Bornstein JC

References (8)

Title : Faster Gastrointestinal Transit, Reduced Small Intestinal Smooth Muscle Tone and Dysmotility in the Nlgn3(R451C) Mouse Model of Autism - Hosie_2024_Int.J.Mol.Sci_25_
Author(s) : Hosie S , Abo-Shaban T , Mou K , Balasuriya GK , Mohsenipour M , Alamoudi MU , Filippone RT , Belz GT , Franks AE , Bornstein JC , Nurgali K , Hill-Yardin EL
Ref : Int J Mol Sci , 25 : , 2024
Abstract : Individuals with autism often experience gastrointestinal issues but the cause is unknown. Many gene mutations that modify neuronal synapse function are associated with autism and therefore may impact the enteric nervous system that regulates gastrointestinal function. A missense mutation in the Nlgn3 gene encoding the cell adhesion protein Neuroligin-3 was identified in two brothers with autism who both experienced severe gastrointestinal dysfunction. Mice expressing this mutation (Nlgn3(R451C) mice) are a well-studied preclinical model of autism and show autism-relevant characteristics, including impaired social interaction and communication, as well as repetitive behaviour. We previously showed colonic dysmotility in response to GABAergic inhibition and increased myenteric neuronal numbers in the small intestine in Nlgn3(R451C) mice bred on a mixed genetic background. Here, we show that gut dysfunction is a persistent phenotype of the Nlgn3 R451C mutation in mice backcrossed onto a C57BL/6 background. We report that Nlgn3(R451C) mice show a 30.9% faster gastrointestinal transit (p = 0.0004) in vivo and have 6% longer small intestines (p = 0.04) compared to wild-types due to a reduction in smooth muscle tone. In Nlgn3(R451C) mice, we observed a decrease in resting jejunal diameter (proximal jejunum: 10.6% decrease, p = 0.02; mid: 9.8%, p = 0.04; distal: 11.5%, p = 0.009) and neurally regulated dysmotility as well as shorter durations of contractile complexes (mid: 25.6% reduction in duration, p = 0.009; distal: 30.5%, p = 0.004) in the ileum. In Nlgn3(R451C) mouse colons, short contractions were inhibited to a greater extent (57.2% by the GABA(A) antagonist, gabazine, compared to 40.6% in wild-type mice (p = 0.007). The inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis decreased the frequency of contractile complexes in the jejunum (WT p = 0.0006, Nlgn3(R451C) p = 0.002), but not the ileum, in both wild-type and Nlgn3(R451C) mice. These findings demonstrate that changes in enteric nervous system function contribute to gastrointestinal dysmotility in mice expressing the autism-associated R451C missense mutation in the Neuroligin-3 protein.
ESTHER : Hosie_2024_Int.J.Mol.Sci_25_
PubMedSearch : Hosie_2024_Int.J.Mol.Sci_25_
PubMedID: 38255906
Gene_locus related to this paper: mouse-3neur

Title : Quantitative Spatial Analysis of Neuroligin-3 mRNA Expression in the Enteric Nervous System Reveals a Potential Role in Neuronal-Glial Synapses and Reduced Expression in Nlgn3(R451C) Mice - Herath_2023_Biomolecules_13_
Author(s) : Herath M , Cho E , Marklund U , Franks AE , Bornstein JC , Hill-Yardin EL
Ref : Biomolecules , 13 : , 2023
Abstract : Mutations in the Neuroligin-3 (Nlgn3) gene are implicated in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction, but cellular Nlgn3 expression in the enteric nervous system remains to be characterised. We combined RNAScope in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence to measure Nlgn3 mRNA expression in cholinergic and VIP-expressing submucosal neurons, nitrergic and calretinin-containing myenteric neurons and glial cells in both WT and Nlgn3(R451C) mutant mice. We measured Nlgn3 mRNA neuronal and glial expression via quantitative three-dimensional image analysis. To validate dual RNAScope/immunofluorescence data, we interrogated available single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNASeq) data to assess for Nlgn3, Nlgn1, Nlgn2 and their binding partners, Nrxn1-3, MGDA1 and MGDA2, in enteric neural subsets. Most submucosal and myenteric neurons expressed Nlgn3 mRNA. In contrast to other Nlgns and binding partners, Nlgn3 was strongly expressed in enteric glia, suggesting a role for neuroligin-3 in mediating enteric neuron-glia interactions. The autism-associated R451C mutation reduces Nlgn3 mRNA expression in cholinergic but not in VIPergic submucosal neurons. In the myenteric plexus, Nlgn3 mRNA levels are reduced in calretinin, nNOS-labelled neurons and S100 beta -labelled glia. We provide a comprehensive cellular profile for neuroligin-3 expression in ileal neuronal subpopulations of mice expressing the R451C autism-associated mutation in Nlgn3, which may contribute to the understanding of the pathophysiology of GI dysfunction in ASD.
ESTHER : Herath_2023_Biomolecules_13_
PubMedSearch : Herath_2023_Biomolecules_13_
PubMedID: 37509099

