genes - Udpa_2014_Genome.Biol_15_R36
Author(s) : Udpa N , Ronen R , Zhou D , Liang J , Stobdan T , Appenzeller O , Yin Y , Du Y , Guo L , Cao R , Wang Y , Jin X , Huang C , Jia W , Cao D , Guo G , Claydon VE , Hainsworth R , Gamboa JL , Zibenigus M , Zenebe G , Xue J , Liu S , Frazer KA , Li Y , Bafna V , Haddad GG
Ref : Genome Biol , 15 :R36 , 2014
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Although it has long been proposed that genetic factors contribute to adaptation to high altitude, such factors remain largely unverified. Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing have made it feasible to analyze genome-wide patterns of genetic variation in human populations. Since traditionally such studies surveyed only a small fraction of the genome, interpretation of the results was limited.
RESULTS: We report here the results of the first whole genome resequencing-based analysis identifying genes that likely modulate high altitude adaptation in native Ethiopians residing at 3,500 m above sea level on Bale Plateau or Chennek field in Ethiopia. Using cross-population tests of selection, we identify regions with a significant loss of diversity, indicative of a selective sweep. We focus on a 208 kbp gene-rich region on chromosome 19, which is significant in both of the Ethiopian subpopulations sampled. This region contains eight protein-coding genes and spans 135 SNPs. To elucidate its potential role in hypoxia tolerance, we experimentally tested whether individual genes from the region affect hypoxia tolerance in Drosophila. Three genes significantly impact survival rates in low oxygen: cic, an ortholog of human CIC, Hsl, an ortholog of human LIPE, and Paf-AHalpha, an ortholog of human PAFAH1B3.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study reveals evolutionarily conserved genes that modulate hypoxia tolerance. In addition, we show that many of our results would likely be unattainable using data from exome sequencing or microarray studies. This highlights the importance of whole genome sequencing for investigating adaptation by natural selection.
ESTHER : Udpa_2014_Genome.Biol_15_R36
PubMedSearch : Udpa_2014_Genome.Biol_15_R36
PubMedID: 24555826
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-LIPE

Title : Nanostructured photoelectrochemical biosensor for highly sensitive detection of organophosphorous pesticides - Li_2014_Biosens.Bioelectron_64C_1
Author(s) : Li X , Zheng Z , Liu X , Zhao S , Liu S
Ref : Biosensors & Bioelectronics , 64C :1 , 2014
Abstract : A sensitive photoelectrochemical (PEC) biosensor for detection of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) using the nanocomposite of CdSe@ZnS quantum dots (QDs) and graphene deposited on the ITO coated glass electrode as a photoactive electrode is presented. The integration of CdSe@ZnS/graphene nanocomposite with biomolecules acetylcholinesterase (AChE) as a biorecognition element yields a novel biosensing platform. Under visible light irradiation, the AChE-CdSe@ZnS/graphene nanocomposite can generate a stable photocurrent and the photocurrent is found to be inversely dependent on the concentration of OPs. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the photocurrents were proportional to the logarithm of paraoxon and dichlorvos within the concentration range of 10-12-10-6M. The detection limits (LOD) of the proposed biosensor for paraoxon and dichlorvos are as low as 10-14M and 10-12M. The photoelectrochemical biosensor shows good sensitivity, reproducibility, stability, and could be successfully applied to detection of OPs in real fruit samples.
ESTHER : Li_2014_Biosens.Bioelectron_64C_1
PubMedSearch : Li_2014_Biosens.Bioelectron_64C_1
PubMedID: 25173731

Title : Population genomics reveal recent speciation and rapid evolutionary adaptation in polar bears - Liu_2014_Cell_157_785
Author(s) : Liu S , Lorenzen ED , Fumagalli M , Li B , Harris K , Xiong Z , Zhou L , Korneliussen TS , Somel M , Babbitt C , Wray G , Li J , He W , Wang Z , Fu W , Xiang X , Morgan CC , Doherty A , O'Connell MJ , McInerney JO , Born EW , Dalen L , Dietz R , Orlando L , Sonne C , Zhang G , Nielsen R , Willerslev E , Wang J
Ref : Cell , 157 :785 , 2014
Abstract : Polar bears are uniquely adapted to life in the High Arctic and have undergone drastic physiological changes in response to Arctic climates and a hyper-lipid diet of primarily marine mammal prey. We analyzed 89 complete genomes of polar bear and brown bear using population genomic modeling and show that the species diverged only 479-343 thousand years BP. We find that genes on the polar bear lineage have been under stronger positive selection than in brown bears; nine of the top 16 genes under strong positive selection are associated with cardiomyopathy and vascular disease, implying important reorganization of the cardiovascular system. One of the genes showing the strongest evidence of selection, APOB, encodes the primary lipoprotein component of low-density lipoprotein (LDL); functional mutations in APOB may explain how polar bears are able to cope with life-long elevated LDL levels that are associated with high risk of heart disease in humans.
ESTHER : Liu_2014_Cell_157_785
PubMedSearch : Liu_2014_Cell_157_785
PubMedID: 24813606
Gene_locus related to this paper: ursma-a0a384cw87 , ursma-a0a384cqm7 , ursma-a0a452vbh6 , ursma-a0a384cyu0

Title : A sensitive LC-MS\/MS method for simultaneous determination of R-bambuterol and its active metabolite R-terbutaline in human plasma and urine with application to a clinical pharmacokinetic study - Zhou_2014_Biomed.Chromatogr_28_994
Author(s) : Zhou T , Zhao T , Cheng Q , Liu S , Xu L , Tan W
Ref : Biomedical Chromatography , 28 :994 , 2014
Abstract : A sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous determination of R-bambuterol and its active metabolite R-terbutaline in human plasma and urine was established. The inhibition for the biotransformation of R-bambuterol in plasma was fully investigated. Plasma samples were prepared on ice and neostigmine metilsulfate added as a cholinesterase inhibitor immediately after sample collection. All samples were extracted with ethyl acetate and separated on a C18 column under gradient elution with a mobile phase consisting of methanol and water containing 5 mm ammonium acetate at a flow rate of 0.6 mL/min. The analytes were detected by an API 4000 tandem mass spectrometer with positive electrospray ionization in multiple reaction monitoring mode. The established method was highly sensitive with the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of 10.00 pg/mL for each analyte in plasma. In urine samples, the LLOQs were 20.00 and 500.0 pg/mL for R-bambuterol and R-terbutaline, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precisions were <12.7 and <8.6% for plasma and urine, respectively. The analytical runtime within 6.0 min per sample made this method suitable for high-throughput determination. The validated method has been successfully applied to the human pharmacokinetic study of R-bambuterol involving 10 healthy volunteers. Copyright (c) 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
ESTHER : Zhou_2014_Biomed.Chromatogr_28_994
PubMedSearch : Zhou_2014_Biomed.Chromatogr_28_994
PubMedID: 24357101

Title : Design, Synthesis, and Evaluation of 7H-thiazolo-[3,2-b]-1,2,4-triazin-7-one Derivatives as Dual Binding Site Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors - Liu_2014_Chem.Biol.Drug.Des_84_169
Author(s) : Liu S , Shang R , Shi L , Zhou R , He J , Wan DC
Ref : Chemical Biology Drug Des , 84 :169 , 2014
Abstract : New dual binding site acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors have been designed and synthesized as a new drug candidate for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) through the binding to both catalytic and peripheral sites of the enzyme. Therefore, a series of 7H-thiazolo[3,2-b]-1,2,4-triazin-7-one derivatives 6a-j were synthesized and investigated for their ability to inhibit the activity of human AChE (hAChE) in comparison with huperzine-A. All the compounds were found to inhibit AChE activity, especially compounds 6c and 6i with the inhibition value of 76.10% and 77.82%, respectively. The molecular docking study indicated that they were nicely accommodated by AChE. The molecular docking study revealed that 6c and 6i possessed a more optimal binding conformation than 6a and can perfectly fit into the active and peripheral site of hAChE, and consequently exhibited highly improved inhibitor potency to hAChE.
ESTHER : Liu_2014_Chem.Biol.Drug.Des_84_169
PubMedSearch : Liu_2014_Chem.Biol.Drug.Des_84_169
PubMedID: 24890706

Title : Genome sequencing of the high oil crop sesame provides insight into oil biosynthesis - Wang_2014_Genome.Biol_15_R39
Author(s) : Wang L , Yu S , Tong C , Zhao Y , Liu Y , Song C , Zhang Y , Zhang X , Wang Y , Hua W , Li D , Li F , Yu J , Xu C , Han X , Huang S , Tai S , Wang J , Xu X , Li Y , Liu S , Varshney RK
Ref : Genome Biol , 15 :R39 , 2014
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Sesame, Sesamum indicum L., is considered the queen of oilseeds for its high oil content and quality, and is grown widely in tropical and subtropical areas as an important source of oil and protein. However, the molecular biology of sesame is largely unexplored. RESULTS: Here, we report a high-quality genome sequence of sesame assembled de novo with a contig N50 of 52.2 kb and a scaffold N50 of 2.1 Mb, containing an estimated 27,148 genes. The results reveal novel, independent whole genome duplication and the absence of the Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domain in resistance genes. Candidate genes and oil biosynthetic pathways contributing to high oil content were discovered by comparative genomic and transcriptomic analyses. These revealed the expansion of type 1 lipid transfer genes by tandem duplication, the contraction of lipid degradation genes, and the differential expression of essential genes in the triacylglycerol biosynthesis pathway, particularly in the early stage of seed development. Resequencing data in 29 sesame accessions from 12 countries suggested that the high genetic diversity of lipid-related genes might be associated with the wide variation in oil content. Additionally, the results shed light on the pivotal stage of seed development, oil accumulation and potential key genes for sesamin production, an important pharmacological constituent of sesame. CONCLUSIONS: As an important species from the order Lamiales and a high oil crop, the sesame genome will facilitate future research on the evolution of eudicots, as well as the study of lipid biosynthesis and potential genetic improvement of sesame.
ESTHER : Wang_2014_Genome.Biol_15_R39
PubMedSearch : Wang_2014_Genome.Biol_15_R39
PubMedID: 24576357
Gene_locus related to this paper: sesin-a0a6i9snr9

Title : Plant genetics. Early allopolyploid evolution in the post-Neolithic Brassica napus oilseed genome - Chalhoub_2014_Science_345_950
Author(s) : Chalhoub B , Denoeud F , Liu S , Parkin IA , Tang H , Wang X , Chiquet J , Belcram H , Tong C , Samans B , Correa M , Da Silva C , Just J , Falentin C , Koh CS , Le Clainche I , Bernard M , Bento P , Noel B , Labadie K , Alberti A , Charles M , Arnaud D , Guo H , Daviaud C , Alamery S , Jabbari K , Zhao M , Edger PP , Chelaifa H , Tack D , Lassalle G , Mestiri I , Schnel N , Le Paslier MC , Fan G , Renault V , Bayer PE , Golicz AA , Manoli S , Lee TH , Thi VH , Chalabi S , Hu Q , Fan C , Tollenaere R , Lu Y , Battail C , Shen J , Sidebottom CH , Canaguier A , Chauveau A , Berard A , Deniot G , Guan M , Liu Z , Sun F , Lim YP , Lyons E , Town CD , Bancroft I , Meng J , Ma J , Pires JC , King GJ , Brunel D , Delourme R , Renard M , Aury JM , Adams KL , Batley J , Snowdon RJ , Tost J , Edwards D , Zhou Y , Hua W , Sharpe AG , Paterson AH , Guan C , Wincker P
Ref : Science , 345 :950 , 2014
Abstract : Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) was formed ~7500 years ago by hybridization between B. rapa and B. oleracea, followed by chromosome doubling, a process known as allopolyploidy. Together with more ancient polyploidizations, this conferred an aggregate 72x genome multiplication since the origin of angiosperms and high gene content. We examined the B. napus genome and the consequences of its recent duplication. The constituent An and Cn subgenomes are engaged in subtle structural, functional, and epigenetic cross-talk, with abundant homeologous exchanges. Incipient gene loss and expression divergence have begun. Selection in B. napus oilseed types has accelerated the loss of glucosinolate genes, while preserving expansion of oil biosynthesis genes. These processes provide insights into allopolyploid evolution and its relationship with crop domestication and improvement.
ESTHER : Chalhoub_2014_Science_345_950
PubMedSearch : Chalhoub_2014_Science_345_950
PubMedID: 25146293
Gene_locus related to this paper: braol-Q8GTM3 , braol-Q8GTM4 , brana-a0a078j4a9 , brana-a0a078e1m0 , brana-a0a078cd75 , brana-a0a078evd3 , brana-a0a078j4f0 , brana-a0a078cta5 , brana-a0a078cus4 , brana-a0a078f8c2 , brana-a0a078jql1 , brana-a0a078dgj3 , brana-a0a078hw50 , brana-a0a078cuu0 , brana-a0a078iyl8 , brana-a0a078dfa9 , brana-a0a078ic91 , brana-a0a078cnf7 , brana-a0a078fh41 , brana-a0a078ca65 , brana-a0a078ctc8 , brana-a0a078h021 , brana-a0a078h0h8 , brana-a0a078jx23 , brana-a0a078ci96 , brana-a0a078cqd7 , brana-a0a078dh94 , brana-a0a078h612 , brana-a0a078ild2 , brana-a0a078j2t3 , braol-a0a0d3dpb2 , braol-a0a0d3dx76 , brana-a0a078jxa8 , brana-a0a078i2k3 , braol-a0a0d3ef55 , brarp-m4dcj8 , brana-a0a078fw53 , brana-a0a078itf3 , brana-a0a078jsn1 , brana-a0a078jrt9 , brana-a0a078i6d2 , brana-a0a078jku0 , brana-a0a078fss7 , brana-a0a078i1l0 , brana-a0a078i402

Title : Evidences for B6C3-Tg (APPswe\/PSEN1dE9) Double-Transgenic Mice Between 3 and 10 Months as an Age-Related Alzheimer's Disease Model - Zhong_2014_J.Mol.Neurosci_53_370
Author(s) : Zhong Z , Yang L , Wu X , Huang W , Yan J , Liu S , Sun X , Liu K , Lin H , Kuang S , Tang X
Ref : Journal of Molecular Neuroscience , 53 :370 , 2014
Abstract : Transgenic mouse has shown great advantages in the study of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and drug screening as AD develops rapidly resent years, while more detail information of these transgenic mice and experience of application are needed. To obtain the basic background information of the B6C3-Tg (APPswe/PSEN1dE9) double-transgenic mouse, which was reported with early onset AD, three- to ten-month-old B6C3-Tg AD mice and normal C57BL/6 mice were selected randomly to test the ability of learning memory by Morris water maze, the brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity by AChE kit, and beta amyloid protein level by immunohistochemistry staining. Compared with the control group, the escape latency time of B6C3-Tg AD mice at 9 and 10 months of age is significantly longer (P < 0.05) in Morris maze test, and the activity of brain AChE is higher. beta-Amyloid plaques were observed at 3 months of age and developed rapidly. Statistical analysis showed a positive correlation between the area of these plaques and the ages of B6C3-Tg AD mouse (y = 0.0355e(0.5557x), R = 0.9557). The model's behavior is conformed to simulate behaviors of human Alzheimer's disease at the early stage and may provide detail background information a new choice when transgenic mice are needed in the research of AD.
ESTHER : Zhong_2014_J.Mol.Neurosci_53_370
PubMedSearch : Zhong_2014_J.Mol.Neurosci_53_370
PubMedID: 24362678

