Schetinger MR

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Full name : Schetinger Maria Rosa C

First name : Maria Rosa C

Mail : Department of Chemistry, UFSM, Santa Maria

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Country : Brazil

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References (75)

Title : Quercetin treatment regulates the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity, peripheral cholinergic enzymes, and oxidative stress in a rat model of demyelination - Carvalho_2018_Nutr.Res_55_45
Author(s) : Carvalho FB , Gutierres JM , Beckmann D , Santos RP , Thome GR , Baldissarelli J , Stefanello N , Andrades A , Aiello G , Ripplinger A , Lucio BM , Ineu R , Mazzanti A , Morsch V , Schetinger MR , Andrade CM
Ref : Nutr Res , 55 :45 , 2018
Abstract : Quercetin is reported to exert a plethora of health benefits through many different mechanisms of action. This versatility and presence in the human diet has attracted the attention of the scientific community, resulting in a huge output of in vitro and in vivo (preclinical) studies. Therefore, we hypothesized that quercetin can protect Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity in the central nervous system, reestablish the peripheral cholinesterases activities, and reduce oxidative stress during demyelination events in rats. In line with this expectation, our study aims to find out how quercetin acts on the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity in the central nervous system, peripheral cholinesterases, and stress oxidative markers in an experimental model of demyelinating disease. Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: vehicle, quercetin, ethidium bromide (EB), and EB plus quercetin groups. The animals were treated once a day with vehicle (ethanol 20%) or quercetin 50 mg/kg for 7 (demyelination phase, by gavage) or 21 days (remyelination phase) after EB (0.1%, 10 muL) injection (intrapontine).The encephalon was removed, and the pons, hypothalamus, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, striatum, and cerebellum were dissected to verify the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity. Our results showed that quercetin protected against reduction in Na(+),K(+)-ATPase in the pons and cerebellum in the demyelination phase, and it increased the activity of this enzyme in the remyelination phase. During the demyelination, quercetin promoted the increase in acetylcholinesterase activity in whole blood and lymphocytes induced by EB, and it reduced the increase in acetylcholinesterase activity in lymphocytes in the remyelination phase. On day 7, EB increased the superoxide dismutase and decreased catalase activities, as well as increased the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance levels. Taken together, these results indicated that quercetin regulates the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity, affects the alterations of redox state, and participates in the reestablishment of peripheral cholinergic activity during demyelinating and remyelination events.
ESTHER : Carvalho_2018_Nutr.Res_55_45
PubMedSearch : Carvalho_2018_Nutr.Res_55_45
PubMedID: 29914627

Title : Dietary supplementation of tiger nut alters biochemical parameters relevant to erectile function in l-NAME treated rats - Olabiyi_2018_Food.Res.Int_109_358
Author(s) : Olabiyi AA , Carvalho FB , Bottari NB , Lopes TF , da Costa P , Stefanelo N , Morsch VM , Akindahunsi AA , Oboh G , Schetinger MR
Ref : Food Res Int , 109 :358 , 2018
Abstract : Tiger nut tubers have been reportedly used for the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED) in folk medicine without scientific basis. Hence, this study evaluated the effect of tiger nut on erectile dysfunction by assessing biochemical parameters relevant to ED in male rats by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, Nomega-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (l-NAME) treatment. Rats were divided into five groups (n=10) each: Control group; l-NAME plus basal diet; l-NAME plus Sildenafil citrate; diet supplemented processed tiger nut (20%) plus l-NAME;diet supplemented raw tiger nut (20%) plus l-NAME. l-NAME pre-treatment (40mg/kg/day) lasted for 14days. Arginase, acetycholinesterase (AChE) and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activities as well as nitric oxide levels (NO) in serum, brain and penile tissue were measured. l-NAME increased the activity of arginase, AChE and ADA and reduced NO levels. However, dietary supplementation with tiger nut caused a reduction on the activities of the above enzymes and up regulated nitric oxide levels when compared to the control group. The effect of tiger nut supplemented diet may be said to prevent alterations of the activities of the enzymes relevant in erectile function. Quercetin was revealed to be the most active component of tiger nut tuber by HPLC finger printing.
ESTHER : Olabiyi_2018_Food.Res.Int_109_358
PubMedSearch : Olabiyi_2018_Food.Res.Int_109_358
PubMedID: 29803461

Title : Curcumin attenuates memory deficits and the impairment of cholinergic and purinergic signaling in rats chronically exposed to cadmium - da Costa_2017_Environ.Toxicol_32_70
Author(s) : da Costa P , Goncalves JF , Baldissarelli J , Mann TR , Abdalla FH , Fiorenza AM , da Rosa MM , Carvalho FB , Gutierres JM , de Andrade CM , Rubin MA , Schetinger MR , Morsch VM
Ref : Environ Toxicol , 32 :70 , 2017
Abstract : This study investigated the protective effect of curcumin on memory loss and on the alteration of acetylcholinesterase and ectonucleotidases activities in rats exposed chronically to cadmium (Cd). Rats received Cd (1 mg/kg) and curcumin (30, 60, or 90 mg/kg) by oral gavage 5 days a week for 3 months. The animals were divided into eight groups: vehicle (saline/oil), saline/curcumin 30 mg/kg, saline/curcumin 60 mg/kg, saline/curcumin 90 mg/kg, Cd/oil, Cd/curcumin 30 mg/kg, Cd/curcumin 60 mg/kg, and Cd/curcumin 90 mg/kg. Curcumin prevented the decrease in the step-down latency induced by Cd. In cerebral cortex synaptosomes, Cd-exposed rats showed an increase in acetylcholinesterase and NTPDase (ATP and ADP as substrates) activities and a decrease in the 5'-nucleotidase activity. Curcumin was not able to prevent the effect of Cd on acetylcholinesterase activity, but it prevented the effects caused by Cd on NTPDase (ATP and ADP as substrate) and 5'-nucleotidase activities. Increased acetylcholinesterase activity was observed in different brain structures, whole blood and lymphocytes of the Cd-treated group. In addition, Cd increased lipid peroxidation in different brain structures. Higher doses of curcumin were more effective in preventing these effects. These findings show that curcumin prevented the Cd-mediated memory impairment, demonstrating that this compound has a neuroprotective role and is capable of modulating acetylcholinesterase, NTPDase, and 5'-nucleotidase activities. Finally, it highlights the possibility of using curcumin as an adjuvant against toxicological conditions involving Cd exposure. (c) 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 70-83, 2017.
ESTHER : da Costa_2017_Environ.Toxicol_32_70
PubMedSearch : da Costa_2017_Environ.Toxicol_32_70
PubMedID: 26592365