Title : Colonic dilation and altered ex vivo gastrointestinal motility in the neuroligin-3 knockout mouse - Leembruggen_2020_Autism.Res_13_691
Author(s) : Leembruggen AJL , Balasuriya GK , Zhang J , Schokman S , Swiderski K , Bornstein JC , Nithianantharajah J , Hill-Yardin EL
Ref : Autism Res , 13 :691 , 2020
Abstract : Gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction is commonly reported by people diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; autism) but the cause is unknown. Mutations in genes encoding synaptic proteins including Neuroligin-3 are associated with autism. Mice lacking Neuroligin-3 (Nlgn3(-/-) ) have altered brain function, but whether the enteric nervous system (ENS) is altered remains unknown. We assessed for changes in GI structure and function in Nlgn3(-/-) mice. We found no significant morphological differences in villus height or crypt depth in the jejunum or colon between wildtype (WT) and Nlgn3(-/-) mice. To determine whether deletion of Nlgn3 affects enteric neurons, we stained for neural markers in the myenteric plexus. Nlgn3(-/-) mice had similar numbers of neurons expressing the pan-neuronal marker Hu in the jejunum, proximal mid, and distal colon regions. We also found no differences in the number of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS+) or calretinin (CalR+) motor neurons and interneurons between WT and Nlgn3(-/-) mice. We used ex vivo video imaging analysis to assess colonic motility under baseline conditions and observed faster colonic migrating motor complexes (CMMCs) and an increased colonic diameter in Nlgn3(-/-) mice, although CMMC frequency was unchanged. At baseline, CMMCs were faster in Nlgn3(-/-) mice compared to WT. Although the numbers of neuronal subsets are conserved in Nlgn3(-/-) mice, these findings suggest that Neuroligin-3 modulates inhibitory neural pathways in the ENS and may contribute to mechanisms underlying GI disorders in autism. Autism Res 2020, 13: 691-701. 2019 The Authors. Autism Research published by International Society for Autism Research published byWiley Periodicals, Inc. LAY SUMMARY: People with autism commonly experience gut problems. Many gene mutations associated with autism affect neuronal activity. We studied mice in which the autism-associated Neuroligin-3 gene is deleted to determine whether this impacts gut neuronal numbers or motility. We found that although mutant mice had similar gut structure and numbers of neurons in all gut regions examined, they had distended colons and faster colonic muscle contractions. Further work is needed to understand how Neuroligin-3 affects neuron connectivity in the gastrointestinal tract.
ESTHER : Leembruggen_2020_Autism.Res_13_691
PubMedSearch : Leembruggen_2020_Autism.Res_13_691
PubMedID: 31002480

Title : Gastrointestinal dysfunction in patients and mice expressing the autism-associated R451C mutation in neuroligin-3 - Hosie_2019_Autism.Res_12_1043
Author(s) : Hosie S , Ellis M , Swaminathan M , Ramalhosa F , Seger GO , Balasuriya GK , Gillberg C , Rastam M , Churilov L , McKeown SJ , Yalcinkaya N , Urvil P , Savidge T , Bell CA , Bodin O , Wood J , Franks AE , Bornstein JC , Hill-Yardin EL
Ref : Autism Res , 12 :1043 , 2019
Abstract : Gastrointestinal (GI) problems constitute an important comorbidity in many patients with autism. Multiple mutations in the neuroligin family of synaptic adhesion molecules are implicated in autism, however whether they are expressed and impact GI function via changes in the enteric nervous system is unknown. We report the GI symptoms of two brothers with autism and an R451C mutation in Nlgn3 encoding the synaptic adhesion protein, neuroligin-3. We confirm the presence of an array of synaptic genes in the murine GI tract and investigate the impact of impaired synaptic protein expression in mice carrying the human neuroligin-3 R451C missense mutation (NL3(R451C) ). Assessing in vivo gut dysfunction, we report faster small intestinal transit in NL3(R451C) compared to wild-type mice. Using an ex vivo colonic motility assay, we show increased sensitivity to GABAA receptor modulation in NL3(R451C) mice, a well-established Central Nervous System (CNS) feature associated with this mutation. We further show increased numbers of small intestine myenteric neurons in NL3(R451C) mice. Although we observed altered sensitivity to GABAA receptor modulators in the colon, there was no change in colonic neuronal numbers including the number of GABA-immunoreactive myenteric neurons. We further identified altered fecal microbial communities in NL3(R451C) mice. These results suggest that the R451C mutation affects small intestinal and colonic function and alter neuronal numbers in the small intestine as well as impact fecal microbes. Our findings identify a novel GI phenotype associated with the R451C mutation and highlight NL3(R451C) mice as a useful preclinical model of GI dysfunction in autism. Autism Res 2019, 12: 1043-1056. (c) 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. LAY SUMMARY: People with autism commonly experience gastrointestinal problems, however the cause is unknown. We report gut symptoms in patients with the autism-associated R451C mutation encoding the neuroligin-3 protein. We show that many of the genes implicated in autism are expressed in mouse gut. The neuroligin-3 R451C mutation alters the enteric nervous system, causes gastrointestinal dysfunction, and disrupts gut microbe populations in mice. Gut dysfunction in autism could be due to mutations that affect neuronal communication.
ESTHER : Hosie_2019_Autism.Res_12_1043
PubMedSearch : Hosie_2019_Autism.Res_12_1043
PubMedID: 31119867
Gene_locus related to this paper: mouse-3neur , human-NLGN3