Title : miR-124 represses ROCK1 expression to promote neurite elongation through activation of the PI3K\/Akt signal pathway - Gu_2014_J.Mol.Neurosci_52_156
Author(s) : Gu X , Meng S , Liu S , Jia C , Fang Y , Li S , Fu C , Song Q , Lin L , Wang X
Ref : Journal of Molecular Neuroscience , 52 :156 , 2014
Abstract : Recent studies have demonstrated an important role for miR-124, the most abundant and well-conserved brain-specific microRNA(miRNA), in promoting neurite outgrowth and elongation during neuronal differentiation. This miRNA's target genes and the mechanisms that execute this role remain unclear. In this study, we identified ROCK1, a small GTPase Rho kinase, as a direct target of miR-124 for regulating neurite elongation. miR-124 significantly inhibited ROCK1 expression in M17 cells. Inhibiting ROCK1 promoted neurite elongation, and the overexpression of ROCK1 strongly repressed the neurite elongation-enhancing effect of miR-124 in M17 cells. We determined that Akt functions as a novel ROCK1 downstream effector in regulating neurite outgrowth and elongation.
ESTHER : Gu_2014_J.Mol.Neurosci_52_156
PubMedSearch : Gu_2014_J.Mol.Neurosci_52_156
PubMedID: 24338057

Title : Contamination of bananas with beauvericin and fusaric acid produced by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense - Li_2013_PLoS.One_8_e70226
Author(s) : Li C , Zuo C , Deng G , Kuang R , Yang Q , Hu C , Sheng O , Zhang S , Ma L , Wei Y , Yang J , Liu S , Biswas MK , Viljoen A , Yi G
Ref : PLoS ONE , 8 :e70226 , 2013
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Fusarium wilt, caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), is one of the most destructive diseases of banana. Toxins produced by Foc have been proposed to play an important role during the pathogenic process. The objectives of this study were to investigate the contamination of banana with toxins produced by Foc, and to elucidate their role in pathogenesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Twenty isolates of Foc representing races 1 and 4 were isolated from diseased bananas in five Chinese provinces. Two toxins were consistently associated with Foc, fusaric acid (FA) and beauvericin (BEA). Cytotoxicity of the two toxins on banana protoplast was determined using the Alamar Blue assay. The virulence of 20 Foc isolates was further tested by inoculating tissue culture banana plantlets, and the contents of toxins determined in banana roots, pseudostems and leaves. Virulence of Foc isolates correlated well with toxin deposition in the host plant. To determine the natural occurrence of the two toxins in banana plants with Fusarium wilt symptoms, samples were collected before harvest from the pseudostems, fruit and leaves from 10 Pisang Awak 'Guangfen #1' and 10 Cavendish 'Brazilian' plants. Fusaric acid and BEA were detected in all the tissues, including the fruits. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNFICANCE: The current study provides the first investigation of toxins produced by Foc in banana. The toxins produced by Foc, and their levels of contamination of banana fruits, however, were too low to be of concern to human and animal health. Rather, these toxins appear to contribute to the pathogenicity of the fungus during infection of banana plants.
ESTHER : Li_2013_PLoS.One_8_e70226
PubMedSearch : Li_2013_PLoS.One_8_e70226
PubMedID: 23922960
Gene_locus related to this paper: gibf5-fub5

Title : FAM172A induces S phase arrest of HepG2 cells via Notch 3 - Feng_2013_Oncol.Rep_29_1154
Author(s) : Feng Z , Li H , Liu S , Cheng J , Xiang G , Zhang J
Ref : Oncol Rep , 29 :1154 , 2013
Abstract : Our previous results revealed that FAM172A was significantly downregulated in liver tissue from hepatocellular carcinoma or cirrhotic patients. The present study was designed to elucidate the regulatory role of FAM172A in HepG2 cells. In order to determine the expression of the FAM172A protein, western blot analysis was performed. Confocal laser scanning technique was used to observe the localization of FAM172A in HepG2 cells. Surface plasmon resonance experiments were used to determine the binding activity of FAM172A and active single sugar and Ca2+. The cell cycle progression of HepG2 cells was assessed by flow cytometry. The FAM172A protein was localized in the endoplasmic reticulum of HepG2 cells. This protein was moderately expressed in normal liver tissue, but was significantly decreased in liver tissue of patients with chronic hepatitis B When co-cultured with the FAM172A recombinant protein, HepG2 cells exhibited complete cell cycle arrest in the S phase at a high concentration (100 ng/ml). Proliferation of HepG2 cells treated with the FAM172A recombinant protein was prominently inhibited compared with that of the control cells. Western blot analysis showed that upregulation of Notch 3 and cyclin E may be related with the cell cycle control. Our results indicate that FAM172A may be a novel tumor-suppressor gene, which plays an important role in cell cycle control and tumor cell proliferation. G1/S phase arrest may be mediated, at least partially, by the Notch 3 signaling pathway.
ESTHER : Feng_2013_Oncol.Rep_29_1154
PubMedSearch : Feng_2013_Oncol.Rep_29_1154
PubMedID: 23314443

Title : High-resolution structures of AidH complexes provide insights into a novel catalytic mechanism for N-acyl homoserine lactonase - Gao_2013_Acta.Crystallogr.D.Biol.Crystallogr_69_82
Author(s) : Gao A , Mei GY , Liu S , Wang P , Tang Q , Liu YP , Wen H , An XM , Zhang LQ , Yan XX , Liang DC
Ref : Acta Crystallographica D Biol Crystallogr , 69 :82 , 2013
Abstract : Many pathogenic bacteria that infect humans, animals and plants rely on a quorum-sensing (QS) system to produce virulence factors. N-Acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) are the best-characterized cell-cell communication signals in QS. The concentration of AHL plays a key role in regulating the virulence-gene expression and essential biological functions of pathogenic bacteria. N-Acyl homoserine lactonases (AHL-lactonases) have important functions in decreasing pathogenicity by degrading AHLs. Here, structures of the AHL-lactonase from Ochrobactrum sp. (AidH) in complex with N-hexanoyl homoserine lactone, N-hexanoyl homoserine and N-butanoyl homoserine are reported. The high-resolution structures together with biochemical analyses reveal convincing details of AHL degradation. No metal ion is bound in the active site, which is different from other AHL-lactonases, which have a dual Lewis acid catalysis mechanism. AidH contains a substrate-binding tunnel between the core domain and the cap domain. The conformation of the tunnel entrance varies with the AHL acyl-chain length, which contributes to the binding promiscuity of AHL molecules in the active site. It also supports the biochemical result that AidH is a broad catalytic spectrum AHL-lactonase. Taken together, the present results reveal the catalytic mechanism of the metal-independent AHL-lactonase, which is a typical acid-base covalent catalysis.
ESTHER : Gao_2013_Acta.Crystallogr.D.Biol.Crystallogr_69_82
PubMedSearch : Gao_2013_Acta.Crystallogr.D.Biol.Crystallogr_69_82
PubMedID: 23275166
Gene_locus related to this paper: 9rhiz-d2j2t6

Title : Acetylcholinesterase deficiency decreases apoptosis in dopaminergic neurons in the neurotoxin model of Parkinson's disease - Zhang_2013_Int.J.Biochem.Cell.Biol_45_265
Author(s) : Zhang X , Lu L , Liu S , Ye W , Wu J
Ref : International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology , 45 :265 , 2013
Abstract : The apoptosis pathway has been proposed to be involved in causing neuronal cell death in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. However, the details of this pathway are poorly understood. Previous research has shown increased acetylcholinesterase expression during apoptosis in various cell types, which suggests that acetylcholinesterase has a potential role in neuronal cell death. In this study, we found that acetylcholinesterase protein expression increased and caspase-3 was activated in PC12 cells treated with 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium. Furthermore, the genetic or pharmacological inhibition of acetylcholinesterase was shown to protect PC12 cells from MPP+ induced apoptotic cell death. To study the function of acetylcholinesterase as a mechanism of neuronal cell death in vivo, we subsequently established a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine Parkinson's disease mouse model utilizing acetylcholinesterase-deficient mice. Studies in these mice revealed reduced dopaminergic neuron loss and lower expression levels of apoptotic proteins in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-treated heterozygous mice compared to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-treated wild-type mice. We conclude that it is highly probable that acetylcholinesterase is involved in the pathogenesis of the neurotoxin model of Parkinson's disease via apoptosis. Specifically, a deficiency or inhibition of acetylcholinesterase can decrease apoptosis and protect dopaminergic neurons in the neurotoxin model of Parkinson's disease.
ESTHER : Zhang_2013_Int.J.Biochem.Cell.Biol_45_265
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2013_Int.J.Biochem.Cell.Biol_45_265
PubMedID: 23201480

Title : Clinical and genetic analysis of a compound heterozygous mutation in the thyroglobulin gene in a Chinese twin family with congenital goiter and hypothyroidism - Liu_2012_Twin.Res.Hum.Genet_15_126
Author(s) : Liu S , Zhang S , Li W , Zhang A , Qi F , Zheng G , Yan S , Ma X
Ref : Twin Res Hum Genet , 15 :126 , 2012
Abstract : Mutations in the thyroglobulin (TG) gene, which has an estimated incidence of approximately 1 in 100,000 new-borns, cause autosomal recessive congenital hypothyroidism. The mutational spectrum of the TG gene and the phenotype-genotype correlations have not yet fully been established. We report a compound heterozygous mutation in the TG gene in a Chinese twin family with congenital goiter and hypothyroidism. We also describe the gene mutation associated with the genotype-phenotype of these children with congenital goiter and hypothyroidism. The whole coding sequence of the TG gene was analyzed by direct sequence, and the identified changes in the sequence were tested for benign polymorphism by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography screening of the mutation and sequencing 200 chromosomes from normal controls. Analysis of the TG gene of the affected twin revealed a compound heterozygous mutation, including a novel missense mutation G2687A, which is predicted to result in a glutamine to arginine substitution at codon 877, and a known nonsense mutation C7006T, predicted to result in an arginine to stop codon at codon 2317. Analysis of 200 normal chromosomes did not identify the same change in healthy subjects. This is the first report of a TG gene mutation in the Chinese Han population. Our study provides further evidence that mutations in the TG gene cause congenital goiter and hypothyroidism, demonstrates genetic heterogeneity of the mutation, and increases our understanding of phenotype-genotype correlations in congenital hypothyroidism.
ESTHER : Liu_2012_Twin.Res.Hum.Genet_15_126
PubMedSearch : Liu_2012_Twin.Res.Hum.Genet_15_126
PubMedID: 22784463

Title : Examining the interactome of huperzine A by magnetic biopanning - Guo_2012_PLoS.One_7_e37098
Author(s) : Guo W , Liu S , Peng J , Wei X , Sun Y , Qiu Y , Gao G , Wang P , Xu Y
Ref : PLoS ONE , 7 :e37098 , 2012
Abstract : Huperzine A is a bioactive compound derived from traditional Chinese medicine plant Qian Ceng Ta (Huperzia serrata), and was found to have multiple neuroprotective effects. In addition to being a potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, it was thought to act through other mechanisms such as antioxidation, antiapoptosis, etc. However, the molecular targets involved with these mechanisms were not identified. In this study, we attempted to exam the interactome of Huperzine A using a cDNA phage display library and also mammalian brain tissue extracts. The drugs were chemically linked on the surface of magnetic particles and the interactive phages or proteins were collected and analyzed. Among the various cDNA expressing phages selected, one was identified to encode the mitochondria NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1. Specific bindings between the drug and the target phages and target proteins were confirmed. Another enriched phage clone was identified as mitochondria ATP synthase, which was also panned out from the proteome of mouse brain tissue lysate. These data indicated the possible involvement of mitochondrial respiratory chain matrix enzymes in Huperzine A's pharmacological effects. Such involvement had been suggested by previous studies based on enzyme activity changes. Our data supported the new mechanism. Overall we demonstrated the feasibility of using magnetic biopanning as a simple and viable method for investigating the complex molecular mechanisms of bioactive molecules.
ESTHER : Guo_2012_PLoS.One_7_e37098
PubMedSearch : Guo_2012_PLoS.One_7_e37098
PubMedID: 22615909

Title : Design, synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of novel tacrine-caffeic acid hybrids as multi-targeted compounds against Alzheimer's disease - Chao_2012_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett_22_6498
Author(s) : Chao X , He X , Yang Y , Zhou X , Jin M , Liu S , Cheng Z , Liu P , Wang Y , Yu J , Tan Y , Huang Y , Qin J , Rapposelli S , Pi R
Ref : Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Lett , 22 :6498 , 2012
Abstract : A novel series of tacrine-caffeic acid hybrids (5a-f) were designed and synthesized by combining caffeic acid (CA) with tacrine. The antioxidant study revealed that all the hybrids have much more antioxidant capacities compared to CA. Among these compounds, 5e showed the highest selectivity in inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE) over butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE). Enzyme kinetic study had suggested that 5e binds to both catalytic (CAS) and peripheral anionic sites (PAS) of AChE. Moreover, compound 5e also inhibited self- or AChE-induced beta-amyloid(1-40) aggregation, as well as had potent neuroprotective effects against H(2)O(2)- and glutamate- induced cell death with low toxicity in HT22 cells.
ESTHER : Chao_2012_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett_22_6498
PubMedSearch : Chao_2012_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett_22_6498
PubMedID: 22981331

Title : Whole-genome sequence of Schistosoma haematobium - Young_2012_Nat.Genet_44_221
Author(s) : Young ND , Jex AR , Li B , Liu S , Yang L , Xiong Z , Li Y , Cantacessi C , Hall RS , Xu X , Chen F , Wu X , Zerlotini A , Oliveira G , Hofmann A , Zhang G , Fang X , Kang Y , Campbell BE , Loukas A , Ranganathan S , Rollinson D , Rinaldi G , Brindley PJ , Yang H , Wang J , Gasser RB
Ref : Nat Genet , 44 :221 , 2012
Abstract : Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by blood flukes (genus Schistosoma; schistosomes) and affecting 200 million people worldwide. No vaccines are available, and treatment relies on one drug, praziquantel. Schistosoma haematobium has come into the spotlight as a major cause of urogenital disease, as an agent linked to bladder cancer and as a predisposing factor for HIV/AIDS. The parasite is transmitted to humans from freshwater snails. Worms dwell in blood vessels and release eggs that become embedded in the bladder wall to elicit chronic immune-mediated disease and induce squamous cell carcinoma. Here we sequenced the 385-Mb genome of S. haematobium using Illumina-based technology at 74-fold coverage and compared it to sequences from related parasites. We included genome annotation based on function, gene ontology, networking and pathway mapping. This genome now provides an unprecedented resource for many fundamental research areas and shows great promise for the design of new disease interventions.
ESTHER : Young_2012_Nat.Genet_44_221
PubMedSearch : Young_2012_Nat.Genet_44_221
PubMedID: 22246508
Gene_locus related to this paper: schha-ACHE , schha-a0a094zs51 , schha-a0a095agr4 , schha-a0a095ai61 , schha-a0a095ayl3 , schha-a0a095c2i3 , schha-a0a095ce64