Title : Hypothyroidism Enhanced Ectonucleotidases and Acetylcholinesterase Activities in Rat Synaptosomes can be Prevented by the Naturally Occurring Polyphenol Quercetin - Baldissarelli_2017_Cell.Mol.Neurobiol_37_53
Author(s) : Baldissarelli J , Santi A , Schmatz R , Abdalla FH , Cardoso AM , Martins CC , Dias GR , Calgaroto NS , Pelinson LP , Reichert KP , Loro VL , Morsch VM , Schetinger MR
Ref : Cellular Molecular Neurobiology , 37 :53 , 2017
Abstract : Thyroid hormones have an influence on the functioning of the central nervous system. Furthermore, the cholinergic and purinergic systems also are extensively involved in brain function. In this context, quercetin is a polyphenol with antioxidant and neuroprotective properties. This study investigated the effects of (MMI)-induced hypothyroidism on the NTPDase, 5'-nucleotidase, adenosine deaminase (ADA), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities in synaptosomes of rats and whether the quercetin can prevent it. MMI at a concentration of 20 mg/100 mL was administered for 90 days in the drinking water. The animals were divided into six groups: control/water (CT/W), control/quercetin 10 mg/kg, control/quercetin 25 mg/kg, methimazole/water (MMI/W), methimazole/quercetin 10 mg/kg (MMI/Q10), and methimazole/quercetin 25 mg/kg (MMI/Q25). On the 30th day, hormonal dosing was performed to confirm hypothyroidism, and the animals were subsequently treated with 10 or 25 mg/kg quercetin for 60 days. NTPDase activity was not altered in the MMI/W group. However, treatment with quercetin decreased ATP and ADP hydrolysis in the MMI/Q10 and MMI/Q25 groups. 5'-nucleotidase activity increased in the MMI/W group, but treatments with 10 or 25 mg/kg quercetin decreased 5'-nucleotidase activity. ADA activity decreased in the CT/25 and MMI/Q25 groups. Furthermore, AChE activity was reduced in all groups with hypothyroidism. In vitro tests also demonstrated that quercetin per se decreased NTPDase, 5'-nucleotidase, and AChE activities. This study demonstrated changes in the 5'-nucleotidase and AChE activities indicating that purinergic and cholinergic neurotransmission are altered in this condition. In addition, quercetin can alter these parameters and may be a promising natural compound with important neuroprotective actions in hypothyroidism.
ESTHER : Baldissarelli_2017_Cell.Mol.Neurobiol_37_53
PubMedSearch : Baldissarelli_2017_Cell.Mol.Neurobiol_37_53
PubMedID: 26879755

Title : Methylmalonate Induces Inflammatory and Apoptotic Potential: A Link to Glial Activation and Neurological Dysfunction - Gabbi_2017_J.Neuropathol.Exp.Neurol_76_160
Author(s) : Gabbi P , Ribeiro LR , Jessie Martins G , Cardoso AS , Haupental F , Rodrigues FS , Machado AK , Sperotto Brum J , Medeiros Frescura Duarte MM , Schetinger MR , da Cruz IB , Flavia Furian A , Oliveira MS , dos Santos AR , Royes LF , Fighera MR , de Freitas ML
Ref : J Neuropathol Experimental Neurology , 76 :160 , 2017
Abstract : Methylmalonic acid (MMA) accumulates in tissues in methylmalonic acidemia, a heterogeneous group of inherited childhood diseases characterized by neurological dysfunction, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation; it is associated with degeneration of striatal neurons and cerebral cortical atrophy. It is presently unknown, however, whether transient exposure to MMA in the neonatal period is sufficient to trigger inflammatory and apoptotic processes that lead to brain structural damage. Here, newborn mice were given a single intracerebroventricular dose of MMA at 12 hours after birth. Maze testing of 21- and 40-day-old mice showed that MMA-injected animals exhibited deficit in the working memory test but not in the reference test. MMA-injected mice showed increased levels of the reactive oxygen species marker 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate, tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1beta, caspases 1, 3, and 8, and increased acetylcholinesterase activity in the cortex, hippocampus and striatum. This was associated with increased astrocyte and microglial immunoreactivity in all brain regions. These findings suggest that transient exposure to MMA may alter the redox state and cause neuroinflammatory/apoptotic processes and glial activation during critical periods of brain development. Similar processes may underlie brain dysfunction and cognitive impairment in patients with methylmalonic acidemia.
ESTHER : Gabbi_2017_J.Neuropathol.Exp.Neurol_76_160
PubMedSearch : Gabbi_2017_J.Neuropathol.Exp.Neurol_76_160
PubMedID: 28395089

Title : Caffeine prevents changes in muscle caused by high-intensity interval training - Vieira_2017_Biomed.Pharmacother_89_116
Author(s) : Vieira JM , Gutierres JM , Carvalho FB , Pereira LB , Oliveira LS , Morsch VM , Schetinger MR , Rodrigues MV , Leitemperger J , Loro V , Krewer CC , Vencato MS , Spanevello RM
Ref : Biomed Pharmacother , 89 :116 , 2017
Abstract : The use of ergogenic substances such as caffeine has become a strategy to enhance sports performance. In the present study we evaluated the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) associated with caffeine intake on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and Ca2+ATPase activity and glycogen levels in the muscles of rats were evaluated. The animals were divided in groups: control, caffeine 4 or 8mg/kg, HIIT, HIIT plus caffeine 4 or caffeine 8mg/kg. Our results showed a decrease in glycogen levels in muscle in all trained groups after acute session exercise, while that an increase in glycogen levels was observed in all groups in relation to control in chronic exercise protocol. HIIT increases the thickness of the left ventricle and the Ca2+-ATPase activity and decrease the AChE activity in gastrocnemius muscle. Caffeine treatment prevents changes in enzymes activities as well as left ventricular hypertrophy adaptation induced by HIIT. Our findings suggest that caffeine modulates crucial pathways for muscle contraction in HIIT.
ESTHER : Vieira_2017_Biomed.Pharmacother_89_116
PubMedSearch : Vieira_2017_Biomed.Pharmacother_89_116
PubMedID: 28222393