Title : Video Imaging and Spatiotemporal Maps to Analyze Gastrointestinal Motility in Mice - Swaminathan_2016_J.Vis.Exp__53828
Author(s) : Swaminathan M , Hill-Yardin E , Ellis M , Zygorodimos M , Johnston LA , Gwynne RM , Bornstein JC
Ref : J Vis Exp , :53828 , 2016
Abstract : The enteric nervous system (ENS) plays an important role in regulating gastrointestinal (GI) motility and can function independently of the central nervous system. Changes in ENS function are a major cause of GI symptoms and disease and may contribute to GI symptoms reported in neuropsychiatric disorders including autism. It is well established that isolated colon segments generate spontaneous, rhythmic contractions known as Colonic Migrating Motor Complexes (CMMCs). A procedure to analyze the enteric neural regulation of CMMCs in ex vivo preparations of mouse colon is described. The colon is dissected from the animal and flushed to remove fecal content prior to being cannulated in an organ bath. Data is acquired via a video camera positioned above the organ bath and converted to high-resolution spatiotemporal maps via an in-house software package. Using this technique, baseline contractile patterns and pharmacological effects on ENS function in colon segments can be compared over 3-4 hr. In addition, propagation length and speed of CMMCs can be recorded as well as changes in gut diameter and contraction frequency. This technique is useful for characterizing gastrointestinal motility patterns in transgenic mouse models (and in other species including rat and guinea pig). In this way, pharmacologically induced changes in CMMCs are recorded in wild type mice and in the Neuroligin-3(R451C) mouse model of autism. Furthermore, this technique can be applied to other regions of the GI tract including the duodenum, jejunum and ileum and at different developmental ages in mice.
ESTHER : Swaminathan_2016_J.Vis.Exp__53828
PubMedSearch : Swaminathan_2016_J.Vis.Exp__53828
PubMedID: 26862815

Title : A neuroligin-3 mutation implicated in autism causes abnormal aggression and increases repetitive behavior in mice - Burrows_2015_Mol.Autism_6_62
Author(s) : Burrows EL , Laskaris L , Koyama L , Churilov L , Bornstein JC , Hill-Yardin EL , Hannan AJ
Ref : Mol Autism , 6 :62 , 2015
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Aggression is common in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) along with the core symptoms of impairments in social communication and repetitive behavior. Risperidone, an atypical antipsychotic, is widely used to treat aggression in ASD. In order to understand the neurobiological underpinnings of these challenging behaviors, a thorough characterisation of behavioral endophenotypes in animal models is required.
METHODS: We investigated aggression in mice containing the ASD-associated R451C (arginine to cysteine residue 451 substitution) mutation in neuroligin-3 (NL3). Furthermore, we sought to verify social interaction impairments and assess olfaction, anxiety, and repetitive and restrictive behavior in NL3R451C mutant mice.
RESULTS: We show a pronounced elevation in aggressive behavior in NL3R451C mutant mice. Treatment with risperidone reduced this aggression to wild-type (WT) levels. Juvenile and adult social interactions were also investigated, and subtle differences in initiation of interaction were seen in juvenile NL3R451C mice. No genotype differences in olfactory discrimination or anxiety were observed indicating that aggression was not dependent on altered olfaction, stress response, or social preference. We also describe repetitive behavior in NL3R451C mice as assessed by a clinically relevant object exploration task.
CONCLUSIONS: The presence of aberrant aggression and other behavioral phenotypes in NL3R451C mice consistent with clinical traits strengthen face validity of this model of ASD. Furthermore, we demonstrate predictive validity in this model through the reversal of the aggressive phenotype with risperidone. This is the first demonstration that risperidone can ameliorate aggression in an animal model of ASD and will inform mechanistic and therapeutic research into the neurobiology underlying abnormal behaviors in ASD.
ESTHER : Burrows_2015_Mol.Autism_6_62
PubMedSearch : Burrows_2015_Mol.Autism_6_62
PubMedID: 26583067
Gene_locus related to this paper: mouse-3neur