Title : Efficient assembly and annotation of the transcriptome of catfish by RNA-Seq analysis of a doubled haploid homozygote - Liu_2012_BMC.Genomics_13_595
Author(s) : Liu S , Zhang Y , Zhou Z , Waldbieser G , Sun F , Lu J , Zhang J , Jiang Y , Zhang H , Wang X , Rajendran KV , Khoo L , Kucuktas H , Peatman E , Liu Z
Ref : BMC Genomics , 13 :595 , 2012
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Upon the completion of whole genome sequencing, thorough genome annotation that associates genome sequences with biological meanings is essential. Genome annotation depends on the availability of transcript information as well as orthology information. In teleost fish, genome annotation is seriously hindered by genome duplication. Because of gene duplications, one cannot establish orthologies simply by homology comparisons. Rather intense phylogenetic analysis or structural analysis of orthologies is required for the identification of genes. To conduct phylogenetic analysis and orthology analysis, full-length transcripts are essential. Generation of large numbers of full-length transcripts using traditional transcript sequencing is very difficult and extremely costly.
RESULTS: In this work, we took advantage of a doubled haploid catfish, which has two sets of identical chromosomes and in theory there should be no allelic variations. As such, transcript sequences generated from next-generation sequencing can be favorably assembled into full-length transcripts. Deep sequencing of the doubled haploid channel catfish transcriptome was performed using Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform, yielding over 300 million high-quality trimmed reads totaling 27 Gbp. Assembly of these reads generated 370,798 non-redundant transcript-derived contigs. Functional annotation of the assembly allowed identification of 25,144 unique protein-encoding genes. A total of 2,659 unique genes were identified as putative duplicated genes in the catfish genome because the assembly of the corresponding transcripts harbored PSVs or MSVs (in the form of pseudo-SNPs in the assembly). Of the 25,144 contigs with unique protein hits, around 20,000 contigs matched 50% length of reference proteins, and over 14,000 transcripts were identified as full-length with complete open reading frames. The characterization of consensus sequences surrounding start codon and the stop codon confirmed the correct assembly of the full-length transcripts.
CONCLUSIONS: The large set of transcripts assembled in this study is the most comprehensive set of genome resources ever developed from catfish, which will provide the much needed resources for functional genome research in catfish, serving as a reference transcriptome for genome annotation, analysis of gene duplication, gene family structures, and digital gene expression analysis. The putative set of duplicated genes provide a starting point for genome scale analysis of gene duplication in the catfish genome, and should be a valuable resource for comparative genome analysis, genome evolution, and genome function studies.
ESTHER : Liu_2012_BMC.Genomics_13_595
PubMedSearch : Liu_2012_BMC.Genomics_13_595
PubMedID: 23127152
Gene_locus related to this paper: ictpu-w5u6j2 , ictpu-w5ub99 , ictpu-w5uc03 , ictpu-w5utq3 , ictpu-w5u610 , ictpu-w5ui62 , ictpu-w5uj33 , ictpu-w5u9s1 , ictpu-a0a2d0rtv8 , ictpu-w5uf93 , ictpu-w5u6h4 , ictpu-a0a2d0qam4 , ictpu-w5u7r0 , ictpu-w5ugq3

Title : Crystal structure of a novel esterase Rv0045c from Mycobacterium tuberculosis - Zheng_2011_PLoS.One_6_e20506
Author(s) : Zheng X , Guo J , Xu L , Li H , Zhang D , Zhang K , Sun F , Wen T , Liu S , Pang H
Ref : PLoS ONE , 6 :e20506 , 2011
Abstract : There are at least 250 enzymes in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) involved in lipid metabolism. Some of the enzymes are required for bacterial survival and full virulence. The esterase Rv0045c shares little amino acid sequence similarity with other members of the esterase/lipase family. Here, we report the 3D structure of Rv0045c. Our studies demonstrated that Rv0045c is a novel member of alpha/beta hydrolase fold family. The structure of esterase Rv0045c contains two distinct domains: the alpha/beta fold domain and the cap domain. The active site of esterase Rv0045c is highly conserved and comprised of two residues: Ser154 and His309. We proposed that Rv0045c probably employs two kinds of enzymatic mechanisms when hydrolyzing C-O ester bonds within substrates. The structure provides insight into the hydrolysis mechanism of the C-O ester bond, and will be helpful in understanding the ester/lipid metabolism in M. tuberculosis.
ESTHER : Zheng_2011_PLoS.One_6_e20506
PubMedSearch : Zheng_2011_PLoS.One_6_e20506
PubMedID: 21637775
Gene_locus related to this paper: myctu-RV0045C

Title : Highly-sensitive organophosphorous pesticide biosensors based on nanostructured films of acetylcholinesterase and CdTe quantum dots - Zheng_2011_Biosens.Bioelectron_26_3081
Author(s) : Zheng Z , Zhou Y , Li X , Liu S , Tang Z
Ref : Biosensors & Bioelectronics , 26 :3081 , 2011
Abstract : The optical transducer of CdTe semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) has been integrated with acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AChE) by the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly technique, resulting in a highly sensitive biosensor for detection of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) in vegetables and fruits based on enzyme inhibition mechanism. The detection limits of the proposed biosensors are as low as 1.05 x 10(-11) M for paraoxon and 4.47 x 10(-12) M for parathion, which are significantly better than those of the conventional GC/MS methods or amperometric biosensors (0.5 nM). These biosensors are used for quick determination of low concentrations of OPs in real vegetable and fruit samples and exhibit satisfactory reproducibility and accuracy. Moreover, the stock stability of the biosensors are very good due to the stabilizing environment for the enzyme in the nanostructures made by LbL technique. Many advantages provided by these biosensors, like fluorescent change recognized by naked eyes and mass production with low cost, will facilitate future development of rapid and high-throughput screening of OPs.
ESTHER : Zheng_2011_Biosens.Bioelectron_26_3081
PubMedSearch : Zheng_2011_Biosens.Bioelectron_26_3081
PubMedID: 21196108

Title : Expression of Dpp6 in mouse embryonic craniofacial development - Du_2011_Acta.Histochem_113_636
Author(s) : Du J , Fan Z , Ma X , Gao Y , Wu Y , Liu S , Shen Y , Fan M , Wang S
Ref : Acta Histochemica , 113 :636 , 2011
Abstract : Dipeptidyl-peptidase-like protein 6 (DPP6), a member of the dipeptidyl aminopeptidase family, plays distinct roles in brain development, but its expression in embryonic craniofacial development is unknown. The expression pattern of Dpp6 in the maxillofacial region during mouse embryonic craniofacial development was analyzed by whole-mount in situ hybridization on sections and by real-time PCR analysis. Dpp6 expression was detected during mouse embryonic craniofacial development in embryos 11-13.5 days post-coitum (dpc). Real-time PCR showed high Dpp6 expression present in 11.5-13.5dpc, and this then decreased as development of maxillofacial region progressed. The expression pattern of Dpp6 suggests that Dpp6 may be involved in embryonic craniofacial development.
ESTHER : Du_2011_Acta.Histochem_113_636
PubMedSearch : Du_2011_Acta.Histochem_113_636
PubMedID: 20817268

Title : Production of Candida antarctica lipase B gene open reading frame using automated PCR gene assembly protocol on robotic workcell and expression in an ethanologenic yeast for use as resin-bound biocatalyst in biodiesel production - Hughes_2011_J.Lab.Autom_16_17
Author(s) : Hughes SR , Moser BR , Harmsen AJ , Bischoff KM , Jones MA , Pinkelman R , Bang SS , Tasaki K , Doll KM , Qureshi N , Saha BC , Liu S , Jackson JS , Robinson S , Cotta MC , Rich JO , Caimi P
Ref : J Lab Autom , 16 :17 , 2011
Abstract : A synthetic Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) gene open reading frame (ORF) for expression in yeast was constructed, and the lycotoxin-1 (Lyt-1) C3 variant gene ORF, potentially to improve the availability of the active enzyme at the surface of the yeast cell, was added in frame with the CALB ORF using an automated PCR assembly and DNA purification protocol on an integrated robotic workcell. Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains expressing CALB protein or CALB Lyt-1 fusion protein were first grown on 2% (w/v) glucose, producing 9.3 g/L ethanol during fermentation. The carbon source was switched to galactose for GAL1-driven expression, and the CALB and CALB Lyt-1 enzymes expressed were tested for fatty acid ethyl ester (biodiesel) production. The synthetic enzymes catalyzed the formation of fatty acid ethyl esters from ethanol and either corn or soybean oil. It was further demonstrated that a one-step-charging resin, specifically selected for binding to lipase, was capable of covalent attachment of the CALB Lyt-1 enzyme, and that the resin-bound enzyme catalyzed the production of biodiesel. High-level expression of lipase in an ethanologenic yeast strain has the potential to increase the profitability of an integrated biorefinery by combining bioethanol production with coproduction of a low-cost biocatalyst that converts corn oil to biodiesel.
ESTHER : Hughes_2011_J.Lab.Autom_16_17
PubMedSearch : Hughes_2011_J.Lab.Autom_16_17
PubMedID: 21609683

Title : Affinity purification of a chimeric nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in the agonist and antagonist bound states - Liu_2011_Protein.Expr.Purif_79_102
Author(s) : Liu S , Babcock MS , Bode J , Chang JS , Fischer HD , Garlick RL , Gill GS , Lund ET , Margolis BJ , Mathews WR , Rogers BN , Wolfe M , Groppi V , Baldwin ET
Ref : Protein Expr Purif , 79 :102 , 2011
Abstract : Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) form ligand-gated ion channels that mediate fast signal transmission at synapses. These receptors are members of a large family of pentameric ion channels that are of active medical interest. An expression system utilizing a chimerical construct of the N-terminal extracellular ligand binding domain of alpha7 type nAChR and the C-terminal transmembrane portion of 5HT3 type receptor resulted high level of expressions. Two ligand affinity chromatography purification methods for this receptor have been developed. One method relies on the covalent immobilization of a high affinity small molecule alpha7 nAChR agonist, (R)-5-(4-aminophenyl)-N-(quinuclidin-3-yl) furan-2-carboxamide, and the other uses mono biotinylated alpha-bungarotoxin, an antagonist, that forms a quasi-irreversible complex with alpha7 nAChR. Detergent solubilized alpha7/5HT(3) chimeric receptors were selectively retained on the affinity resins and could be eluted with free ligand or biotin. The proteins purified by both methods were characterized by gel electrophoresis, mass spectra, amino acid composition analysis, and N-terminal sequence determination. These analyses confirmed the isolation of a mature alpha7/5HT(3) receptor with the signal peptide removed. These results suggest a scalable path forward to generate multi-milligram amounts of purified complexes for additional studies including protein crystallization.
ESTHER : Liu_2011_Protein.Expr.Purif_79_102
PubMedSearch : Liu_2011_Protein.Expr.Purif_79_102
PubMedID: 21664975

Title : Genomic and proteomic analyses of the fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora provide insights into nematode-trap formation - Yang_2011_PLoS.Pathog_7_e1002179
Author(s) : Yang J , Wang L , Ji X , Feng Y , Li X , Zou C , Xu J , Ren Y , Mi Q , Wu J , Liu S , Liu Y , Huang X , Wang H , Niu X , Li J , Liang L , Luo Y , Ji K , Zhou W , Yu Z , Li G , Li L , Qiao M , Feng L , Zhang KQ
Ref : PLoS Pathog , 7 :e1002179 , 2011
Abstract : Nematode-trapping fungi are "carnivorous" and attack their hosts using specialized trapping devices. The morphological development of these traps is the key indicator of their switch from saprophytic to predacious lifestyles. Here, the genome of the nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora Fres. (ATCC24927) was reported. The genome contains 40.07 Mb assembled sequence with 11,479 predicted genes. Comparative analysis showed that A. oligospora shared many more genes with pathogenic fungi than with non-pathogenic fungi. Specifically, compared to several sequenced ascomycete fungi, the A. oligospora genome has a larger number of pathogenicity-related genes in the subtilisin, cellulase, cellobiohydrolase, and pectinesterase gene families. Searching against the pathogen-host interaction gene database identified 398 homologous genes involved in pathogenicity in other fungi. The analysis of repetitive sequences provided evidence for repeat-induced point mutations in A. oligospora. Proteomic and quantitative PCR (qPCR) analyses revealed that 90 genes were significantly up-regulated at the early stage of trap-formation by nematode extracts and most of these genes were involved in translation, amino acid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, cell wall and membrane biogenesis. Based on the combined genomic, proteomic and qPCR data, a model for the formation of nematode trapping device in this fungus was proposed. In this model, multiple fungal signal transduction pathways are activated by its nematode prey to further regulate downstream genes associated with diverse cellular processes such as energy metabolism, biosynthesis of the cell wall and adhesive proteins, cell division, glycerol accumulation and peroxisome biogenesis. This study will facilitate the identification of pathogenicity-related genes and provide a broad foundation for understanding the molecular and evolutionary mechanisms underlying fungi-nematodes interactions.
ESTHER : Yang_2011_PLoS.Pathog_7_e1002179
PubMedSearch : Yang_2011_PLoS.Pathog_7_e1002179
PubMedID: 21909256
Gene_locus related to this paper: artoa-g1wyr4 , artoa-g1x1a7 , artoa-g1x3f4 , artoa-g1x3h6 , artoa-g1x9s5 , artoa-g1x9z4 , artoa-g1xcb5 , artoa-g1xhl6 , artoa-g1xjb3 , artoa-g1xjy0 , artoa-g1xkw3 , artoa-g1xnf2 , artoa-g1xnf8 , artoa-g1xqd4 , artoa-g1xqt1 , artoa-g1xte8 , artoa-g1xu91 , artoa-g1xv59 , artoa-g1x382 , artoa-g1x3q3 , artoa-g1wxl5 , artoa-g1xj75 , artoa-g1xd25 , artoa-g1wzu7 , artoa-g1xt42 , artoa-g1xhm8 , artoa-g1wy43

Title : An Enterotoxin-Bearing Pathogenicity Island in Staphylococcus epidermidis - Madhusoodanan_2011_J.Bacteriol_193_1854
Author(s) : Madhusoodanan J , Seo KS , Remortel B , Park JY , Hwang SY , Fox LK , Park YH , Deobald CF , Wang D , Liu S , Daugherty SC , Gill AL , Bohach GA , Gill SR
Ref : Journal of Bacteriology , 193 :1854 , 2011
Abstract : Cocolonization of human mucosal surfaces causes frequent encounters between various staphylococcal species, creating opportunities for the horizontal acquisition of mobile genetic elements. The majority of Staphylococcus aureus toxins and virulence factors are encoded on S. aureus pathogenicity islands (SaPIs). Horizontal movement of SaPIs between S. aureus strains plays a role in the evolution of virulent clinical isolates. Although there have been reports of the production of toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1), enterotoxin, and other superantigens by coagulase-negative staphylococci, no associated pathogenicity islands have been found in the genome of Staphylococcus epidermidis, a generally less virulent relative of S. aureus. We show here the first evidence of a composite S. epidermidis pathogenicity island (SePI), the product of multiple insertions in the genome of a clinical isolate. The taxonomic placement of S. epidermidis strain FRI909 was confirmed by a number of biochemical tests and multilocus sequence typing. The genome sequence of this strain was analyzed for other unique gene clusters and their locations. This pathogenicity island encodes and expresses staphylococcal enterotoxin C3 (SEC3) and staphylococcal enterotoxin-like toxin L (SElL), as confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) and immunoblotting. We present here an initial characterization of this novel pathogenicity island, and we establish that it is stable, expresses enterotoxins, and is not obviously transmissible by phage transduction. We also describe the genome sequence, excision, replication, and packaging of a novel bacteriophage in S. epidermidis FRI909, as well as attempts to mobilize the SePI element by this phage.
ESTHER : Madhusoodanan_2011_J.Bacteriol_193_1854
PubMedSearch : Madhusoodanan_2011_J.Bacteriol_193_1854
PubMedID: 21317317
Gene_locus related to this paper: staep-SE0386 , staep-SE0389 , staep-SE0424 , staep-SE0564 , staep-SE0980 , staep-SE1436 , staep-SE1460 , staep-SE1510 , staep-SE1929 , staep-SERP2035 , staep-SE2328