Title : Silicon Reverses Lipid Peroxidation but not Acetylcholinesterase Activity Induced by Long-Term Exposure to Low Aluminum Levels in Rat Brain Regions - Noremberg_2016_Biol.Trace.Elem.Res_169_77
Author(s) : Noremberg S , Bohrer D , Schetinger MR , Bairros AV , Gutierres J , Goncalves JF , Veiga M , Santos FW
Ref : Biol Trace Elem Res , 169 :77 , 2016
Abstract : Aluminum (Al) is the most widely distributed metal in the environment and is extensively used in daily life leading to easy exposure to human beings. Besides not having a recognized physiological role, Al may produce adverse effects through the interaction with the cholinergic system contributing to oxidative stress. The present study evaluated, in similar conditions of parenteral nutrition, whether the reaction of silicon (SiO2) with Al(3+) to form hydroxyaluminosilicates (HAS) reduces its bioavailability and toxicity through intraperitoneal administrations of 0.5 mg Al/kg/day and/or 2 mg Si/kg/day in Wistar rats. Al and Si concentrations were determined in rat brain tissue and serum. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were analyzed in the cerebellum, cortex, hippocampus, striatum, hypothalamus, and blood. An increase in the Al concentration was verified in the Al + Si group in the brain. All the groups demonstrated enhanced Si compared to the control animals. Al(3+) increased LPO measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in cerebellum and hippocampus, whereas SiO2 reduced it when compared with the control group. An increase of AChE activity was observed in the Al-treated group in the cerebellum whereas a decrease of this enzyme activity was observed in the cortex and hippocampus in the Al and Al + Si groups. Al and Si concentrations increased in rat serum; however, no effect was observed in blood TBARS levels and AChE activity. SiO2 showed a protective effect in the hippocampus and cerebellum against cellular damage caused by Al(3+)-induced lipid peroxidation. Thus, SiO2 may be considered an important protector in LPO induced by Al(3+).
ESTHER : Noremberg_2016_Biol.Trace.Elem.Res_169_77
PubMedSearch : Noremberg_2016_Biol.Trace.Elem.Res_169_77
PubMedID: 26050237

Title : Supplementation with copper edetate in control of Haemonchus contortus of sheep, and its effect on cholinesterase's and superoxide dismutase activities - Grosskopf_2016_Exp.Parasitol_173_34
Author(s) : Grosskopf HM , Grosskopf RK , Biazus AH , Leal ML , Bottari NB , Alves MS , Schetinger MR , Morsch VM , Machado G , Baldissera MD , Da Silva AS
Ref : Experimental Parasitology , 173 :34 , 2016
Abstract : The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of copper edetate on biochemical parameters, oxidative profile, cholinesterase's activities, as well as its capacity to control gastrointestinal parasites in infected sheep. Thus, Lacaune sheep (n = 18) infected by Haemonchus contortus were used and divided into three groups of six animal each: the group A was composed of untreated animals (the control group), the group B was formed by animals treated with 0.3 mg/kg of copper edetate, and the group C was composed of animals treated with 0.5 mg/kg of copper edetate. Blood collection was performed on days 0, 10, 20 and 30 after mineral supplementation and different variables were measured. Cholinergic system was evaluated to determine the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in total blood and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activity in serum. Eggs per gram of feces (EPG) were evaluated. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) between groups regarding total protein, albumin, globulin and urea levels, GGT activity, as well as the hematocrit, and EPG. ALT activity decreased (P < 0.05) on groups B and C on day 30 compared to the control group (the group A). AChE activity decreased (P < 0.05) in the group C on days 10 and 30 compared to the control group, such decrease (P < 0.05) was also observed for BChE activity in the group C on day 10. ROS levels increased in the group C compared to groups A and B on day 10, while the SOD activity increased in the group C on days 20 and 30 compared to the control group (P < 0.05). CAT activity did not differ between groups (P > 0.05). In summary, the copper edetate was not efficient to control gastrointestinal parasites, but efficiently activated SOD, an important antioxidant enzyme. In addition, copper edetate was able to partially inhibit cholinesterase's activities when supplementated at its highest dose.
ESTHER : Grosskopf_2016_Exp.Parasitol_173_34
PubMedSearch : Grosskopf_2016_Exp.Parasitol_173_34
PubMedID: 28007539

Title : Cholinergic enzymes and inflammatory markers in rats infected by Sporothrix schenckii - Castro_2016_Microb.Pathog_97_94
Author(s) : Castro VS , Da Silva AS , Costa MM , Paim FC , Alves SH , Lopes ST , Silva CB , Wolkmer P , Castro JL , Cecco BS , Duarte MM , Schetinger MR , Graca DL , Andrade CM
Ref : Microb Pathog , 97 :94 , 2016
Abstract : The aim of this study was to evaluate the cholinesterase activity in serum, whole blood, and lymphocytes, as well as to verify its relation to immune response in rats experimentally infected by Sporothrix schenckii. For this study, 63 Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus), male, adult were divided into three groups: the negative control group (GC: n = 21), the group infected subcutaneously (GSC: n = 21), and the group infected intraperitoneally (GIP: n = 21). The groups were divided into subgroups and the following variables were evaluated at 15, 30, and 40 days post-infection (PI): acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in lymphocytes and whole blood, butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activity in serum, cytokines levels (IL-1, IL-6, TNFalpha, and INF-gamma), immunoglobulins levels (IgA, IgG, IgM, and IgE), and protein profile by electrophoresis. Both infected groups showed increased levels of inflammatory parameters (P < 0.05) in tissue and inflammatory infiltrates. The activities of AChE in lymphocytes and BChE in serum increased (P < 0.05) significantly in animals from the GSC group on day 40 PI compared to the GC group. Regarding the GIP, there was a marked increase in the AChE activity in lymphocytes on days 30 and 40 PI, and in whole blood on days 15, 30, and 40 PI compared to GC. Furthermore, IL-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, was also present in high levels during chronic systemic S. schenckii infections in animals. Therefore, it is concluded that cholinesterase has an important modulatory role in the immune response during granulomatous infection by S. schenckii.
ESTHER : Castro_2016_Microb.Pathog_97_94
PubMedSearch : Castro_2016_Microb.Pathog_97_94
PubMedID: 27260685

