Graca DL

References (6)

Title : Cholinergic enzymes and inflammatory markers in rats infected by Sporothrix schenckii - Castro_2016_Microb.Pathog_97_94
Author(s) : Castro VS , Da Silva AS , Costa MM , Paim FC , Alves SH , Lopes ST , Silva CB , Wolkmer P , Castro JL , Cecco BS , Duarte MM , Schetinger MR , Graca DL , Andrade CM
Ref : Microb Pathog , 97 :94 , 2016
Abstract : The aim of this study was to evaluate the cholinesterase activity in serum, whole blood, and lymphocytes, as well as to verify its relation to immune response in rats experimentally infected by Sporothrix schenckii. For this study, 63 Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus), male, adult were divided into three groups: the negative control group (GC: n = 21), the group infected subcutaneously (GSC: n = 21), and the group infected intraperitoneally (GIP: n = 21). The groups were divided into subgroups and the following variables were evaluated at 15, 30, and 40 days post-infection (PI): acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in lymphocytes and whole blood, butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activity in serum, cytokines levels (IL-1, IL-6, TNFalpha, and INF-gamma), immunoglobulins levels (IgA, IgG, IgM, and IgE), and protein profile by electrophoresis. Both infected groups showed increased levels of inflammatory parameters (P < 0.05) in tissue and inflammatory infiltrates. The activities of AChE in lymphocytes and BChE in serum increased (P < 0.05) significantly in animals from the GSC group on day 40 PI compared to the GC group. Regarding the GIP, there was a marked increase in the AChE activity in lymphocytes on days 30 and 40 PI, and in whole blood on days 15, 30, and 40 PI compared to GC. Furthermore, IL-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, was also present in high levels during chronic systemic S. schenckii infections in animals. Therefore, it is concluded that cholinesterase has an important modulatory role in the immune response during granulomatous infection by S. schenckii.
ESTHER : Castro_2016_Microb.Pathog_97_94
PubMedSearch : Castro_2016_Microb.Pathog_97_94
PubMedID: 27260685

Title : Neuroprotective role of quercetin in locomotor activities and cholinergic neurotransmission in rats experimentally demyelinated with ethidium bromide - Beckmann_2014_Life.Sci_103_79
Author(s) : Beckmann DV , Carvalho FB , Mazzanti CM , Dos Santos RP , Andrades AO , Aiello G , Rippilinger A , Graca DL , Abdalla FH , Oliveira LS , Gutierres JM , Schetinger MR , Mazzanti A
Ref : Life Sciences , 103 :79 , 2014
Abstract : AIM: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the flavonoid quercetin can prevent alterations in the behavioral tests and of cholinergic neurotransmission in rats submitted to the ethidium bromide (EB) experimental demyelination model during events of demyelination and remyelination. MAIN
METHODS: Wistar rats were randomly distributed into four groups (20 animals per group): Control (pontine saline injection and treatment with ethanol), Querc (pontine saline injection and treatment with quercetin), EB (pontine 0.1% EB injection and treatment with ethanol), and EB+Querc (pontine 0.1% EB injection and treatment with quercetin). The groups Querc and Querc+EB were treated once daily with quercetin (50mg/kg) diluted in 25% ethanol solution (1ml/kg) and the animals of the control and EB groups were treated once daily with 25% ethanol solution (1ml/kg). Two stages were observed: phase of demyelination (peak on day 7) and phase of remyelination (peak on day 21 post-injection). Behavioral tests (beam walking, foot fault and inclined plane test), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and lipid peroxidation in pons, cerebellum, hippocampus, hypothalamus, striatum and cerebral cortex were measured. KEY FINDINGS: The quercetin promoted earlier locomotor recovery, suggesting that there was demyelination prevention or further remyelination velocity as well as it was able to prevent the inhibition of AChE activity and the increase of lipidic peroxidation, suggesting that this compound can protect cholinergic neurotransmission. SIGNIFICANCE: These results may contribute to a better understanding of the neuroprotective role of quercetin and the importance of an antioxidant diet in humans to provide benefits in neurodegenerative diseases such as MS.
ESTHER : Beckmann_2014_Life.Sci_103_79
PubMedSearch : Beckmann_2014_Life.Sci_103_79
PubMedID: 24727240

Title : Pre-treatment with ebselen and vitamin E modulate acetylcholinesterase activity: interaction with demyelinating agents - Mazzanti_2009_Int.J.Dev.Neurosci_27_73
Author(s) : Mazzanti CM , Spanevello R , Ahmed M , Pereira LB , Goncalves JF , Correa M , Schmatz R , Stefanello N , Leal DB , Mazzanti A , Ramos AT , Martins TB , Danesi CC , Graca DL , Morsch VM , Schetinger MR
Ref : Int J Developmental Neuroscience , 27 :73 , 2009
Abstract : The ethidium bromide (EB) demyelinating model was associated with vitamin E (Vit E) and ebselen (Ebs) treatment to evaluate acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the striatum (ST), hippocampus (HP), cerebral cortex (CC) and erythrocytes. Rats were divided into seven groups: I-Control (saline), II-(canola); III-(Ebs), IV-(Vit E); V-(EB); VI-(EB+Ebs) and VII-(EB+Vit E). At 3 days after the EB injection, AChE activity in the CC and HC was significantly reduced in groups III, IV, V, VI and VII (p<0.05) and in the ST it was reduced in groups III and V (p<0.05) when compared to the control group. At 21 days after the EB injection, AChE activity in the CC was significantly reduced in groups III, IV and V, while in groups VI and VII a significant increase was observed when compared to the control group. In the HC and ST, AChE activity was significantly reduced in groups V, VI and VII when compared to the control group (p<0.05). In the erythrocytes, at 3 days after the EB injection, AChE activity was significantly reduced in groups III, IV, V, VI and VII and at 21 days there was a significant reduction only in groups VI and VII (p<0.05) when compared to the control group. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that Ebs and Vit E interfere with the cholinergic neurotransmission by altering AChE activity in the different brain regions and in the erythrocytes. Furthermore, treatment with Vit E and Ebs protected against the demyelination lesion caused by EB. In this context, we can suggest that ebselen and Vit E should be considered potential therapeutics and scientific tools to be investigated in brain disorders associated with demyelinating events.
ESTHER : Mazzanti_2009_Int.J.Dev.Neurosci_27_73
PubMedSearch : Mazzanti_2009_Int.J.Dev.Neurosci_27_73
PubMedID: 18930802