Title : Two single mutations commonly cause qualitative change of nonspecific carboxylesterases in insects - Cui_2011_Insect.Biochem.Mol.Biol_41_1
Author(s) : Cui F , Lin Z , Wang H , Liu S , Chang H , Reeck G , Qiao C , Raymond M , Kang L
Ref : Insect Biochemistry & Molecular Biology , 41 :1 , 2011
Abstract : Carboxylesterases provide key mechanisms of resistance to insecticides, particularly organophosphates (OPs), in insects. One resistance mechanism is a qualitative change in the properties of a carboxylesterase. Two mutant forms, G151D and W271L, have been observed, mostly in dipteran species, to affect substrate specificity of enzymes. But whether these two single mutations can commonly change character of insect carboxylesterases is unknown. In our study carboxylesterase genes from seven insects distributed among four orders were cloned, mutated at position 151 or 271 and expressed in Escherichia coli. The kinetics of the purified recombinant proteins was examined towards an artificial carboxylester and two OP insecticides. The G/A151D and W271L mutation significantly reduced carboxylesterase activity in 87.5% and 100% cases, respectively, and at the same time conferred OP hydrolase activities in 62.5% and 87.5% cases, respectively. Thus, the change at position 271 is more effective to influence substrate specificity than that at position 151. These results may suggest that these two mutations have the potential to cause insecticide resistance broadly in insects.
ESTHER : Cui_2011_Insect.Biochem.Mol.Biol_41_1
PubMedSearch : Cui_2011_Insect.Biochem.Mol.Biol_41_1
PubMedID: 20888910
Gene_locus related to this paper: aphgo-cxest

Title : Cell physiology rather than enzyme kinetics can determine the efficiency of cytochrome P450-catalyzed C-H-oxyfunctionalization - Cornelissen_2011_J.Ind.Microbiol.Biotechnol_38_1359
Author(s) : Cornelissen S , Liu S , Deshmukh AT , Schmid A , Buhler B
Ref : J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol , 38 :1359 , 2011
Abstract : Cell physiology is a critical factor determining the efficiency of reactions performed by microbial biocatalysts. In order to develop an efficient biotransformation procedure for the hydroxylation of (S)-limonene to (S)-perillyl alcohol by recombinant Pseudomonas putida cells harboring the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase CYP153A6, physiological parameters were optimized. The previously reported synthesis of (S)-perillyl alcohol by P. putida GPo12 was based on complex and sensitive octane feeding strategies (van Beilen et al. in Appl Environ Microbiol 71:1737-1744, 2005), indicating the pivotal role of cell physiology. In contrast to previous findings, the screening of different carbon sources showed that glycerol and citrate are suitable alternatives to octane allowing high specific limonene hydroxylation activities. The use of P. putida KT2440 as an alternative host strain and citrate as the carbon source improved practical handling and allowed a 7.5-fold increase of the specific activity (to 22.6 U g (CDW) (-1) ). In two-liquid-phase biotransformations, 4.3 g of (S)-perillyl alcohol L (tot) (-1) were produced in 24 h, representing a sixfold improvement in productivity compared to previously reported results. It is concluded that, for selective cytochrome P450-based hydrocarbon oxyfunctionalizations by means of living microbial cells, the relationship between cell physiology and the target biotransformation is crucial, and that understanding the relationship should guide biocatalyst and bioprocess design.
ESTHER : Cornelissen_2011_J.Ind.Microbiol.Biotechnol_38_1359
PubMedSearch : Cornelissen_2011_J.Ind.Microbiol.Biotechnol_38_1359
PubMedID: 21559976

Title : 1-((3S,4S)-4-amino-1-(4-substituted-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl) pyrrolidin-3-yl)-5,5-difluoropiperidin-2-one inhibitors of DPP-4 for the treatment of type 2 diabetes - Andrews_2011_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett_21_1810
Author(s) : Andrews KM , Beebe DA , Benbow JW , Boyer DA , Doran SD , Hui Y , Liu S , McPherson RK , Neagu C , Parker JC , Piotrowski DW , Schneider SR , Treadway JL , VanVolkenberg MA , Zembrowski WJ
Ref : Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Lett , 21 :1810 , 2011
Abstract : A 3-amino-4-substituted pyrrolidine series of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-4) inhibitors was rapidly developed into a candidate series by identification of a polar valerolactam replacement for the lipophilic 2,4,5-trifluorophenyl pharmacophore. The addition of a gem-difluoro substituent to the lactam improved overall DPP-4 inhibition and an efficient asymmetric route to 3,4-diaminopyrrolidines was developed. Advanced profiling of a subset of analogs identified 5o with an acceptable human DPP-4 inhibition profile based on a rat PK/PD model and a projected human dose that was suitable for clinical development.
ESTHER : Andrews_2011_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett_21_1810
PubMedSearch : Andrews_2011_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett_21_1810
PubMedID: 21324688

Title : The genome of the mesopolyploid crop species Brassica rapa - Wang_2011_Nat.Genet_43_1035
Author(s) : Wang X , Wang H , Wang J , Sun R , Wu J , Liu S , Bai Y , Mun JH , Bancroft I , Cheng F , Huang S , Li X , Hua W , Freeling M , Pires JC , Paterson AH , Chalhoub B , Wang B , Hayward A , Sharpe AG , Park BS , Weisshaar B , Liu B , Li B , Tong C , Song C , Duran C , Peng C , Geng C , Koh C , Lin C , Edwards D , Mu D , Shen D , Soumpourou E , Li F , Fraser F , Conant G , Lassalle G , King GJ , Bonnema G , Tang H , Belcram H , Zhou H , Hirakawa H , Abe H , Guo H , Jin H , Parkin IA , Batley J , Kim JS , Just J , Li J , Xu J , Deng J , Kim JA , Yu J , Meng J , Min J , Poulain J , Hatakeyama K , Wu K , Wang L , Fang L , Trick M , Links MG , Zhao M , Jin M , Ramchiary N , Drou N , Berkman PJ , Cai Q , Huang Q , Li R , Tabata S , Cheng S , Zhang S , Sato S , Sun S , Kwon SJ , Choi SR , Lee TH , Fan W , Zhao X , Tan X , Xu X , Wang Y , Qiu Y , Yin Y , Li Y , Du Y , Liao Y , Lim Y , Narusaka Y , Wang Z , Li Z , Xiong Z , Zhang Z
Ref : Nat Genet , 43 :1035 , 2011
Abstract : We report the annotation and analysis of the draft genome sequence of Brassica rapa accession Chiifu-401-42, a Chinese cabbage. We modeled 41,174 protein coding genes in the B. rapa genome, which has undergone genome triplication. We used Arabidopsis thaliana as an outgroup for investigating the consequences of genome triplication, such as structural and functional evolution. The extent of gene loss (fractionation) among triplicated genome segments varies, with one of the three copies consistently retaining a disproportionately large fraction of the genes expected to have been present in its ancestor. Variation in the number of members of gene families present in the genome may contribute to the remarkable morphological plasticity of Brassica species. The B. rapa genome sequence provides an important resource for studying the evolution of polyploid genomes and underpins the genetic improvement of Brassica oil and vegetable crops.
ESTHER : Wang_2011_Nat.Genet_43_1035
PubMedSearch : Wang_2011_Nat.Genet_43_1035
PubMedID: 21873998
Gene_locus related to this paper: braol-Q8GTM3 , braol-Q8GTM4 , brarp-m4ei94 , brarp-m4c988 , brana-a0a078j4a9 , brana-a0a078e1m0 , brana-a0a078cd75 , brarp-m4dwa6 , brana-a0a078j4f0 , brana-a0a078cus4 , brana-a0a078f8c2 , brana-a0a078jql1 , brana-a0a078dgj3 , brana-a0a078hw50 , brana-a0a078cuu0 , brana-a0a078dfa9 , brana-a0a078ic91 , brarp-m4ctw3 , brana-a0a078ca65 , brana-a0a078ctc8 , brana-a0a078h021 , brana-a0a078jx23 , brarp-m4da84 , brarp-m4dwr7 , brana-a0a078dh94 , brana-a0a078h612 , brana-a0a078j2t3 , braol-a0a0d3dpb2 , braol-a0a0d3dx76 , brana-a0a078jxa8 , brana-a0a078i2k3 , brarp-m4cwq4 , brarp-m4dcj8 , brarp-m4eh17 , brarp-m4eey4 , brarp-m4dnj8 , brarp-m4ey83 , brarp-m4ey84

Title : Complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus buchneri NRRL B-30929, a novel strain from a commercial ethanol plant - Liu_2011_J.Bacteriol_193_4019
Author(s) : Liu S , Leathers TD , Copeland A , Chertkov O , Goodwin L , Mills DA
Ref : Journal of Bacteriology , 193 :4019 , 2011
Abstract : Lactobacillus buchneri strain NRRL B-30929 was a contaminant obtained from a commercial ethanol fermentation. This facultative anaerobe is unique because of its rapid growth on xylose and simultaneous fermentation of xylose and glucose. The strain utilizes a broad range of carbohydrate substrates and possesses a high tolerance to ethanol and other stresses, making it an attractive candidate for bioconversion of biomass substrates to various bioproducts. The genome sequence of NRRL B-30929 will provide insight into the unique properties of this lactic acid bacterium.
ESTHER : Liu_2011_J.Bacteriol_193_4019
PubMedSearch : Liu_2011_J.Bacteriol_193_4019
PubMedID: 21622751

Title : Interaction study of two diterpenes, cryptotanshinone and dihydrotanshinone, to human acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase by molecular docking and kinetic analysis - Wong_2010_Chem.Biol.Interact_187_335
Author(s) : Wong KK , Ngo JC , Liu S , Lin HQ , Hu C , Shaw PC , Wan DC
Ref : Chemico-Biological Interactions , 187 :335 , 2010
Abstract : Alzhemier's disease (AD) is a common form of dementia in the ageing population which is characterized by depositions of amyloids and a cholinergic neurotransmission deficit in the brain. Current therapeutic intervention for AD is primarily based on the inhibition of brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) to restore the brain acetylcholine level. Cryptotanshinone (CT) and dihydrotanshinone (DT) were diterpenoids extracted from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge. having anti-cholinesterase activity. Here we characterized the inhibition property of these two diterpenoids towards human AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). Both CT and DT were found to be mixed non-competitive inhibitors for human AChE and an uncompetitive inhibitor for human BChE. The docking analyses of CT and DT into the active sites of both cholinesterases indicate that they interact with the allosteric site inside the active-site gorge mainly by hydrophobic interactions.
ESTHER : Wong_2010_Chem.Biol.Interact_187_335
PubMedSearch : Wong_2010_Chem.Biol.Interact_187_335
PubMedID: 20350537

Title : Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a novel esterase Rv0045c from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. - Xu_2010_Acta.Crystallogr.Sect.F.Struct.Biol.Cryst.Commun_66_1579
Author(s) : Xu L , Guo J , Zheng X , Wen T , Sun F , Liu S , Pang H
Ref : Acta Crystallographica Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun , 66 :1579 , 2010
Abstract : The Rv0045c protein is predicted to be an esterase that is involved in lipid metabolism in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The protein was overproduced in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The Rv0045c protein crystals diffracted to a resolution of 2.7A using a synchrotron-radiation source and belonged to space group P3(1) or P3(2), with unit-cell parameters a=b=73.465, c=48.064A, alpha=beta=90, =120deg. Purified SeMet-labelled Rv0045c protein was also crystallized and formed crystals that diffracted to a resolution of 3.0A using an in-house X-ray radiation source.
ESTHER : Xu_2010_Acta.Crystallogr.Sect.F.Struct.Biol.Cryst.Commun_66_1579
PubMedSearch : Xu_2010_Acta.Crystallogr.Sect.F.Struct.Biol.Cryst.Commun_66_1579
PubMedID: 21139199
Gene_locus related to this paper: myctu-RV0045C

Title : Characterization of a novel esterase Rv0045c from Mycobacterium tuberculosis - Guo_2010_PLoS.One_5_
Author(s) : Guo J , Zheng X , Xu L , Liu Z , Xu K , Li S , Wen T , Liu S , Pang H
Ref : PLoS ONE , 5 : , 2010
Abstract : BACKGROUND: It was proposed that there are at least 250 enzymes in M. tuberculosis involved in lipid metabolism. Rv0045c was predicted to be a hydrolase by amino acid sequence similarity, although its precise biochemical characterization and function remained to be defined. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We expressed the Rv0045c protein to high levels in E. coli and purified the protein to high purity. We confirmed that the prepared protein was the Rv0045c protein by mass spectrometry analysis. Circular dichroism spectroscopy analysis showed that the protein possessed abundant beta-sheet secondary structure, and confirmed that its conformation was stable in the range pH 6.0-10.0 and at temperatures <= 40 degrees C. Enzyme activity analysis indicated that the Rv0045c protein could efficiently hydrolyze short chain p-nitrophenyl esters (C(2)-C(8)), and its suitable substrate was p-nitrophenyl caproate (C(6)) with optimal catalytic conditions of 39 degrees C and pH 8.0. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrated that the Rv0045c protein is a novel esterase. These experiments will be helpful in understanding ester/lipid metabolism related to M. tuberculosis.
ESTHER : Guo_2010_PLoS.One_5_
PubMedSearch : Guo_2010_PLoS.One_5_
PubMedID: 20957207
Gene_locus related to this paper: myctu-RV0045C