Title : Relationship Between Pathological Findings and Cholinesterase Activity and Nitric Oxide Levels in Cattle Infected Naturally by Eurytrema coelomaticum - Schwertz_2016_J.Comp.Pathol_154_150
Author(s) : Schwertz CI , do Carmo GM , Bottari NB , da Silva ES , Gabriel ME , Lucca NJ , Guarda Ndos S , Moresco RN , Machado G , Morsch VM , Schetinger MR , Stefani LM , Mendes RE , Da Silva AS
Ref : J Comp Pathol , 154 :150 , 2016
Abstract : The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) (in the serum and pancreas), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) (in the whole blood and pancreas) and nitric oxide (NO) (in the serum and pancreas) in cattle infected naturally by Eurytrema coelomaticum. Fifty-one cattle were studied, including 33 infected by E. coelomaticum and 18 uninfected animals. Significantly greater AChE activity was found in the pancreas of infected animals (P <0.01); however, these cattle had lower AChE activity in whole blood. BChE activity was greater in the sera of infected animals (P = 0.05), but was less in pancreatic samples. NO levels were significantly higher in the sera (P <0.05) and pancreas (P <0.001) of infected cattle compared with uninfected animals. A positive correlation was found between AChE activity in the pancreas and parasite load, but there was negative correlation between pancreatic BChE activity and parasitic load. Expression of AChE, BChE and NO is therefore linked to the inflammation caused by E. coelomaticum in cattle.
ESTHER : Schwertz_2016_J.Comp.Pathol_154_150
PubMedSearch : Schwertz_2016_J.Comp.Pathol_154_150
PubMedID: 26929158

Title : Diphenyl diselenide supplementation in infected mice by Toxoplasma gondii: Protective effect on behavior, neuromodulation and oxidative stress caused by disease - Machado_2016_Exp.Parasitol_169_51
Author(s) : Machado VS , Bottari NB , Baldissera MD , Rech VC , Ianiski FR , Signor C , Rubin MA , Waczuk EP , Schwertz CI , Mendes RE , Camillo G , Vogel FF , de La Rue ML , Morsch VM , Schetinger MR , Fruhauf PK , Da Silva AS
Ref : Experimental Parasitology , 169 :51 , 2016
Abstract : The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of subcutaneous administration of diphenyl diselenide (PhSe)2 on animal behavior and activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), adenylate kinase (AK), and creatine kinase (CK) in the brain of mice infected by Toxoplasma gondii. In addition, thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) levels and glutathione (GR, GPx and GST) activity were also evaluated. For the study, 40 female mice were divided into four groups of 10 animals each: group A (uninfected and untreated), group B (uninfected and treated with (PhSe)2), group C (infected and untreated) and group D (infected and treated with (PhSe)2). The mice were inoculated with 50 cysts of the ME49 strain of T. gondii. After infection the animals of the groups B and D were treated on days 1 and 20 post-infection (PI) with 5.0 mumol/kg of (PhSe)2 subcutaneously. Behavioral tests were conducted on days 29 PI to assess memory loss (object recognition), anxiety (elevated plus maze), locomotor and exploratory activity (Open Field) and it was found out that infected and untreated animals (group C) had developed anxiety and memory impairment, and the (PhSe)2 treatment did not reverse these behavioral changes on infected animals treated with (PhSe)2 (group D). The results showed an increase on AChE activity (P < 0.01) in the brain of infected and untreated animals (group C) compared to the uninfected and untreated animals (group A). The AK and CK activities decreased in infected and untreated animals (group C) compared to the uninfected and untreated animals (group A) (P < 0.01), however the (PhSe)2 treatment did not reverse these alterations. Infected and untreated animals (group C) showed increased TBARS levels and GR activity, and decreased GPx and GST activities when compared to uninfected and untreated animals (group A). Infected animals treated with (PhSe)2 (group D) decreased TBARS levels and GR activity, while increased GST activity when compared to infected and untreated animals (group C). It was concluded that (PhSe)2 showed antioxidant activity, but the dose used had no anti-inflammatory effect and failed to reverse the behavioral changes caused by the parasite.
ESTHER : Machado_2016_Exp.Parasitol_169_51
PubMedSearch : Machado_2016_Exp.Parasitol_169_51
PubMedID: 27472985

Title : Neuroprotective effects of quercetin on memory and anxiogenic-like behavior in diabetic rats: Role of ectonucleotidases and acetylcholinesterase activities - Maciel_2016_Biomed.Pharmacother_84_559
Author(s) : Maciel RM , Carvalho FB , Olabiyi AA , Schmatz R , Gutierres JM , Stefanello N , Zanini D , Rosa MM , Andrade CM , Rubin MA , Schetinger MR , Morsch VM , Danesi CC , Lopes ST
Ref : Biomed Pharmacother , 84 :559 , 2016
Abstract : The present study investigated the protective effect of quercetin (Querc) on memory, anxiety-like behavior and impairment of ectonucleotidases and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities in brain of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ-diabetes). The type 1 diabetes mellitus was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of 70mg/kg of streptozotocin (STZ), diluted in 0.1M sodium-citrate buffer (pH 4.5). Querc was dissolved in 25% ethanol and administered by gavage at the doses of 5, 25 and 50mg/kg once a day during 40days. The animals were distributed in eight groups of ten animals as follows: vehicle, Querc 5mg/kg, Querc 25mg/kg, Querc 50mg/kg, diabetes, diabetes plus Querc 5mg/kg, diabetes plus Querc 25mg/kg and diabetes plus Querc 50mg/kg. Querc was able to prevent the impairment of memory and the anxiogenic-like behavior induced by STZ-diabetes. In addition, Querc prevents the decrease in the NTPDase and increase in the adenosine deaminase (ADA) activities in SN from cerebral cortex of STZ-diabetes. STZ-diabetes increased the AChE activity in SN from cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Querc 50mg/kg was more effective to prevent the increase in AChE activity in the brain of STZ-diabetes. Querc also prevented an increase in the malondialdehyde levels in all the brain structures. In conclusion, the present findings showed that Querc could prevent the impairment of the enzymes that regulate the purinergic and cholinergic extracellular signaling and improve the memory and anxiety-like behavior induced by STZ-diabetes.
ESTHER : Maciel_2016_Biomed.Pharmacother_84_559
PubMedSearch : Maciel_2016_Biomed.Pharmacother_84_559
PubMedID: 27694000