Title : Cyclosporine A inhibits acetylcholinesterase activity in rats experimentally demyelinated with ethidium bromide - Mazzanti_2007_Int.J.Dev.Neurosci_25_259
Author(s) : Mazzanti CM , Spanevello R , Ahmed M , Schmatz R , Mazzanti A , Salbego FZ , Graca DL , Sallis ES , Morsch VM , Schetinger MR
Ref : Int J Developmental Neuroscience , 25 :259 , 2007
Abstract : Cyclosporine A is the major immunosuppressive agent used for organ transplantation and for the treatment of a variety of autoimmune disorders such as multiple sclerosis. In this work, we investigated the effect of the cyclosporine A on the acetylcholinesterase activity in the cerebral cortex, striatum, hippocampus, hypothalamus, cerebellum and pons of the rats experimentally demyelinated by ethidium bromide. Rats were divided into four groups: I control (injected with saline), II (treated with cyclosporine A), III (injected with 0.1% ethidium bromide) and IV (injected with 0.1% the ethidium bromide and treated with cyclosporine A). The results showed a significant inhibition (p<0.05) of acetylcholinesterase activity in the groups II, III and IV in all brain structures analyzed. In the striatum, hippocampus, hypothalamus and pons the inhibition was greater (p<0.005) when ethidium bromide was associated with cyclosporine A. In conclusion, the present investigation demonstrated that cyclosporine A is an inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase activity and this effect is increased after an event of toxic demyelination of the central nervous system.
ESTHER : Mazzanti_2007_Int.J.Dev.Neurosci_25_259
PubMedSearch : Mazzanti_2007_Int.J.Dev.Neurosci_25_259
PubMedID: 17467222

Title : Acetylcholinesterase activity in rats experimentally demyelinated with ethidium bromide and treated with interferon beta - Mazzanti_2006_Neurochem.Res_31_1027
Author(s) : Mazzanti CM , Spanevello RM , Pereira LB , Goncalves JF , Kaizer R , Correa M , Ahmed M , Mazzanti A , Festugatto R , Graca DL , Morsch VM , Schetinger MR
Ref : Neurochem Res , 31 :1027 , 2006
Abstract : The ethidium bromide (EB) demyelinating model was associated with interferon beta (IFN-beta) to evaluate acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the striatum (ST), hippocampus (HP), cerebral cortex (CC), cerebellum (CB), hypothalamus (HY), pons (PN) and synaptosomes from the CC. Rats were divided into four groups: I control (saline), II (IFN-beta), III (EB) and IV (EB and IFN-beta). After 7, 15 and 30 days rats (n = 6) were sacrificed, and the brain structures were removed for enzymatic assay. AChE activity was found to vary in all the brain structures in accordance with the day studied (7-15-30 days) (P < 0.05). In the group III, there was an inhibition of the AChE activity in the ST, CB, HY, HP and also in synaptosomes of the CC (P < 0.05). It was observed that IFN-beta per se was capable to significantly inhibit (P < 0.05) AChE activity in the ST, HP, HY and synaptosomes of the CC. Our results suggest that one of the mechanisms of action of IFN-beta is through the inhibition of AChE activity, and EB could be considered an inhibitor of AChE activity by interfering with cholinergic neurotransmission in the different brain regions.
ESTHER : Mazzanti_2006_Neurochem.Res_31_1027
PubMedSearch : Mazzanti_2006_Neurochem.Res_31_1027
PubMedID: 16871442

Title : Ethidium bromide inhibits rat brain acetylcholinesterase activity in vitro - Mazzanti_2006_Chem.Biol.Interact_162_121
Author(s) : Mazzanti CM , Spanevello RM , Obregon A , Pereira LB , Streher CA , Ahmed M , Mazzanti A , Graca DL , Morsch VM , Schetinger MR
Ref : Chemico-Biological Interactions , 162 :121 , 2006
Abstract : Ethidium bromide (EtBr), a fluorescent dark red compound and stain for double-stranded DNA and RNA was used to study acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in vitro together with kinetic parameters of this enzyme in the striatum (ST), hippocampus (HP), cerebral cortex (CC) and cerebellum (CB) of adult rats. AChE activity in vitro in the ST, HP, CC and CB was significantly reduced (p<0.05) in the presence of EtBr at concentrations of 0.00625, 0.0125, 0.025, 0.05 and 0.1 mM. For the analysis of the kinetic three concentrations of EtBr were tested (0.00625, 0.025 and 0.1 mM). An uncompetitive inhibition type was observed in the ST, HP and CC, whereas in the CB the inhibition type was mixed. These data indicate that EtBr should be considered a strong inhibitor of AChE activity demonstrating that there is an interaction between this compound and the cholinergic system.
ESTHER : Mazzanti_2006_Chem.Biol.Interact_162_121
PubMedSearch : Mazzanti_2006_Chem.Biol.Interact_162_121
PubMedID: 16839531