Title : Transcriptome sequencing and comparative analysis of cucumber flowers with different sex types - Guo_2010_BMC.Genomics_11_384
Author(s) : Guo S , Zheng Y , Joung JG , Liu S , Zhang Z , Crasta OR , Sobral BW , Xu Y , Huang S , Fei Z
Ref : BMC Genomics , 11 :384 , 2010
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Cucumber, Cucumis sativus L., is an economically and nutritionally important crop of the Cucurbitaceae family and has long served as a primary model system for sex determination studies. Recently, the sequencing of its whole genome has been completed. However, transcriptome information of this species is still scarce, with a total of around 8,000 Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) and mRNA sequences currently available in GenBank. In order to gain more insights into molecular mechanisms of plant sex determination and provide the community a functional genomics resource that will facilitate cucurbit research and breeding, we performed transcriptome sequencing of cucumber flower buds of two near-isogenic lines, WI1983G, a gynoecious plant which bears only pistillate flowers, and WI1983H, a hermaphroditic plant which bears only bisexual flowers. RESULT: Using Roche-454 massive parallel pyrosequencing technology, we generated a total of 353,941 high quality EST sequences with an average length of 175bp, among which 188,255 were from gynoecious flowers and 165,686 from hermaphroditic flowers. These EST sequences, together with approximately 5,600 high quality cucumber EST and mRNA sequences available in GenBank, were clustered and assembled into 81,401 unigenes, of which 28,452 were contigs and 52,949 were singletons. The unigenes and ESTs were further mapped to the cucumber genome and more than 500 alternative splicing events were identified in 443 cucumber genes. The unigenes were further functionally annotated by comparing their sequences to different protein and functional domain databases and assigned with Gene Ontology (GO) terms. A biochemical pathway database containing 343 predicted pathways was also created based on the annotations of the unigenes. Digital expression analysis identified approximately 200 differentially expressed genes between flowers of WI1983G and WI1983H and provided novel insights into molecular mechanisms of plant sex determination process. Furthermore, a set of SSR motifs and high confidence SNPs between WI1983G and WI1983H were identified from the ESTs, which provided the material basis for future genetic linkage and QTL analysis. CONCLUSION: A large set of EST sequences were generated from cucumber flower buds of two different sex types. Differentially expressed genes between these two different sex-type flowers, as well as putative SSR and SNP markers, were identified. These EST sequences provide valuable information to further understand molecular mechanisms of plant sex determination process and forms a rich resource for future functional genomics analysis, marker development and cucumber breeding.
ESTHER : Guo_2010_BMC.Genomics_11_384
PubMedSearch : Guo_2010_BMC.Genomics_11_384
PubMedID: 20565788
Gene_locus related to this paper: cucsa-a0a0a0ktw5 , cucsa-a0a0a0lnt6 , cucsa-a0a0a0kpn7 , cucsa-a0a0a0lvt9 , cucsa-a0a0a0kdx8 , cucsa-a0a0a0m228 , cucsa-a0a0a0kz31 , cucsa-a0a0a0k5t5 , cucsa-a0a0a0kfs7 , cucsa-a0a0a0kjj7 , cucsa-a0a0a0kzs7 , cucsa-a0a0a0l0a6 , cucsa-a0a0a0l4w4 , cucsa-a0a0a0lpz0

Title : A novel GLP-1 analog, BPI3006, with potent DPP IV resistance and good glucoregulatory effect - Li_2010_Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun_400_563
Author(s) : Li C , Huan Y , Shen N , Ji L , Sun S , Liu S , Liu Q , Gao L , Tan F , Wang Y , Shen Z
Ref : Biochemical & Biophysical Research Communications , 400 :563 , 2010
Abstract : Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone that decreases postprandial glycemic excursions by enhancing insulin secretion but with short half-life due to rapid inactivation by enzymatic N-terminal truncation. Therefore, efforts are being made to improve the stability of GLP-1 via modifying its structure or inhibiting dipeptidyl-peptidase IV (DPP IV), which is responsible for its degradation. Here we report a novel GLP-1 analog BPI3006 with -NHCO- of Ala(8) replaced by -CH(CF(3))NH- and features of its metabolic stability, GLP-1 receptor trans-activation and in vivo biological activity. BPI3006 is highly resistant to DPP IV-mediated degradation with 91.1% of parental peptide left after 24h exposure to the enzyme. BPI3006 also effectively activates its target gene promoter through GLP-1 receptor activation by measuring the transiently transfected reporter gene green fluorescence protein (GFP) expression in NIT-1 cells. Furthermore, BPI3006 could well restrain the glycemia variation in fasted normal ICR mice after a single administration followed by an oral glucose loading. In spontaneous type 2 diabetic KKA(y) mice, BPI3006 injected twice daily could significantly improve the oral glucose tolerance and hyperinsulinemia, as well as ameliorate the food and water consumption. In conclusion, BPI3006 has enhanced resistance to DPP IV leading to improved stability, and shows excellent in vivo biological activity. Thus it may be a new candidate for T2DM treatment and its novel modification may provide valuable guidance for the future development of long-acting GLP-1 analogs.
ESTHER : Li_2010_Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun_400_563
PubMedSearch : Li_2010_Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun_400_563
PubMedID: 20804731

Title : Increased lipolysis in adipose tissues is associated with elevation of systemic free fatty acids and insulin resistance in perilipin null mice - Zhai_2010_Horm.Metab.Res_42_247
Author(s) : Zhai W , Xu C , Ling Y , Liu S , Deng J , Qi Y , Londos C , Xu G
Ref : Hormone & Metabolic Research , 42 :247 , 2010
Abstract : Elevated plasma levels of free fatty acids (FFAs) are thought to restrict glucose utilization and induce insulin resistance. Plasma FFA concentrations are primarily governed by lipolysis in adipocytes. Perilipin surrounds the lipid droplet in adipocytes and has a dual role in lipolysis regulation. Perilipin null mice studied by two independent laboratories exhibited similar phenotypes of reduced adipose mass and resistance to diet-induced obesity, but have inconsistent metabolic parameters such as plasma levels of FFA, glucose, and insulin. This discrepancy may be due to differences in genetic background, generation, and nutritional status of the animals examined. In this study, we examined the major metabolic parameters in 129/SvEv perilipin null mice fasted for 4 h and observed increased plasma concentrations of FFA, glycerol, glucose, and insulin. An increase in the score for the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index confirmed the insulin resistance in perilipin null mice, which may be attributed to the plasma FFA elevation. Basal lipolysis was increased in adipose tissues or primary adipocytes isolated from perilipin null mice with increased mass and activity of hormone-sensitive lipase and adipose triglyceride lipase. The increased lipolytic action may accelerate FFA efflux from the adipose tissues to the bloodstream, thereby accounting for systemic FFA elevation and, hence, insulin resistance in perilipin null mice.
ESTHER : Zhai_2010_Horm.Metab.Res_42_247
PubMedSearch : Zhai_2010_Horm.Metab.Res_42_247
PubMedID: 20091459

Title : The sequence and de novo assembly of the giant panda genome - Li_2010_Nature_463_311
Author(s) : Li R , Fan W , Tian G , Zhu H , He L , Cai J , Huang Q , Cai Q , Li B , Bai Y , Zhang Z , Zhang Y , Wang W , Li J , Wei F , Li H , Jian M , Nielsen R , Li D , Gu W , Yang Z , Xuan Z , Ryder OA , Leung FC , Zhou Y , Cao J , Sun X , Fu Y , Fang X , Guo X , Wang B , Hou R , Shen F , Mu B , Ni P , Lin R , Qian W , Wang G , Yu C , Nie W , Wang J , Wu Z , Liang H , Min J , Wu Q , Cheng S , Ruan J , Wang M , Shi Z , Wen M , Liu B , Ren X , Zheng H , Dong D , Cook K , Shan G , Zhang H , Kosiol C , Xie X , Lu Z , Li Y , Steiner CC , Lam TT , Lin S , Zhang Q , Li G , Tian J , Gong T , Liu H , Zhang D , Fang L , Ye C , Zhang J , Hu W , Xu A , Ren Y , Zhang G , Bruford MW , Li Q , Ma L , Guo Y , An N , Hu Y , Zheng Y , Shi Y , Li Z , Liu Q , Chen Y , Zhao J , Qu N , Zhao S , Tian F , Wang X , Wang H , Xu L , Liu X , Vinar T , Wang Y , Lam TW , Yiu SM , Liu S , Huang Y , Yang G , Jiang Z , Qin N , Li L , Bolund L , Kristiansen K , Wong GK , Olson M , Zhang X , Li S , Yang H
Ref : Nature , 463 :311 , 2010
Abstract : Using next-generation sequencing technology alone, we have successfully generated and assembled a draft sequence of the giant panda genome. The assembled contigs (2.25 gigabases (Gb)) cover approximately 94% of the whole genome, and the remaining gaps (0.05 Gb) seem to contain carnivore-specific repeats and tandem repeats. Comparisons with the dog and human showed that the panda genome has a lower divergence rate. The assessment of panda genes potentially underlying some of its unique traits indicated that its bamboo diet might be more dependent on its gut microbiome than its own genetic composition. We also identified more than 2.7 million heterozygous single nucleotide polymorphisms in the diploid genome. Our data and analyses provide a foundation for promoting mammalian genetic research, and demonstrate the feasibility for using next-generation sequencing technologies for accurate, cost-effective and rapid de novo assembly of large eukaryotic genomes.
ESTHER : Li_2010_Nature_463_311
PubMedSearch : Li_2010_Nature_463_311
PubMedID: 20010809
Gene_locus related to this paper: ailme-ABH15 , ailme-ACHE , ailme-BCHE , ailme-d2gtv3 , ailme-d2gty9 , ailme-d2gu87 , ailme-d2gu97 , ailme-d2gve7 , ailme-d2gwu1 , ailme-d2gx08 , ailme-d2gyt0 , ailme-d2gz36 , ailme-d2gz37 , ailme-d2gz38 , ailme-d2gz39 , ailme-d2gz40 , ailme-d2h5r9 , ailme-d2h7b7 , ailme-d2h9c9 , ailme-d2h794 , ailme-d2hau7 , ailme-d2hau8 , ailme-d2hcd9 , ailme-d2hdi6 , ailme-d2heu6 , ailme-d2hga4 , ailme-d2hqw5 , ailme-d2hs98 , ailme-d2hsx4 , ailme-d2hti6 , ailme-d2htv3 , ailme-d2htz6 , ailme-d2huc7 , ailme-d2hwj8 , ailme-d2hwy7 , ailme-d2hxm1 , ailme-d2hyc8 , ailme-d2hyv2 , ailme-d2hz11 , ailme-d2hza3 , ailme-d2hzr4 , ailme-d2i1l4 , ailme-d2i2g8 , ailme-g1l7m3 , ailme-g1lu36 , ailme-g1m769 , ailme-g1mc29 , ailme-g1mdj8 , ailme-g1mdr5 , ailme-g1mfp4 , ailme-g1mfx5 , ailme-g1lj41 , ailme-g1lm28 , ailme-g1l3u1 , ailme-g1l7l1 , ailme-g1m5i3 , ailme-g1l2f6 , ailme-g1lji5 , ailme-g1lqk3 , ailme-g1l8s9 , ailme-d2h717 , ailme-d2h718 , ailme-d2h719 , ailme-d2h720 , ailme-g1m5v0 , ailme-g1m5y7 , ailme-g1lkt7 , ailme-g1l2a1 , ailme-g1lsc8 , ailme-g1lrp4 , ailme-d2gv02 , ailme-g1mik5 , ailme-g1ljr1 , ailme-g1lxw7 , ailme-d2h8b5 , ailme-d2h2r2 , ailme-d2h9w7 , ailme-g1meh3 , ailme-g1m719

Title : Identification and characterization of full-length cDNAs in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) - Chen_2010_PLoS.One_5_e11546
Author(s) : Chen F , Lee Y , Jiang Y , Wang S , Peatman E , Abernathy J , Liu H , Liu S , Kucuktas H , Ke C , Liu Z
Ref : PLoS ONE , 5 :e11546 , 2010
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Genome annotation projects, gene functional studies, and phylogenetic analyses for a given organism all greatly benefit from access to a validated full-length cDNA resource. While increasingly common in model species, full-length cDNA resources in aquaculture species are scarce. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Through in silico analysis of catfish (Ictalurus spp.) ESTs, a total of 10,037 channel catfish and 7,382 blue catfish cDNA clones were identified as potentially encoding full-length cDNAs. Of this set, a total of 1,169 channel catfish and 933 blue catfish full-length cDNA clones were selected for re-sequencing to provide additional coverage and ensure sequence accuracy. A total of 1,745 unique gene transcripts were identified from the full-length cDNA set, including 1,064 gene transcripts from channel catfish and 681 gene transcripts from blue catfish, with 416 transcripts shared between the two closely related species. Full-length sequence characteristics (ortholog conservation, UTR length, Kozak sequence, and conserved motifs) of the channel and blue catfish were examined in detail. Comparison of gene ontology composition between full-length cDNAs and all catfish ESTs revealed that the full-length cDNA set is representative of the gene diversity encoded in the catfish transcriptome.
CONCLUSIONS: This study describes the first catfish full-length cDNA set constructed from several cDNA libraries. The catfish full-length cDNA sequences, and data gleaned from sequence characteristics analysis, will be a valuable resource for ongoing catfish whole-genome sequencing and future gene-based studies of function and evolution in teleost fishes.
ESTHER : Chen_2010_PLoS.One_5_e11546
PubMedSearch : Chen_2010_PLoS.One_5_e11546
PubMedID: 20634964
Gene_locus related to this paper: ictpu-e3teh0 , ictpu-e3tfr7 , ictpu-a0a2d0pnc6

Title : (3,3-Difluoro-pyrrolidin-1-yl)-[(2S,4S)-(4-(4-pyrimidin-2-yl-piperazin-1-yl)-pyrr olidin-2-yl]-methanone: a potent, selective, orally active dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor - Ammirati_2009_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett_19_1991
Author(s) : Ammirati MJ , Andrews KM , Boyer DD , Brodeur AM , Danley DE , Doran SD , Hulin B , Liu S , McPherson RK , Orena SJ , Parker JC , Polivkova J , Qiu X , Soglia CB , Treadway JL , VanVolkenburg MA , Wilder DC , Piotrowski DW
Ref : Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Lett , 19 :1991 , 2009
Abstract : A series of 4-substituted proline amides was synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors of dipeptidyl pepdidase IV for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. (3,3-Difluoro-pyrrolidin-1-yl)-[(2S,4S)-(4-(4-pyrimidin-2-yl-piperazin-1-yl)-pyrr olidin-2-yl]-methanone (5) emerged as a potent (IC(50) = 13 nM) and selective compound, with high oral bioavailability in preclinical species and low plasma protein binding. Compound 5, PF-00734200, was selected for development as a potential new treatment for type 2 diabetes.
ESTHER : Ammirati_2009_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett_19_1991
PubMedSearch : Ammirati_2009_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett_19_1991
PubMedID: 19275964
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-DPP4