Title : Novel markers of inflammatory response and hepatic dysfunction in canine leishmaniasis - Tonin_2016_Comp.Immunol.Microbiol.Infect.Dis_44_61
Author(s) : Tonin AA , Calado AM , Bottari NB , Dalenogare D , Thome GR , Duarte T , Duarte MM , Morsch VM , Schetinger MR , Alves LC , Tinucci-Costa M , Da Silva AS
Ref : Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis , 44 :61 , 2016
Abstract : Dogs are the main host of Leishmania infantum, and the clinical presentation may range from asymptomatic to systemic manifestations. The immune mechanisms in infected, but clinically healthy dogs, prevails Th1 response mediated by cytokines. In this sense, adenosine deaminase (ADA) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) are considered as key enzymes in several physiological processes, including the modulation of inflammatory process. Considering the variable immune response against Leishmania and the known participation of ADA and BChE, the aim of this study was to assess the relation between these two enzymes with the inflammatory response as well as hepatic function in dogs naturally infected with L. infantum. For this purpose, the activity of ADA and BChE was assessed in sera of 24 dogs naturally infected with L. infantum, plus 17 healthy dogs. The naturally infected dogs had clinical signs compatible with leishmaniasis and sera activities of ADA (P<0.01) and BChE (P<0.05) decreased, when compared to the healthy group. The reduction of ADA activity probably represented an effect on inflammatory response, especially due to the decreased hydrolysis of extracellular adenosine, might in order to protect against tissue damage and, also, setting a down-regulation on pro-inflammatory cytokines. BChE enzyme had no effect on modulating the immune response in leishmaniasis, but it decreased, a fact may related to deficiency of synthesis in the liver. Therefore, ADA and BChE activities reduced probably in order to protect against extra tissue damage and due failure in synthesis, respectively.
ESTHER : Tonin_2016_Comp.Immunol.Microbiol.Infect.Dis_44_61
PubMedSearch : Tonin_2016_Comp.Immunol.Microbiol.Infect.Dis_44_61
PubMedID: 26454326

Title : Imidocarb dipropionate in the treatment of Anaplasma marginale in cattle: Effects on enzymes of the antioxidant, cholinergic, and adenosinergic systems - Doyle_2016_Microb.Pathog_97_226
Author(s) : Doyle RL , Fritzen A , Bottari NB , Alves MS , da Silva AD , Morsch VM , Schetinger MR , Martins JR , Santos JS , Machado G , Da Silva AS
Ref : Microb Pathog , 97 :226 , 2016
Abstract : Anaplasmosis is a worldwide hemolytic disease in cattle caused by a gram-negative obligatory intracellular bacterium, characterized by anemia and jaundice. Among the treatments used for anaplasmosis is a drug called imidocarb dipropionate, also indicated as an immunomodulator agent. However, it causes side effects associated with increased levels of acetylcholine. In view of this, the effects of imidocarb dipropionate on the purinergic system, and antioxidant enzymes in animals naturally infected by Anaplasma marginale were evaluated. Young cattle (n = 22) infected by A. marginale were divided into two groups: the Group A consisted of 11 animals used as controls; and the Group B composed of 11 animals. Imidocarb dipropionate (5 mg/kg) was used subcutaneously to treat both groups (the Group A on day 6 and the Group B on day 0). The treatment reduced acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activities, and increased the dismutase superoxide and catalase activities. No changes on lipid peroxidation (TBARS levels) and BChE activities were noticed. These results suggest that imidocarb dipropionate used to treat A. marginale infection in cattle has effect on antioxidant enzymes, and significantly inhibits the enzymatic activities of ADA and AChE.
ESTHER : Doyle_2016_Microb.Pathog_97_226
PubMedSearch : Doyle_2016_Microb.Pathog_97_226
PubMedID: 27301742

Title : Hepatic cholinesterase of laying hens naturally infected by Salmonella Gallinarum (fowl typhoid) - Da Silva_2016_Microb.Pathog_98_93
Author(s) : Da Silva AS , Boiago MM , Bottari NB , do Carmo GM , Alves MS , Boscato C , Morsch VM , Schetinger MR , Casagrande RA , Stefani LM
Ref : Microb Pathog , 98 :93 , 2016
Abstract : Salmonella is a facultative intracellular pathogen that may cause foodborne gastroenteritis in humans and animals consisting of over 2000 serovars. The serovar Salmonella Gallinarum is an important worldwide pathogen of poultry. However, little is known on the mechanisms of pathogenesis of Salmonella in chickens. The aim of this study was to evaluate cholinesterase and myeloperoxidase activities in hepatic tissue of laying hens naturally infected by S. Gallinarum. Twenty positive liver samples for S. Gallinarum were collected, in addition to seven liver samples from healthy uninfected laying hens (control group). The right liver lobe was homogenized for analysis of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and myeloperoxidase (MPO), and the left lobe was divided into two fragments, one for histopathology and the other for Salmonella isolation. The results showed changes in AChE and BchE activity in the liver of infected laying hens compared to the control group (P < 0.05), i.e. reduced AChE and increased BChE activities in liver samples. Infected animals showed increased MPO activity compared to healthy animals (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the histopathological findings showed fibrinoid necrosis associated to the infiltration of lymphocytes, plasma cells, macrophages,heterophils in the liver of infected hens. These findings suggest that the inflammatory process was attenuated providing a pro-inflammatory action of both enzyme analyzed in order to reduce the free ACh, a molecule which has an anti-inflammatory action. Therefore, our results lead to the hypothesis that cholinesterase plays an important role on the modulation of immune response against S. Gallinarum with an inflammatory effect, contributing to the response against this bacterium. This study should contribute to a better understanding on the pathogenic mechanisms involved in laying hens infected by S. Gallinarum.
ESTHER : Da Silva_2016_Microb.Pathog_98_93
PubMedSearch : Da Silva_2016_Microb.Pathog_98_93
PubMedID: 27377431

