Ellis M

References (2)

Title : Gastrointestinal dysfunction in patients and mice expressing the autism-associated R451C mutation in neuroligin-3 - Hosie_2019_Autism.Res_12_1043
Author(s) : Hosie S , Ellis M , Swaminathan M , Ramalhosa F , Seger GO , Balasuriya GK , Gillberg C , Rastam M , Churilov L , McKeown SJ , Yalcinkaya N , Urvil P , Savidge T , Bell CA , Bodin O , Wood J , Franks AE , Bornstein JC , Hill-Yardin EL
Ref : Autism Res , 12 :1043 , 2019
Abstract : Gastrointestinal (GI) problems constitute an important comorbidity in many patients with autism. Multiple mutations in the neuroligin family of synaptic adhesion molecules are implicated in autism, however whether they are expressed and impact GI function via changes in the enteric nervous system is unknown. We report the GI symptoms of two brothers with autism and an R451C mutation in Nlgn3 encoding the synaptic adhesion protein, neuroligin-3. We confirm the presence of an array of synaptic genes in the murine GI tract and investigate the impact of impaired synaptic protein expression in mice carrying the human neuroligin-3 R451C missense mutation (NL3(R451C) ). Assessing in vivo gut dysfunction, we report faster small intestinal transit in NL3(R451C) compared to wild-type mice. Using an ex vivo colonic motility assay, we show increased sensitivity to GABAA receptor modulation in NL3(R451C) mice, a well-established Central Nervous System (CNS) feature associated with this mutation. We further show increased numbers of small intestine myenteric neurons in NL3(R451C) mice. Although we observed altered sensitivity to GABAA receptor modulators in the colon, there was no change in colonic neuronal numbers including the number of GABA-immunoreactive myenteric neurons. We further identified altered fecal microbial communities in NL3(R451C) mice. These results suggest that the R451C mutation affects small intestinal and colonic function and alter neuronal numbers in the small intestine as well as impact fecal microbes. Our findings identify a novel GI phenotype associated with the R451C mutation and highlight NL3(R451C) mice as a useful preclinical model of GI dysfunction in autism. Autism Res 2019, 12: 1043-1056. (c) 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. LAY SUMMARY: People with autism commonly experience gastrointestinal problems, however the cause is unknown. We report gut symptoms in patients with the autism-associated R451C mutation encoding the neuroligin-3 protein. We show that many of the genes implicated in autism are expressed in mouse gut. The neuroligin-3 R451C mutation alters the enteric nervous system, causes gastrointestinal dysfunction, and disrupts gut microbe populations in mice. Gut dysfunction in autism could be due to mutations that affect neuronal communication.
ESTHER : Hosie_2019_Autism.Res_12_1043
PubMedSearch : Hosie_2019_Autism.Res_12_1043
PubMedID: 31119867
Gene_locus related to this paper: mouse-3neur , human-NLGN3

Title : Video Imaging and Spatiotemporal Maps to Analyze Gastrointestinal Motility in Mice - Swaminathan_2016_J.Vis.Exp__53828
Author(s) : Swaminathan M , Hill-Yardin E , Ellis M , Zygorodimos M , Johnston LA , Gwynne RM , Bornstein JC
Ref : J Vis Exp , :53828 , 2016
Abstract : The enteric nervous system (ENS) plays an important role in regulating gastrointestinal (GI) motility and can function independently of the central nervous system. Changes in ENS function are a major cause of GI symptoms and disease and may contribute to GI symptoms reported in neuropsychiatric disorders including autism. It is well established that isolated colon segments generate spontaneous, rhythmic contractions known as Colonic Migrating Motor Complexes (CMMCs). A procedure to analyze the enteric neural regulation of CMMCs in ex vivo preparations of mouse colon is described. The colon is dissected from the animal and flushed to remove fecal content prior to being cannulated in an organ bath. Data is acquired via a video camera positioned above the organ bath and converted to high-resolution spatiotemporal maps via an in-house software package. Using this technique, baseline contractile patterns and pharmacological effects on ENS function in colon segments can be compared over 3-4 hr. In addition, propagation length and speed of CMMCs can be recorded as well as changes in gut diameter and contraction frequency. This technique is useful for characterizing gastrointestinal motility patterns in transgenic mouse models (and in other species including rat and guinea pig). In this way, pharmacologically induced changes in CMMCs are recorded in wild type mice and in the Neuroligin-3(R451C) mouse model of autism. Furthermore, this technique can be applied to other regions of the GI tract including the duodenum, jejunum and ileum and at different developmental ages in mice.
ESTHER : Swaminathan_2016_J.Vis.Exp__53828
PubMedSearch : Swaminathan_2016_J.Vis.Exp__53828
PubMedID: 26862815