Title : The B73 maize genome: complexity, diversity, and dynamics - Schnable_2009_Science_326_1112
Author(s) : Schnable PS , Ware D , Fulton RS , Stein JC , Wei F , Pasternak S , Liang C , Zhang J , Fulton L , Graves TA , Minx P , Reily AD , Courtney L , Kruchowski SS , Tomlinson C , Strong C , Delehaunty K , Fronick C , Courtney B , Rock SM , Belter E , Du F , Kim K , Abbott RM , Cotton M , Levy A , Marchetto P , Ochoa K , Jackson SM , Gillam B , Chen W , Yan L , Higginbotham J , Cardenas M , Waligorski J , Applebaum E , Phelps L , Falcone J , Kanchi K , Thane T , Scimone A , Thane N , Henke J , Wang T , Ruppert J , Shah N , Rotter K , Hodges J , Ingenthron E , Cordes M , Kohlberg S , Sgro J , Delgado B , Mead K , Chinwalla A , Leonard S , Crouse K , Collura K , Kudrna D , Currie J , He R , Angelova A , Rajasekar S , Mueller T , Lomeli R , Scara G , Ko A , Delaney K , Wissotski M , Lopez G , Campos D , Braidotti M , Ashley E , Golser W , Kim H , Lee S , Lin J , Dujmic Z , Kim W , Talag J , Zuccolo A , Fan C , Sebastian A , Kramer M , Spiegel L , Nascimento L , Zutavern T , Miller B , Ambroise C , Muller S , Spooner W , Narechania A , Ren L , Wei S , Kumari S , Faga B , Levy MJ , McMahan L , Van Buren P , Vaughn MW , Ying K , Yeh CT , Emrich SJ , Jia Y , Kalyanaraman A , Hsia AP , Barbazuk WB , Baucom RS , Brutnell TP , Carpita NC , Chaparro C , Chia JM , Deragon JM , Estill JC , Fu Y , Jeddeloh JA , Han Y , Lee H , Li P , Lisch DR , Liu S , Liu Z , Nagel DH , McCann MC , SanMiguel P , Myers AM , Nettleton D , Nguyen J , Penning BW , Ponnala L , Schneider KL , Schwartz DC , Sharma A , Soderlund C , Springer NM , Sun Q , Wang H , Waterman M , Westerman R , Wolfgruber TK , Yang L , Yu Y , Zhang L , Zhou S , Zhu Q , Bennetzen JL , Dawe RK , Jiang J , Jiang N , Presting GG , Wessler SR , Aluru S , Martienssen RA , Clifton SW , McCombie WR , Wing RA , Wilson RK
Ref : Science , 326 :1112 , 2009
Abstract : We report an improved draft nucleotide sequence of the 2.3-gigabase genome of maize, an important crop plant and model for biological research. Over 32,000 genes were predicted, of which 99.8% were placed on reference chromosomes. Nearly 85% of the genome is composed of hundreds of families of transposable elements, dispersed nonuniformly across the genome. These were responsible for the capture and amplification of numerous gene fragments and affect the composition, sizes, and positions of centromeres. We also report on the correlation of methylation-poor regions with Mu transposon insertions and recombination, and copy number variants with insertions and/or deletions, as well as how uneven gene losses between duplicated regions were involved in returning an ancient allotetraploid to a genetically diploid state. These analyses inform and set the stage for further investigations to improve our understanding of the domestication and agricultural improvements of maize.
ESTHER : Schnable_2009_Science_326_1112
PubMedSearch : Schnable_2009_Science_326_1112
PubMedID: 19965430
Gene_locus related to this paper: maize-b4ffc7 , maize-b6u7e1 , maize-c0pcy5 , maize-c0pgf7 , maize-c0pgw1 , maize-c0pfl3 , maize-b4fpr7 , maize-k7vy73 , maize-a0a096swr3 , maize-k7v3i9 , maize-b6u9v9 , maize-a0a3l6e780 , maize-b4fv80 , maize-a0a1d6nse2 , maize-c4j9a1 , maize-k7uba1

Title : Heteromeric co-assembly of two insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha subunits: influence on sensitivity to neonicotinoid insecticides - Liu_2009_J.Neurochem_108_498
Author(s) : Liu Z , Han Z , Zhang Y , Song F , Yao X , Liu S , Gu J , Millar NS
Ref : Journal of Neurochemistry , 108 :498 , 2009
Abstract : Neonicotinoid insecticides, such as imidacloprid, are selective agonists of insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and are used extensively in areas of crop protection and animal health to control a variety of insect pest species. Here, we describe studies performed with nAChR subunits Nlalpha1 and Nlalpha2 cloned from the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens, a major insect pest of rice crops in many parts of Asia. The influence of Nlalpha1 and Nlalpha2 subunits upon the functional properties of recombinant nAChRs has been examined by expression in Xenopus oocytes. In addition, the influence of a Nlalpha1 mutation (Y151S), which has been linked to neonicotinoid lab generated resistance in N. lugens, has been examined. As in previous studies of insect alpha subunits, functional expression has been achieved by co-expression with the mammalian beta2 subunit. This approach has revealed a significantly higher apparent affinity of imidacloprid for Nlalpha1/beta2 than for Nlalpha2/beta2 nAChRs. In addition, evidence has been obtained for the co-assembly of Nlalpha1 and Nlalpha2 subunits into 'triplet' nAChRs of subunit composition Nlalpha1/Nlalpha2/beta2. Evidence has also been obtained which demonstrates that the resistance-associated Y151S mutation has a significantly reduced effect on neonicotinoid agonist activity when Nlalpha1 is co-assembled with Nlalpha2 than when expressed as the sole alpha subunit in a heteromeric nAChR. These findings may be of importance in assessing the likely impact of the target-site mutations such as Y151S upon neonicotinoid insecticide resistance in insect field populations.
ESTHER : Liu_2009_J.Neurochem_108_498
PubMedSearch : Liu_2009_J.Neurochem_108_498
PubMedID: 19046356

Title : Recombinant expression and biochemical characterization of the catalytic domain of acetylcholinesterase-1 from the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae - Jiang_2009_Insect.Biochem.Mol.Biol_39_646
Author(s) : Jiang H , Liu S , Zhao P , Pope C
Ref : Insect Biochemistry & Molecular Biology , 39 :646 , 2009
Abstract : Acetylcholinesterases (AChEs) and their genes from susceptible and resistant insects have been extensively studied to understand the molecular basis of target site insensitivity. Due to the existence of other resistance mechanisms, however, it can be problematic to correlate directly a mutation with the resistant phenotype. An alternative approach involves recombinant expression and characterization of highly purified wild-type and mutant AChEs, which serves as a reliable platform for studying structure-function relationships. We expressed the catalytic domain of Anopheles gambiae AChE1 (r-AgAChE1) using the baculovirus system and purified it 2,500-fold from the conditioned medium to near homogeneity. While K(M)'s of r-AgAChE1 were comparable for ATC, AbetaMTC, PTC, and BTC, V(max)'s were substantially different. The IC(50)'s for eserine, carbaryl, paraoxon, BW284C51, malaoxon, and ethopropazine were 8.3, 72.5, 83.6, 199, 328, and 6.59 x 10(4) nM, respectively. We determined kinetic constants for inhibition of r-AgAChE1 by four of these compounds. The enzyme bound eserine or paraoxon stronger than carbaryl or malaoxon. Because the covalent modification of r-AgAChE1 by eserine occurred faster than that by the other compounds, eserine is more potent than paraoxon, carbaryl, and malaoxon. Furthermore, we found that choline inhibited r-AgAChE1, a phenomenon related to the enzyme activity decrease at high concentrations of acetylcholine.
ESTHER : Jiang_2009_Insect.Biochem.Mol.Biol_39_646
PubMedSearch : Jiang_2009_Insect.Biochem.Mol.Biol_39_646
PubMedID: 19607916
Gene_locus related to this paper: anoga-ACHE1

Title : The genome of the cucumber, Cucumis sativus L - Huang_2009_Nat.Genet_41_1275
Author(s) : Huang S , Li R , Zhang Z , Li L , Gu X , Fan W , Lucas WJ , Wang X , Xie B , Ni P , Ren Y , Zhu H , Li J , Lin K , Jin W , Fei Z , Li G , Staub J , Kilian A , van der Vossen EA , Wu Y , Guo J , He J , Jia Z , Tian G , Lu Y , Ruan J , Qian W , Wang M , Huang Q , Li B , Xuan Z , Cao J , Asan , Wu Z , Zhang J , Cai Q , Bai Y , Zhao B , Han Y , Li Y , Li X , Wang S , Shi Q , Liu S , Cho WK , Kim JY , Xu Y , Heller-Uszynska K , Miao H , Cheng Z , Zhang S , Wu J , Yang Y , Kang H , Li M , Liang H , Ren X , Shi Z , Wen M , Jian M , Yang H , Zhang G , Yang Z , Chen R , Ma L , Liu H , Zhou Y , Zhao J , Fang X , Fang L , Liu D , Zheng H , Zhang Y , Qin N , Li Z , Yang G , Yang S , Bolund L , Kristiansen K , Li S , Zhang X , Wang J , Sun R , Zhang B , Jiang S , Du Y
Ref : Nat Genet , 41 :1275 , 2009
Abstract : Cucumber is an economically important crop as well as a model system for sex determination studies and plant vascular biology. Here we report the draft genome sequence of Cucumis sativus var. sativus L., assembled using a novel combination of traditional Sanger and next-generation Illumina GA sequencing technologies to obtain 72.2-fold genome coverage. The absence of recent whole-genome duplication, along with the presence of few tandem duplications, explains the small number of genes in the cucumber. Our study establishes that five of the cucumber's seven chromosomes arose from fusions of ten ancestral chromosomes after divergence from Cucumis melo. The sequenced cucumber genome affords insight into traits such as its sex expression, disease resistance, biosynthesis of cucurbitacin and 'fresh green' odor. We also identify 686 gene clusters related to phloem function. The cucumber genome provides a valuable resource for developing elite cultivars and for studying the evolution and function of the plant vascular system.
ESTHER : Huang_2009_Nat.Genet_41_1275
PubMedSearch : Huang_2009_Nat.Genet_41_1275
PubMedID: 19881527
Gene_locus related to this paper: cucsa-a0a0a0ktw5 , cucsa-a0a0a0lnt6 , cucsa-a0a0a0kpn7 , cucsa-a0a0a0lvt9 , cucsa-a0a0a0kdx8 , cucsa-a0a0a0m228 , cucsa-a0a0a0kz31 , cucsa-a0a0a0k5t5 , cucsa-a0a0a0kfs7 , cucsa-a0a0a0kjj7 , cucsa-a0a0a0kzs7 , cucsa-a0a0a0l0a6 , cucsa-a0a0a0l4w4 , cucsa-a0a0a0lpz0 , cucsa-a0a0a0ls66

Title : Invasive mechanism and management strategy of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B: progress report of 973 Program on invasive alien species in China - Wan_2009_Sci.China.C.Life.Sci_52_88
Author(s) : Wan F , Zhang G , Liu S , Luo C , Chu D , Zhang Y , Zang L , Jiu M , Lu Z , Cui X , Zhang L , Zhang F , Zhang Q , Liu W , Liang P , Lei Z
Ref : Sci China C Life Sciences , 52 :88 , 2009
Abstract : Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B, called a "superbug", is one of the most harmful biotypes of this species complex worldwide. In this report, the invasive mechanism and management of B. tabaci biotype B, based on our 5-year studies, are presented. Six B. tabaci biotypes, B, Q, ZHJ1, ZHJ2, ZHJ3 and FJ1, have been identified in China. Biotype B dominates the other biotypes in many regions of the country. Genetic diversity in biotype B might be induced by host plant, geographical conditions, and/or insecticidal application. The activities of CarE (carboxylesterase) and GSTs (glutathione-S-transferase) in biotype B reared on cucumber and squash were greater than on other host plants, which might have increased its resistance to insecticides. The higher activities of detoxification enzymes in biotype B might be induced by the secondary metabolites in host plants. Higher adaptive ability of biotype B adults to adverse conditions might be linked to the expression of heat shock protein genes. The indigenous B. tabaci biotypes were displaced by the biotype B within 225 d. The asymmetric mating interactions and mutualism between biotype B and begomoviruses via its host plants speed up widespread invasion and displacement of other biotypes. B. tabaci biotype B displaced Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) after 4-7 generations under glasshouse conditions. Greater adaptive ability of the biotype B to adverse conditions and its rapid population increase might be the reasons of its successful displacement of T. vaporariorum. Greater ability of the biotype B to switch to different host plants may enrich its host plants, which might enable it to better compete with T. vaporariorum. Native predatory natural enemies possess greater ability to suppress B. tabaci under field conditions. The kairomones in the 3rd and 4th instars of biotype B may provide an important stimulus in host searching and location by its parasitoids. The present results provide useful information in explaining the mechanisms of genetic diversity, evolution and molecular eco-adaptation of biotype B. Furthermore, it provides a base for sustainable management of B. tabaci using biological and ecological measures.
ESTHER : Wan_2009_Sci.China.C.Life.Sci_52_88
PubMedSearch : Wan_2009_Sci.China.C.Life.Sci_52_88
PubMedID: 19152088

Title : The genome of a lepidopteran model insect, the silkworm Bombyx mori - Xia_2008_Insect.Biochem.Mol.Biol_38_1036
Author(s) : Xia Q , Wang J , Zhou Z , Li R , Fan W , Cheng D , Cheng T , Qin J , Duana J , Xu H , Li Q , Li N , Wang M , Dai F , Liu C , Lin Y , Zhao P , Zhang H , Liu S , Zha X , Li C , Zhao A , Pan M , Pan G , Shen Y , Gao Z , Wang Z , Wang G , Wu Z , Hou Y , Chai C , Yu Q , He N , Zhang Z , Li S , Yang H , Lu C , Xiang Z , Mita K , Kasahara M , Nakatani Y , Yamamoto K , Abe H , Ahsan B , Daimoni T , Doi K , Fujii T , Fujiwara H , Fujiyama A , Futahashi R , Hashimotol S , Ishibashi J , Iwami M , Kadono-Okuda K , Kanamori H , Kataoka H , Katsuma S , Kawaoka S , Kawasaki H , Kohara Y , Kozaki T , Kuroshu RM , Kuwazaki S , Matsushima K , Minami H , Nagayasu Y , Nakagawa T , Narukawa J , Nohata J , Ohishi K , Ono Y , Osanai-Futahashi M , Ozaki K , Qu W , Roller L , Sasaki S , Sasaki T , Seino A , Shimomura M , Shin-I T , Shinoda T , Shiotsuki T , Suetsugu Y , Sugano S , Suwa M , Suzuki Y , Takiya S , Tamura T , Tanaka H , Tanaka Y , Touhara K , Yamada T , Yamakawa M , Yamanaka N , Yoshikawa H , Zhong YS , Shimada T , Morishita S
Ref : Insect Biochemistry & Molecular Biology , 38 :1036 , 2008
Abstract : Bombyx mori, the domesticated silkworm, is a major insect model for research, and the first lepidopteran for which draft genome sequences became available in 2004. Two independent data sets from whole-genome shotgun sequencing were merged and assembled together with newly obtained fosmid- and BAC-end sequences. The remarkably improved new assembly is presented here. The 8.5-fold sequence coverage of an estimated 432 Mb genome was assembled into scaffolds with an N50 size of approximately 3.7 Mb; the largest scaffold was 14.5 million base pairs. With help of a high-density SNP linkage map, we anchored 87% of the scaffold sequences to all 28 chromosomes. A particular feature was the high repetitive sequence content estimated to be 43.6% and that consisted mainly of transposable elements. We predicted 14,623 gene models based on a GLEAN-based algorithm, a more accurate prediction than the previous gene models for this species. Over three thousand silkworm genes have no homologs in other insect or vertebrate genomes. Some insights into gene evolution and into characteristic biological processes are presented here and in other papers in this issue. The massive silk production correlates with the existence of specific tRNA clusters, and of several sericin genes assembled in a cluster. The silkworm's adaptation to feeding on mulberry leaves, which contain toxic alkaloids, is likely linked to the presence of new-type sucrase genes, apparently acquired from bacteria. The silkworm genome also revealed the cascade of genes involved in the juvenile hormone biosynthesis pathway, and a large number of cuticular protein genes.
ESTHER : Xia_2008_Insect.Biochem.Mol.Biol_38_1036
PubMedSearch : Xia_2008_Insect.Biochem.Mol.Biol_38_1036
PubMedID: 19121390
Gene_locus related to this paper: bommo-a0mnw6 , bommo-a1yw85 , bommo-a9ls22 , bommo-ACHE1 , bommo-ACHE2 , bommo-b0fgv8 , bommo-b1q137 , bommo-b1q139 , bommo-b1q140 , bommo-b1q141 , bommo-b2zdz0 , bommo-b3gef6 , bommo-b3gef7 , bommo-b3gs55 , bommo-b3gs56 , bommo-d2ktu3 , bommo-d2ktu5 , bommo-d9ile0 , bommo-e1cga5 , bommo-e1cga6 , bommo-g8fpz6 , bommo-h9iu43 , bommo-h9iu46 , bommo-h9iu47.1 , bommo-h9iu47.2 , bommo-h9iue5 , bommo-h9ivg2 , bommo-h9iwj7 , bommo-h9iwj8 , bommo-h9ix58 , bommo-h9ixi1.1 , bommo-h9ixi1.2 , bommo-h9iy47 , bommo-h9izw1 , bommo-h9j0s4 , bommo-h9j1y0 , bommo-h9j3r0 , bommo-h9j3w6 , bommo-h9j3w7 , bommo-h9j5t0 , bommo-h9j8g3 , bommo-h9j9k9 , bommo-h9j066 , bommo-h9j067 , bommo-h9j593 , bommo-h9j594 , bommo-h9j990 , bommo-h9jde8 , bommo-h9jde9 , bommo-h9jdf0 , bommo-h9jds4 , bommo-h9jle7 , bommo-h9jn83 , bommo-h9jn85 , bommo-h9jrg2 , bommo-h9jyh9 , bommo-JHE , bommo-m1rmh6 , bommo-q1hq05 , bommo-q4tte1 , bommo-h9j592 , bommo-h9j604 , bommo-h9jpm8 , bommo-h9iss4 , bommo-h9j2c7