Title : Effect of dietary supplementation of Padauk (Pterocarpus soyauxii) leaf on high fat diet\/streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats' brain and platelets - Saliu_2016_Biomed.Pharmacother_84_1194
Author(s) : Saliu JA , Oboh G , Omojokun OS , Rocha JB , Schetinger MR , Guterries J , Stefanello N , Carvalho F , Schmatz R , Morsch VM , Boligon A
Ref : Biomed Pharmacother , 84 :1194 , 2016
Abstract : BACKGROUND: This study investigated the effects of Padauk leaf on brain malondialdehyde (MDA) content, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities, ectonucleotidases and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activities in the platelet of high fat diet and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats.
METHODS: The animals were divided into six groups (n=7): normal control rats; diabetic rats+high fat diet (HFD); diabetic rats+HFD+Metformin; diabetic rats+HFD+acarbose; diabetic rats+HFD+10% Padauk leaf; normal rats+basal diet+10% Padauk leaf. After 30days of experiment comprising of acclimatization, dietary manipulation, pre-treatment with STZ and supplementation with Padauk leaf, the animals were sacrificed and the rats' brain and blood were collected for subsequent analysis.
RESULTS: The results demonstrated that the elevated MDA content and AChE activity in the diabetic rats were significantly reduced when compared with the control rats. Furthermore, the increased NTPDases, 5'-nucleotidase and ADA activities in the diabetic rats were significantly reduced when compared with the control rats. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that Padauk leaf exhibited modulatory effects on purinergic and cholinergic enzymes involved in the prevention of platelet abnormality and consequent vascular complications in diabetic state.
ESTHER : Saliu_2016_Biomed.Pharmacother_84_1194
PubMedSearch : Saliu_2016_Biomed.Pharmacother_84_1194
PubMedID: 27788477

Title : Effect of Ginger and Turmeric Rhizomes on Inflammatory Cytokines Levels and Enzyme Activities of Cholinergic and Purinergic Systems in Hypertensive Rats - Akinyemi_2016_Planta.Med_82_612
Author(s) : Akinyemi AJ , Thome GR , Morsch VM , Bottari NB , Baldissarelli J , de Oliveira LS , Goularte JF , Bello-Klein A , Duarte T , Duarte M , Boligon AA , Athayde ML , Akindahunsi AA , Oboh G , Schetinger MR
Ref : Planta Med , 82 :612 , 2016
Abstract : Inflammation exerts a crucial pathogenic role in the development of hypertension. Hence, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) on enzyme activities of purinergic and cholinergic systems as well as inflammatory cytokine levels in Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride-induced hypertensive rats. The rats were divided into seven groups (n = 10); groups 1-3 included normotensive control rats, hypertensive (Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride) rats, and hypertensive control rats treated with atenolol (an antihypertensive drug), while groups 4 and 5 included normotensive and hypertensive (Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride) rats treated with 4 % supplementation of turmeric, respectively, and groups 6 and 7 included normotensive and hypertensive rats treated with 4 % supplementation of ginger, respectively. The animals were induced with hypertension by oral administration of Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride, 40 mg/kg body weight. The results revealed a significant increase in ATP and ADP hydrolysis, adenosine deaminase, and acetylcholinesterase activities in lymphocytes from Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride hypertensive rats when compared with the control rats. In addition, an increase in serum butyrylcholinesterase activity and proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1 and - 6, interferon-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) with a concomitant decrease in anti-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-10) was observed in Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride hypertensive rats. However, dietary supplementation of both rhizomes was efficient in preventing these alterations in hypertensive rats by decreasing ATP hydrolysis, acetylcholinesterase, and butyrylcholinesterase activities and proinflammatory cytokines in hypertensive rats. Thus, these activities could suggest a possible insight about the protective mechanisms of the rhizomes against hypertension-related inflammation.
ESTHER : Akinyemi_2016_Planta.Med_82_612
PubMedSearch : Akinyemi_2016_Planta.Med_82_612
PubMedID: 27002391

Title : Sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim associated with resveratrol for the treatment of toxoplasmosis in mice: Influence on the activity of enzymes involved in brain neurotransmission - Bottari_2015_Microb.Pathog_79C_17
Author(s) : Bottari NB , Baldissera MD , Tonin AA , Rech VC , Nishihira VS , Thome GR , Schetinger MR , Morsch VM , Camillo G , Vogel FF , Tochetto C , Fighera R , Machado G , Stefani LM , Da Silva AS
Ref : Microb Pathog , 79C :17 , 2015
Abstract : This study aimed to investigate the influence of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (ST) associated with resveratrol on the enzymatic activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), adenylate kinase (AK), pyruvate kinase (PK), and creatine kinase (CK) in the brain of mice experimentally infected by Toxoplasma gondii. For that, 60 mice were divided into ten groups with 6 animals each: groups A to D composed by healthy mice and groups E to J consisting of animals infected by T. gondii (VEG strain). Animals started treatment 20 days post-infection for 10 consecutive days with oral doses of 0.5 mg kg-1 of ST (groups B and F), 100 mg kg-1 of free resveratrol (groups C and G) and inclusion complex of resveratrol (nanoparticles containing resveratrol) (groups D and H), as well as with an association of both drugs (groups I and J). The results showed increased (P < 0.001) AChE activity on infected animals (groups E-J) when compared to not-infected (A) animals, and also uninfected animals treated with ST (group B) had increased AChE activity. AK activity decreased (P < 0.001) in the infected and untreated (group E), differently from the other groups that did not differ. PK activity did not differ between groups (P > 0.05). When comparing control groups (uninfected (A) and infected (E)), we verified a significant (P < 0.001) increase in CK activity in the brain, and it is noteworthy that the animals treated with resveratrol associated with ST (group I and J) had similar CK activity to those animals from the group A. Treatment with the combination of ST and resveratrol was able to reduce (P < 0.05) the number of parasitic cysts in the brain, thus reduced inflammatory infiltrates in the liver, and prevented the occurrence of hepatocytes lesions due to toxoplasmosis in mice. Based on these results, it is possible to conclude that increased AChE and CK activities after T. gondii infection did not change with the treatment of ST-resveratrol association. In addition, decreased AK activity caused by T. gondii infection was normalized by ST-resveratrol treatment. T. gondii infection and treatment does not affect PK activity in brain.
ESTHER : Bottari_2015_Microb.Pathog_79C_17
PubMedSearch : Bottari_2015_Microb.Pathog_79C_17
PubMedID: 25572158