Title : Pharmacological analysis of components of the change in transmural potential difference evoked by distension of rat proximal small intestine in vivo - Larsson_2008_Am.J.Physiol.Gastrointest.Liver.Physiol_294_G165
Author(s) : Larsson MH , Sapnara M , Thomas EA , Bornstein JC , Lindstrom E , Svensson DJ , Sjovall H
Ref : American Journal of Physiology Gastrointest Liver Physiol , 294 :G165 , 2008
Abstract : The reflex response to distension of the small intestine in vivo is complex and not well understood. The aim of this study was to characterize the neural mechanisms contributing to the complex time course of the intestinal secretory response to distension. Transmucosal potential difference (PD) was used as a marker for mucosal chloride secretion, which reflects the activity of the secretomotor neurons. Graded distensions (5, 10, and 20 mmHg) of distal rat duodenum with saline for 5 min induced a biphasic PD response with an initial peak (rapid response) followed by a plateau (sustained response). The rapid response was significantly reduced by the neural blockers tetrodotoxin and lidocaine (given serosally) and by intravenous (iv) administration of the ganglionic blocker hexamethonium and the NK(1) receptor antagonist SR-140333. Serosal TTX and iv SR-140333 significantly reduced the sustained response, which was also reduced by the NK(3) receptor antagonist talnetant and by the vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VPAC) receptor antagonist [4Cl-d-Phe(6), Leu(17)]-VIP. Serosal lidocaine and iv hexamethonium had no significant effect on this component. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase had no effect on any of the components of the PD response to distension. The PD response to distension thus seems to consist of two components, a rapidly activating and adapting component operating via nicotinic transmission and NK(1) receptors, and a slow component operating via VIP-ergic transmission and involving both NK(1) and NK(3) receptors.
ESTHER : Larsson_2008_Am.J.Physiol.Gastrointest.Liver.Physiol_294_G165
PubMedSearch : Larsson_2008_Am.J.Physiol.Gastrointest.Liver.Physiol_294_G165
PubMedID: 17975133

Title : Effects of cholera toxin on the potential difference and motor responses induced by distension in the rat proximal small intestine in vivo - Kordasti_2006_Am.J.Physiol.Gastrointest.Liver.Physiol_290_G948
Author(s) : Kordasti S , Sapnara M , Thomas EA , Lindstrom E , Forsman M , Bornstein JC , Sjovall H
Ref : American Journal of Physiology Gastrointest Liver Physiol , 290 :G948 , 2006
Abstract : Cholera toxin (CT) may induce uncontrolled firing in recurrent networks of secretomotor neurons in the submucous plexus. This hypothesis was tested in chloralose-anesthetized rats in vivo. The secretory reflex response to graded intestinal distension was measured with or without prior exposure to luminal CT. The transmural potential difference (PD) was used as a marker for electrogenic chloride secretion. In controls, distension increased PD, and this response was reduced by the neural blocker tetrodotoxin given serosally and the vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptor antagonist [4Cl-d-Phe(6),Leu(17)]VIP (2 mug.min(-1).kg(-1) iv) but unaffected by the serotonin 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist granisetron, by the nicotinic receptor antagonist hexamethonium, by the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine, or by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin. Basal PD increased significantly with time in CT-exposed segments, an effect blocked by granisetron, by indomethacin, and by [4Cl-d-Phe(6),Leu(17)]VIP but not by hexamethonium or atropine. In contrast, once the increased basal PD produced by CT was established, [4Cl-d-Phe(6),Leu(17)]VIP and indomethacin had no significant effect, whereas granisetron and hexamethonium markedly depressed basal PD. CT significantly reduced the increase in PD produced by distension, an effect reversed by granisetron, indomethacin, and atropine. CT also activated a specific motility response to distension, repeated cluster contractions, but only in animals pretreated with granisetron, indomethacin, or atropine. These data are compatible with the hypothesis that CT induces uncontrolled activity in submucous secretory networks. Development of this state depends on 5-HT(3) receptors, VIP receptors, and prostaglandin synthesis, whereas its maintenance depends on 5-HT(3) and nicotinic receptors but not VIP receptors. The motility effects of CT (probably reflecting myenteric activity) are partially suppressed via a mechanism involving 5-HT(3) and muscarinic receptors and prostaglandin synthesis.
ESTHER : Kordasti_2006_Am.J.Physiol.Gastrointest.Liver.Physiol_290_G948
PubMedSearch : Kordasti_2006_Am.J.Physiol.Gastrointest.Liver.Physiol_290_G948
PubMedID: 16357061