Title : Molecular cloning and characterization of a juvenile hormone esterase gene from brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens - Liu_2008_J.Insect.Physiol_54_1495
Author(s) : Liu S , Yang B , Gu J , Yao X , Zhang Y , Song F , Liu Z
Ref : J Insect Physiol , 54 :1495 , 2008
Abstract : Juvenile hormone (JH) plays key roles in the regulation of growth, development, diapause and reproduction in insects, and juvenile hormone esterase (JHE) plays an important role in regulating JH titers. We obtained a full-length cDNA encoding JHE in Nilaparvata lugens (NlJHE), the first JHE gene cloned from the hemipteran insects. The deduced protein sequence of Nljhe contains the five conserved motifs identified in JHEs of other insect species, including a consensus GQSAG motif that is required for the enzymatic activity of JHE proteins. Nljhe showed high amino acid similarities with Athalia rosae JHE (40%) and Apis mellifera JHE (39%). Recombinant NlJHE protein expressed in the baculovirus expression system hydrolyzed [3H] JH III at high activity and yielded the specificity constants (kcat/KM=4.28x10(6) M(-1) s(-1)) close to those of the validated JHEs from other insect species, indicating that Nljhe cDNA encodes a functional JH esterase. The Nljhe transcript was expressed mainly in the fat body and the expression level reached a peak at 48 h after ecdysis of the 5th instar nymphs. In the 5th instar, macropterous insects showed significantly higher Nljhe mRNA levels and JHE activities, but much lower JH III levels, than those detected in the brachypterous insects soon after ecdysis and at 48 h after ecdysis. These data suggest that NlJHE might play important roles in regulation of JH levels and wing form differentiation.
ESTHER : Liu_2008_J.Insect.Physiol_54_1495
PubMedSearch : Liu_2008_J.Insect.Physiol_54_1495
PubMedID: 18804476
Gene_locus related to this paper: nillu-b8q962