Title : Butyrylcholinesterase as a marker of inflammation and liver injury in the acute and subclinical phases of canine ehrlichiosis - do Carmo_2015_Comp.Immunol.Microbiol.Infect.Dis_43_16
Author(s) : do Carmo GM , Crivellenti LZ , Bottari NB , Machado G , Borin-Crivellenti S , Moresco RN , Duarte T , Duarte M , Tinucci-Costa M , Morsch VM , Schetinger MR , Stefani LM , Da Silva AS
Ref : Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis , 43 :16 , 2015
Abstract : The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) as a marker of inflammation and liver injury in the acute and subclinical phases of canine ehrlichiosis. Forty-two serum samples of dogs naturally infected with Ehrlichia canis were used, of which 24 were from animals with the acute phase of the disease and 18 with subclinical disease. In addition, sera from 17 healthy dogs were used as negative controls. The hematocrit, BChE activity, hepatic injury (alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)), nitric oxide, and cytokines levels were evaluated. The BChE activity was significantly elevated (P<0.05) in dogs with the acute phase of the disease when compared to healthy animals. However, there was a reduction on BChE activity on dogs with subclinical disease compared to the other two groups. AST and ALT levels were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the acute phase, as well as the inflammatory mediators (NOx, TNF-alpha, INF-gamma, IL-4, IL-6) when compared to the control group. On the other hand, IL-10 levels were lower in the acute phase. Based on these results, we are able to conclude that the acute infection caused by E. canis in dogs leads to an increase on seric BChE activity and some inflammatory mediators. Therefore, this enzyme might be used as a marker of acute inflammatory response in dogs naturally infected by this bacterium.
ESTHER : do Carmo_2015_Comp.Immunol.Microbiol.Infect.Dis_43_16
PubMedSearch : do Carmo_2015_Comp.Immunol.Microbiol.Infect.Dis_43_16
PubMedID: 26616656

Title : Activity of cholinesterases, pyruvate kinase and adenosine deaminase in rats experimentally infected by Fasciola hepatica: Influences of these enzymes on inflammatory response and pathological findings - Baldissera_2015_Pathol.Res.Pract_211_871
Author(s) : Baldissera MD , Bottari NB , Mendes RE , Schwertz CI , Lucca NJ , Dalenogare D , Bochi GV , Moresco RN , Morsch VM , Schetinger MR , Rech VC , Jaques JA , Da Silva AS
Ref : Pathol Res Pract , 211 :871 , 2015
Abstract : The aim of this study was to investigate acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in total blood and liver tissue; butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) in serum and liver tissue; adenosine deaminase (ADA) in serum and liver tissue; and pyruvate kinase (PK) in liver tissue of rats experimentally infected by Fasciola hepatica. Animals were divided into two groups with 12 animals each, as follows: group A (uninfected) and group B (infected). Samples were collected at 20 (A1 and B1;n=6 each) and 150 (A2 and B2; n=6 each) days post-infection (PI). Infected animals showed an increase in AChE activity in whole blood and a decrease in AChE activity in liver homogenates (P<0.05) at 20 and 150 days PI. BChE and PK activities were decreased (P<0.05) in serum and liver homogenates of infected animals at 150 days PI. ADA activity was decreased in serum at 20 and 150 days PI, while in liver homogenates it was only decreased at 150 days PI (P<0.05). Aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities in serum were increased (P<0.05), while concentrations of total protein and albumin were decreased (P<0.05) when compared to control. The histological analysis revealed fibrous perihepatitis and necrosis. Therefore, we conclude that the liver fluke is associated with cholinergic and purinergic dysfunctions, which in turn may influence the pathogenesis of the disease.
ESTHER : Baldissera_2015_Pathol.Res.Pract_211_871
PubMedSearch : Baldissera_2015_Pathol.Res.Pract_211_871
PubMedID: 26452485

Title : Rosmarinic acid prevents lipid peroxidation and increase in acetylcholinesterase activity in brain of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats - Mushtaq_2014_Cell.Biochem.Funct_32_287
Author(s) : Mushtaq N , Schmatz R , Pereira LB , Ahmad M , Stefanello N , Vieira JM , Abdalla F , Rodrigues MV , Baldissarelli J , Pelinson LP , Dalenogare DP , Reichert KP , Dutra EM , Mulinacci N , Innocenti M , Bellumori M , Morsch VM , Schetinger MR
Ref : Cell Biochemistry & Function , 32 :287 , 2014
Abstract : We investigated the efficacy of rosmarinic acid (RA) in preventing lipid peroxidation and increased activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the brain of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The animals were divided into six groups (n = 8): control, ethanol, RA 10 mg/kg, diabetic, diabetic/ethanol and diabetic/RA 10 mg/kg. After 21 days of treatment with RA, the cerebral structures (striatum, cortex and hippocampus) were removed for experimental assays. The results demonstrated that the treatment with RA (10 mg/kg) significantly reduced the level of lipid peroxidation in hippocampus (28%), cortex (38%) and striatum (47%) of diabetic rats when compared with the control. In addition, it was found that hyperglycaemia caused significant increased in the activity of AChE in hippocampus (58%), cortex (46%) and striatum (30%) in comparison with the control. On the other hand, the treatment with RA reversed this effect to the level of control after 3 weeks. In conclusion, the present findings showed that treatment with RA prevents the lipid peroxidation and consequently the increase in AChE activity in diabetic rats, demonstrating that this compound can modulate cholinergic neurotransmission and prevent damage oxidative in brain in the diabetic state. Thus, we can suggest that RA could be a promising compound in the complementary therapy in diabetes. Copyright (c) 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
ESTHER : Mushtaq_2014_Cell.Biochem.Funct_32_287
PubMedSearch : Mushtaq_2014_Cell.Biochem.Funct_32_287
PubMedID: 24301255