Title : Evolution of genes and genomes on the Drosophila phylogeny - Clark_2007_Nature_450_203
Author(s) : Clark AG , Eisen MB , Smith DR , Bergman CM , Oliver B , Markow TA , Kaufman TC , Kellis M , Gelbart W , Iyer VN , Pollard DA , Sackton TB , Larracuente AM , Singh ND , Abad JP , Abt DN , Adryan B , Aguade M , Akashi H , Anderson WW , Aquadro CF , Ardell DH , Arguello R , Artieri CG , Barbash DA , Barker D , Barsanti P , Batterham P , Batzoglou S , Begun D , Bhutkar A , Blanco E , Bosak SA , Bradley RK , Brand AD , Brent MR , Brooks AN , Brown RH , Butlin RK , Caggese C , Calvi BR , Bernardo de Carvalho A , Caspi A , Castrezana S , Celniker SE , Chang JL , Chapple C , Chatterji S , Chinwalla A , Civetta A , Clifton SW , Comeron JM , Costello JC , Coyne JA , Daub J , David RG , Delcher AL , Delehaunty K , Do CB , Ebling H , Edwards K , Eickbush T , Evans JD , Filipski A , Findeiss S , Freyhult E , Fulton L , Fulton R , Garcia AC , Gardiner A , Garfield DA , Garvin BE , Gibson G , Gilbert D , Gnerre S , Godfrey J , Good R , Gotea V , Gravely B , Greenberg AJ , Griffiths-Jones S , Gross S , Guigo R , Gustafson EA , Haerty W , Hahn MW , Halligan DL , Halpern AL , Halter GM , Han MV , Heger A , Hillier L , Hinrichs AS , Holmes I , Hoskins RA , Hubisz MJ , Hultmark D , Huntley MA , Jaffe DB , Jagadeeshan S , Jeck WR , Johnson J , Jones CD , Jordan WC , Karpen GH , Kataoka E , Keightley PD , Kheradpour P , Kirkness EF , Koerich LB , Kristiansen K , Kudrna D , Kulathinal RJ , Kumar S , Kwok R , Lander E , Langley CH , Lapoint R , Lazzaro BP , Lee SJ , Levesque L , Li R , Lin CF , Lin MF , Lindblad-Toh K , Llopart A , Long M , Low L , Lozovsky E , Lu J , Luo M , Machado CA , Makalowski W , Marzo M , Matsuda M , Matzkin L , McAllister B , McBride CS , McKernan B , McKernan K , Mendez-Lago M , Minx P , Mollenhauer MU , Montooth K , Mount SM , Mu X , Myers E , Negre B , Newfeld S , Nielsen R , Noor MA , O'Grady P , Pachter L , Papaceit M , Parisi MJ , Parisi M , Parts L , Pedersen JS , Pesole G , Phillippy AM , Ponting CP , Pop M , Porcelli D , Powell JR , Prohaska S , Pruitt K , Puig M , Quesneville H , Ram KR , Rand D , Rasmussen MD , Reed LK , Reenan R , Reily A , Remington KA , Rieger TT , Ritchie MG , Robin C , Rogers YH , Rohde C , Rozas J , Rubenfield MJ , Ruiz A , Russo S , Salzberg SL , Sanchez-Gracia A , Saranga DJ , Sato H , Schaeffer SW , Schatz MC , Schlenke T , Schwartz R , Segarra C , Singh RS , Sirot L , Sirota M , Sisneros NB , Smith CD , Smith TF , Spieth J , Stage DE , Stark A , Stephan W , Strausberg RL , Strempel S , Sturgill D , Sutton G , Sutton GG , Tao W , Teichmann S , Tobari YN , Tomimura Y , Tsolas JM , Valente VL , Venter E , Venter JC , Vicario S , Vieira FG , Vilella AJ , Villasante A , Walenz B , Wang J , Wasserman M , Watts T , Wilson D , Wilson RK , Wing RA , Wolfner MF , Wong A , Wong GK , Wu CI , Wu G , Yamamoto D , Yang HP , Yang SP , Yorke JA , Yoshida K , Zdobnov E , Zhang P , Zhang Y , Zimin AV , Baldwin J , Abdouelleil A , Abdulkadir J , Abebe A , Abera B , Abreu J , Acer SC , Aftuck L , Alexander A , An P , Anderson E , Anderson S , Arachi H , Azer M , Bachantsang P , Barry A , Bayul T , Berlin A , Bessette D , Bloom T , Blye J , Boguslavskiy L , Bonnet C , Boukhgalter B , Bourzgui I , Brown A , Cahill P , Channer S , Cheshatsang Y , Chuda L , Citroen M , Collymore A , Cooke P , Costello M , D'Aco K , Daza R , De Haan G , DeGray S , DeMaso C , Dhargay N , Dooley K , Dooley E , Doricent M , Dorje P , Dorjee K , Dupes A , Elong R , Falk J , Farina A , Faro S , Ferguson D , Fisher S , Foley CD , Franke A , Friedrich D , Gadbois L , Gearin G , Gearin CR , Giannoukos G , Goode T , Graham J , Grandbois E , Grewal S , Gyaltsen K , Hafez N , Hagos B , Hall J , Henson C , Hollinger A , Honan T , Huard MD , Hughes L , Hurhula B , Husby ME , Kamat A , Kanga B , Kashin S , Khazanovich D , Kisner P , Lance K , Lara M , Lee W , Lennon N , Letendre F , LeVine R , Lipovsky A , Liu X , Liu J , Liu S , Lokyitsang T , Lokyitsang Y , Lubonja R , Lui A , Macdonald P , Magnisalis V , Maru K , Matthews C , McCusker W , McDonough S , Mehta T , Meldrim J , Meneus L , Mihai O , Mihalev A , Mihova T , Mittelman R , Mlenga V , Montmayeur A , Mulrain L , Navidi A , Naylor J , Negash T , Nguyen T , Nguyen N , Nicol R , Norbu C , Norbu N , Novod N , O'Neill B , Osman S , Markiewicz E , Oyono OL , Patti C , Phunkhang P , Pierre F , Priest M , Raghuraman S , Rege F , Reyes R , Rise C , Rogov P , Ross K , Ryan E , Settipalli S , Shea T , Sherpa N , Shi L , Shih D , Sparrow T , Spaulding J , Stalker J , Stange-Thomann N , Stavropoulos S , Stone C , Strader C , Tesfaye S , Thomson T , Thoulutsang Y , Thoulutsang D , Topham K , Topping I , Tsamla T , Vassiliev H , Vo A , Wangchuk T , Wangdi T , Weiand M , Wilkinson J , Wilson A , Yadav S , Young G , Yu Q , Zembek L , Zhong D , Zimmer A , Zwirko Z , Alvarez P , Brockman W , Butler J , Chin C , Grabherr M , Kleber M , Mauceli E , MacCallum I
Ref : Nature , 450 :203 , 2007
Abstract : Comparative analysis of multiple genomes in a phylogenetic framework dramatically improves the precision and sensitivity of evolutionary inference, producing more robust results than single-genome analyses can provide. The genomes of 12 Drosophila species, ten of which are presented here for the first time (sechellia, simulans, yakuba, erecta, ananassae, persimilis, willistoni, mojavensis, virilis and grimshawi), illustrate how rates and patterns of sequence divergence across taxa can illuminate evolutionary processes on a genomic scale. These genome sequences augment the formidable genetic tools that have made Drosophila melanogaster a pre-eminent model for animal genetics, and will further catalyse fundamental research on mechanisms of development, cell biology, genetics, disease, neurobiology, behaviour, physiology and evolution. Despite remarkable similarities among these Drosophila species, we identified many putatively non-neutral changes in protein-coding genes, non-coding RNA genes, and cis-regulatory regions. These may prove to underlie differences in the ecology and behaviour of these diverse species.
ESTHER : Clark_2007_Nature_450_203
PubMedSearch : Clark_2007_Nature_450_203
PubMedID: 17994087
Gene_locus related to this paper: droan-ACHE , droan-b3lx10 , droan-b3lx75 , droan-b3lxv7 , droan-b3ly87 , droan-b3lyh4 , droan-b3lyh5 , droan-b3lyh7 , droan-b3lyh9 , droan-b3lyi0 , droan-b3lyi2 , droan-b3lyi3 , droan-b3lyi4 , droan-b3lyj8 , droan-b3lyj9 , droan-b3lyx4 , droan-b3lyx5 , droan-b3lyx6 , droan-b3lyx7 , droan-b3lyx9 , droan-b3lz72 , droan-b3m1x3 , droan-b3m2d4 , droan-b3m3d9 , droan-b3m4e3 , droan-b3m5w1 , droan-b3m6i7 , droan-b3m7v2 , droan-b3m9a5 , droan-b3m9f4 , droan-b3m9p3 , droan-b3m254 , droan-b3m259 , droan-b3m260 , droan-b3m262 , droan-b3m524 , droan-b3m635 , droan-b3m845 , droan-b3m846 , droan-b3md01 , droan-b3mdh7 , droan-b3mdm6 , droan-b3mdw8 , droan-b3mee1 , droan-b3mf47 , droan-b3mf48 , droan-b3mg94 , droan-b3mgk2 , droan-b3mgn6 , droan-b3mii3 , droan-b3mjk2 , droan-b3mjk3 , droan-b3mjk4 , droan-b3mjk5 , droan-b3mjl2 , droan-b3mjl4 , droan-b3mjl7 , droan-b3mjl9 , droan-b3mjm8 , droan-b3mjm9 , droan-b3mjs6 , droan-b3mkr0 , droan-b3ml20 , droan-b3mly4 , droan-b3mly5 , droan-b3mly6 , droan-b3mmm8 , droan-b3mnb5 , droan-b3mny9 , droan-b3mtj5 , droan-b3muw4 , droan-b3muw8 , droan-b3n0e7 , droan-b3n2j7 , droan-b3n247 , droan-c5idb2 , droer-ACHE , droer-b3n5c7 , droer-b3n5d0 , droer-b3n5d8 , droer-b3n5d9 , droer-b3n5t7 , droer-b3n5y4 , droer-b3n7d2 , droer-b3n7d3 , droer-b3n7d4 , droer-b3n7k8 , droer-b3n8e4 , droer-b3n8f7 , droer-b3n8f8 , droer-b3n9e1 , droer-b3n319 , droer-b3n547 , droer-b3n549 , droer-b3n558 , droer-b3n560 , droer-b3n577 , droer-b3n612 , droer-b3nar5 , droer-b3nb91 , droer-b3nct9 , droer-b3nd53 , droer-b3ndh9 , droer-b3ndq8 , droer-b3ne66 , droer-b3ne67 , droer-b3ne97 , droer-b3nfk3 , droer-b3nfq9 , droer-b3nim7 , droer-b3nkn2 , droer-b3nm11 , droer-b3nmh4 , droer-b3nmy2 , droer-b3npx2 , droer-b3npx3 , droer-b3nq76 , droer-b3nqg9 , droer-b3nqm8 , droer-b3nr28 , droer-b3nrd3 , droer-b3nst4 , droer-b3nwa7 , droer-b3nyp5.1 , droer-b3nyp5.2 , droer-b3nyp6 , droer-b3nyp7 , droer-b3nyp8 , droer-b3nyp9 , droer-b3nyq3 , droer-b3nz06 , droer-b3nz14 , droer-b3nzj0 , droer-b3p0c0 , droer-b3p0c1 , droer-b3p0c2 , droer-b3p2x6 , droer-b3p2x7 , droer-b3p2x9 , droer-b3p2y1 , droer-b3p2y2 , droer-b3p6d4 , droer-b3p6d5 , droer-b3p6w3 , droer-b3p7b4 , droer-b3p7h9 , droer-b3p152 , droer-b3p486 , droer-b3p487 , droer-b3p488 , droer-b3p489 , droer-EST6 , droer-q670j5 , drogr-ACHE , drogr-b4iwp3 , drogr-b4iww3 , drogr-b4iwy3 , drogr-b4ixf7 , drogr-b4ixh4 , drogr-b4iyz5 , drogr-b4j2s2 , drogr-b4j2u8 , drogr-b4j3u1 , drogr-b4j3v3 , drogr-b4j4g7 , drogr-b4j4x9 , drogr-b4j6e6 , drogr-b4j9c9 , drogr-b4j9y4 , drogr-b4j156 , drogr-b4j384 , drogr-b4j605 , drogr-b4j685 , drogr-b4ja76 , drogr-b4jay5 , drogr-b4jcf0 , drogr-b4jcf1 , drogr-b4jdg6 , drogr-b4jdg7 , drogr-b4jdh6 , drogr-b4jdz1 , drogr-b4jdz2 , drogr-b4jdz4 , drogr-b4je66 , drogr-b4je79 , drogr-b4je82 , drogr-b4je88 , drogr-b4je89 , drogr-b4je90 , drogr-b4je91 , drogr-b4jf76 , drogr-b4jf79 , drogr-b4jf80 , drogr-b4jf81 , drogr-b4jf82 , drogr-b4jf83 , drogr-b4jf84 , drogr-b4jf85 , drogr-b4jf87 , drogr-b4jf91 , drogr-b4jf92 , drogr-b4jg66 , drogr-b4jgh0 , drogr-b4jgh1 , drogr-b4jgr9 , drogr-b4ji67 , drogr-b4jls2 , drogr-b4jnh9 , drogr-b4jpc6 , drogr-b4jpq3 , drogr-b4jpx9 , drogr-b4jql2 , drogr-b4jrh5 , drogr-b4jsb2 , drogr-b4jth3 , drogr-b4jti1 , drogr-b4jul5 , drogr-b4jur4 , drogr-b4jvh3 , drogr-b4jz00 , drogr-b4jz03 , drogr-b4jz04 , drogr-b4jz05 , drogr-b4jzh2 , drogr-b4k0u2 , drogr-b4k2r1 , drogr-b4k234 , drogr-b4k235 , drome-BEM46 , drome-CG3734 , drome-CG9953 , drome-CG11626 , drome-GH02439 , dromo-ACHE , dromo-b4k6a7 , dromo-b4k6a8 , dromo-b4k6q8 , dromo-b4k6q9 , dromo-b4k6r1 , dromo-b4k6r3 , dromo-b4k6r4 , dromo-b4k6r5 , dromo-b4k6r6 , dromo-b4k6r7 , dromo-b4k6r8 , dromo-b4k6r9 , dromo-b4k6s0 , dromo-b4k6s1 , dromo-b4k6s2 , dromo-b4k9c7 , dromo-b4k9d3 , dromo-b4k571 , dromo-b4k721 , dromo-b4ka74 , dromo-b4ka89 , dromo-b4kaj4 , dromo-b4kc20 , dromo-b4kcl2 , dromo-b4kcl3 , dromo-b4kd55.1 , dromo-b4kd55.2 , dromo-b4kd56 , dromo-b4kd57 , dromo-b4kde1 , dromo-b4kdg2 , dromo-b4kdh4 , dromo-b4kdh5 , dromo-b4kdh6 , dromo-A0A0Q9XDF2 , dromo-b4kdh8.1 , dromo-b4kdh8.2 , dromo-b4kg04 , dromo-b4kg05 , dromo-b4kg06 , dromo-b4kg16 , dromo-b4kg44 , dromo-b4kg90 , dromo-b4kh20 , dromo-b4kh21 , dromo-b4kht7 , dromo-b4kid3 , dromo-b4kik0 , dromo-b4kjx0 , dromo-b4kki1 , dromo-b4kkp6 , dromo-b4kkp8 , dromo-b4kkq8 , dromo-b4kkr0 , dromo-b4kkr3 , dromo-b4kkr4 , dromo-b4kks0 , dromo-b4kks1 , dromo-b4kks2 , dromo-b4kla1 , dromo-b4klv8 , dromo-b4knt4 , dromo-b4kp08 , dromo-b4kp16 , dromo-b4kqa6 , dromo-b4kqa7 , dromo-b4kqa8 , dromo-b4kqh1 , dromo-b4kst4 , dromo-b4ksy6 , dromo-b4kt84 , dromo-b4ktf5 , dromo-b4ktf6 , dromo-b4kvl3 , dromo-b4kvw2 , dromo-b4kwv4 , dromo-b4kwv5 , dromo-b4kxz6 , dromo-b4ky12 , dromo-b4ky36 , dromo-b4ky44 , dromo-b4kzu7 , dromo-b4l0n8 , dromo-b4l4u5 , dromo-b4l6l9 , dromo-b4l084 , drope-ACHE , drope-b4g3s6 , drope-b4g4p7 , drope-b4g6v4 , drope-b4g8m0 , drope-b4g8n6 , drope-b4g8n7 , drope-b4g9p2 , drope-b4g815 , drope-b4g816 , drope-b4gat7 , drope-b4gav5 , drope-b4gb05 , drope-b4gc08 , drope-b4gcr3 , drope-b4gdk2 , drope-b4gdl9 , drope-b4gdv9 , drope-b4gei8 , drope-b4gei9 , drope-b4gej0 , drope-b4ghz9 , drope-b4gj62 , drope-b4gj64 , drope-b4gj74 , drope-b4gkf4 , drope-b4gkv2 , drope-b4gky9 , drope-b4gl76 , drope-b4glf3 , drope-b4gmt3 , drope-b4gmt7 , drope-b4gmt9 , drope-b4gmu2 , drope-b4gmu3 , drope-b4gmu4 , drope-b4gmu5 , drope-b4gmu6 , drope-b4gmu7 , drope-b4gmv1 , drope-b4gn08 , drope-b4gpa7 , drope-b4gq13 , drope-b4grh7 , drope-b4gsf9 , drope-b4gsw4 , drope-b4gsw5 , drope-b4gsx2 , drope-b4gsx7 , drope-b4gsy6 , drope-b4gsy7 , drope-b4guj8 , drope-b4gw36 , drope-b4gzc2 , drope-b4gzc6 , drope-b4gzc7 , drope-b4h4p9 , drope-b4h5l3 , drope-b4h6a0 , drope-b4h6a8 , drope-b4h6a9 , drope-b4h6b0 , drope-b4h7m7 , drope-b4h462 , drope-b4h601 , drope-b4h602 , drope-b4hay1 , drope-b4hb18 , drope-est5a , drope-est5b , drope-est5c , drops-ACHE , drops-b5dhd2 , drops-b5dk96 , drops-b5dpe3 , drops-b5drp9 , drops-b5dwa7 , drops-b5dwa8 , drops-b5dz85 , drops-b5dz86 , drops-est5a , drops-est5b , drops-q29bq2 , drops-q29dd7 , drops-q29ew0 , drops-q291d5 , drops-q291e8 , drops-q293n1 , drops-q293n4 , drops-q293n5 , drops-q293n6 , drops-q294n6 , drops-q294n7 , drops-q294n9 , drops-q294p4 , drose-b4he97 , drose-b4hfu2 , drose-b4hg54 , drose-b4hga0 , drose-b4hgu9 , drose-b4hgv0 , drose-b4hgv3 , drose-b4hgv4 , drose-b4hhm8 , drose-b4hhs6 , drose-b4hie4 , drose-b4him9 , drose-b4hk63 , drose-b4hkj5 , drose-b4hr07 , drose-b4hr81 , drose-b4hre7 , drose-b4hs13 , drose-b4hsj9 , drose-b4hsk0 , drose-b4hsm8 , drose-b4hvr5 , drose-b4hwr7 , drose-b4hwr8 , drose-b4hwr9 , drose-b4hws6 , drose-b4hws7 , drose-b4hwt0 , drose-b4hwt2 , drose-b4hwu1 , drose-b4hwu2 , drose-b4hxs9 , drose-b4hxu4 , drose-b4hxz1 , drose-b4hyp8 , drose-b4hyp9 , drose-b4hyq0 , drose-b4hyz4 , drose-b4hyz5 , drose-b4i1k8 , drose-b4i2f3 , drose-b4i2w5 , drose-b4i4u3 , drose-b4i4u7 , drose-b4i4u9 , drose-b4i4v0 , drose-b4i4v1 , drose-b4i4v4 , drose-b4i4v5 , drose-b4i4v6 , drose-b4i4v7 , drose-b4i4v8 , drose-b4i4w0 , drose-b4i7s6 , drose-b4i133 , drose-b4i857 , drose-b4iam7 , drose-b4iam9 , drose-b4iaq6 , drose-b4icf6 , drose-b4icf7 , drose-b4id80 , drose-b4ifc5 , drose-b4ihv9 , drose-b4iie9 , drose-b4ilj8 , drose-b4in13 , drose-b4inj9 , drosi-ACHE , drosi-aes04a , drosi-b4nsh8 , drosi-b4q3d7 , drosi-b4q4w5 , drosi-b4q4y7 , drosi-b4q6h6 , drosi-b4q7u2 , drosi-b4q7u3 , drosi-b4q9c6 , drosi-b4q9c7 , drosi-b4q9d3 , drosi-b4q9d4 , drosi-b4q9r0 , drosi-b4q9r1 , drosi-b4q9r3 , drosi-b4q9s2 , drosi-b4q9s3 , drosi-b4q429 , drosi-b4q530 , drosi-b4q734 , drosi-b4q782 , drosi-b4q783 , drosi-b4q942 , drosi-b4qet1 , drosi-b4qfv6 , drosi-b4qge5 , drosi-b4qgh5 , drosi-b4qgs5 , drosi-b4qhf3 , drosi-b4qhf4 , drosi-b4qhi5 , drosi-b4qjr2 , drosi-b4qjr3 , drosi-b4qjv6 , drosi-b4qk23 , drosi-b4qk51 , drosi-b4qlt1 , drosi-b4qlz9 , drosi-b4qmn9 , drosi-b4qrq7 , drosi-b4qs01 , drosi-b4qs57 , drosi-b4qs82 , drosi-b4qs83 , drosi-b4qs84 , drosi-b4qs85 , drosi-b4qs86 , drosi-b4qsq1 , drosi-b4quk6 , drosi-b4qvg5 , drosi-b4qvg6 , drosi-b4qzn2 , drosi-b4qzn3 , drosi-b4qzn5 , drosi-b4qzn7 , drosi-b4qzn8 , drosi-b4qzp2 , drosi-b4qzp3 , drosi-b4qzp4 , drosi-b4qzp5 , drosi-b4qzp6 , drosi-b4qzp7 , drosi-b4r1a4 , drosi-b4r025 , drosi-b4r207 , drosi-b4r662 , drosi-este6 , drosi-q670k8 , drovi-ACHE , drovi-b4lev2 , drovi-b4lf33 , drovi-b4lf51 , drovi-b4lg54 , drovi-b4lg72 , drovi-b4lgc6 , drovi-b4lgd5 , drovi-b4lgg0 , drovi-b4lgk5 , drovi-b4lgn2 , drovi-b4lh17 , drovi-b4lh18 , drovi-b4lk43 , drovi-b4ll59 , drovi-b4ll60 , drovi-b4llm5 , drovi-b4lln3 , drovi-b4lmk4 , drovi-b4lmp0 , drovi-b4lnr4 , drovi-b4lp47 , drovi-b4lpd0 , drovi-b4lps0 , drovi-b4lqc6 , drovi-b4lr00 , drovi-b4lrp6 , drovi-b4lrw2 , drovi-b4lse7 , drovi-b4lse9 , drovi-b4lsf0 , drovi-b4lsn0 , drovi-b4lsq5 , drovi-b4lt32 , drovi-b4ltr1 , drovi-b4lui7 , drovi-b4lui9 , drovi-b4luj8 , drovi-b4luk0 , drovi-b4luk3 , drovi-b4luk8 , drovi-b4luk9 , drovi-b4lul0 , drovi-b4lve2 , drovi-b4lxi9 , drovi-b4lxj8 , drovi-b4lyf3 , drovi-b4lyq2 , drovi-b4lyq3 , drovi-b4lz07 , drovi-b4lz13 , drovi-b4lz14 , drovi-b4lz15 , drovi-b4m0j7 , drovi-b4m0s0 , drovi-b4m2b6 , drovi-b4m4h7 , drovi-b4m4h8 , drovi-b4m4i0 , drovi-b4m4i2 , drovi-b4m4i3.A , drovi-b4m4i3.B , drovi-b4m4i4 , drovi-b4m4i5 , drovi-b4m4i6 , drovi-b4m4i7 , drovi-b4m4i8 , drovi-b4m4i9 , drovi-b4m4j2 , drovi-b4m5a0 , drovi-b4m5a1 , drovi-b4m5a2 , drovi-b4m6b9 , drovi-b4m7k9 , drovi-b4m9g9 , drovi-b4m9h0 , drovi-b4m564 , drovi-b4m599 , drovi-b4m918 , drovi-b4mb87 , drovi-b4mc71 , drovi-b4mfa4 , drowi-ACHE , drowi-b4mjb9 , drowi-b4mkt7 , drowi-b4mlc1 , drowi-b4mp68 , drowi-b4mqe9 , drowi-b4mqf0.2 , drowi-b4mqf1 , drowi-b4mqf3 , drowi-b4mqf4 , drowi-b4mqf5 , drowi-b4mqq6 , drowi-b4mrd1 , drowi-b4mrk3 , drowi-b4mtl5 , drowi-b4mug2 , drowi-b4muj8 , drowi-b4mv18 , drowi-b4mw32 , drowi-b4mw85 , drowi-b4mwp2 , drowi-b4mwp6 , drowi-b4mwq5 , drowi-b4mwr0 , drowi-b4mwr8 , drowi-b4mwr9 , drowi-b4mwt1 , drowi-b4mwz7 , drowi-b4mxn5 , drowi-b4my54 , drowi-b4myg1 , drowi-b4myh5 , drowi-b4n0d4 , drowi-b4n1a7 , drowi-b4n1c8 , drowi-b4n3s9 , drowi-b4n3x7 , drowi-b4n4x9 , drowi-b4n4y0 , drowi-b4n6m1 , drowi-b4n6n0 , drowi-b4n6n7 , drowi-b4n6u6 , drowi-b4n7s6 , drowi-b4n7s7 , drowi-b4n7s8 , drowi-b4n899.1 , drowi-b4n8a1 , drowi-b4n8a2 , drowi-b4n8a3 , drowi-b4n8a4 , drowi-b4n8a9 , drowi-b4n023 , drowi-b4n075 , drowi-b4n543 , drowi-b4n888 , drowi-b4n889 , drowi-b4n891 , drowi-b4n893 ,