Title : Quercetin protects the impairment of memory and anxiogenic-like behavior in rats exposed to cadmium: Possible involvement of the acetylcholinesterase and Na,K-ATPase activities - Abdalla_2014_Physiol.Behav_135C_152
Author(s) : Abdalla FH , Schmatz R , Cardoso AM , Carvalho FB , Baldissarelli J , de Oliveira JS , Rosa MM , Goncalves Nunes MA , Rubin MA , da Cruz IB , Barbisan F , Dressler VL , Pereira LB , Schetinger MR , Morsch VM , Goncalves JF , Mazzanti CM
Ref : Physiol Behav , 135C :152 , 2014
Abstract : The present study investigated the effects of quercetin in the impairment of memory and anxiogenic-like behavior induced by cadmium (Cd) exposure. We also investigated possible alterations in acetylcholinesterase (AChE), Na+,K+-ATPase and delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase (delta-ALA-D) activities as well as in oxidative stress parameters in the CNS. Rats were exposed to Cd (2.5mg/kg) and quercetin (5, 25 or 50mg/kg) by gavage for 45days. Animals were divided into eight groups (n=10-14): saline/control, saline/Querc 5mg/kg, saline/Querc 25mg/kg, saline/Querc 50mg/kg, Cd/ethanol, Cd/Querc 5mg/kg, Cd/Querc 25mg/kg and Cd/Querc 50mg/kg. Results demonstrated that Cd impaired memory has an anxiogenic effect. Quercetin prevented these harmful effects induced by Cd. AChE activity decreased in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus and increased in the hypothalamus of Cd-exposed rats. The Na+,K+-ATPase activity decreased in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus of Cd-exposed rats. Quercetin prevented these effects in AChE and Na+,K+-ATPase activities. Reactive oxygen species production, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance levels, protein carbonyl content and double-stranded DNA fractions increased in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus of Cd-exposed rats. Quercetin totally or partially prevents these effects caused by Cd. Total thiols (T-SHs), reduced glutathione (GSH), and reductase glutathione (GR) activities decreased and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity increased in Cd exposed rats. Co-treatment with quercetin prevented reduction in T-SH, GSH, and GR activities and the rise of GST activity. The present findings show that quercetin prevents alterations in oxidative stress parameters as well as AChE and Na+,K+-ATPase activities, consequently preventing memory impairment and anxiogenic-like behavior displayed by Cd exposure. These results may contribute to a better understanding of the neuroprotective role of quercetin, emphasizing the influence of this flavonoid in the diet for human health, possibly preventing brain injury associated with Cd intoxication.
ESTHER : Abdalla_2014_Physiol.Behav_135C_152
PubMedSearch : Abdalla_2014_Physiol.Behav_135C_152
PubMedID: 24952260

Title : Anthocyanins restore behavioral and biochemical changes caused by streptozotocin-induced sporadic dementia of Alzheimer's type - Gutierres_2014_Life.Sci_96_7
Author(s) : Gutierres JM , Carvalho FB , Schetinger MR , Marisco P , Agostinho P , Rodrigues M , Rubin MA , Schmatz R , da Silva CR , de PCG , Farias JG , Signor C , Morsch VM , Mazzanti CM , Bogo M , Bonan CD , Spanevello R
Ref : Life Sciences , 96 :7 , 2014
Abstract : AIMS: The aim of this study was to analyze if the pre-administration of anthocyanin on memory and anxiety prevented the effects caused by intracerebroventricular streptozotocin (icv-STZ) administration-induced sporadic dementia of Alzheimer's type (SDAT) in rats. Moreover, we evaluated whether the levels of nitrite/nitrate (NOx), Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, Ca(2+)-ATPase and acethylcholinesterase (AChE) activities in the cerebral cortex (CC) and hippocampus (HC) are altered in this experimental SDAT. MAIN
METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided in 4 different groups: control (CTRL), anthocyanin (ANT), streptozotocin (STZ) and streptozotocin+anthocyanin (STZ+ANT). After seven days of treatment with ANT (200mg/kg; oral), the rats were icv-STZ injected (3mg/kg), and four days later the behavior parameters were performed and the animals submitted to euthanasia. KEY FINDINGS: A memory deficit was found in the STZ group, but ANT treatment showed that it prevents this impairment of memory (P<0.05). Our results showed a higher anxiety in the icv-STZ group, but treatment with ANT showed a per se effect and prevented the anxiogenic behavior induced by STZ. Our results reveal that the ANT treatment (100muM) tested displaces the specific binding of [(3)H] flunitrazepam to the benzodiazepinic site of GABAA receptors. AChE, Ca(+)-ATPase activities and NOx levels were found to be increased in HC and CC in the STZ group, which was attenuated by ANT (P<0.05). STZ decreased Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity and ANT was able to prevent these effects (P<0.05). SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, these findings demonstrated that ANT is able to regulate ion pump activity and cholinergic neurotransmission, as well as being able to enhance memory and act as an anxiolytic compound in animals with SDAT.
ESTHER : Gutierres_2014_Life.Sci_96_7
PubMedSearch : Gutierres_2014_Life.Sci_96_7
PubMedID: 24291256

Title : Alterations of ectonucleotidases and acetylcholinesterase activities in lymphocytes of Down syndrome subjects: Relation with inflammatory parameters - Rodrigues_2014_Clin.Chim.Acta_433C_105
Author(s) : Rodrigues R , Debom G , Soares F , Machado C , Pureza J , Peres W , de Lima Garcias G , Duarte MF , Schetinger MR , Stefanello F , Braganhol E , Spanevello R
Ref : Clinica Chimica Acta , 433C :105 , 2014
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Subjects with Down syndrome (DS) have an increased susceptibility to infections and autoimmune disorders. ATP, adenosine, and acetylcholine contribute to the immune response regulation, and NTPDase, adenosine deaminase (ADA) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) are important enzymes in the control of the extracellular levels of these molecules. We evaluated the activities of these enzymes and the cytokine levels in samples of DS individuals.
METHODS: The population consisted of 23 subjects with DS and 23 healthy subjects. Twelve milliliters of blood was obtained from each subject and used for lymphocyte and serum preparation. Lymphocytes were separated on Ficoll density gradients. After isolation, NTPDase and AChE activities were determined.
RESULTS: The NTPDase activity using ADP as substrate was increased in lymphocytes of DS patients compared to control (P<0.05); however, no alterations were observed in the ATP hydrolysis. An increase was observed in the AChE activity in lymphocytes and in ADA activity in serum of DS patients when compared to healthy subjects (P<0.05). In DS subjects, an increase in the levels of IL-1beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma and a decrease in the IL-10 levels were also observed (P<0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Alterations in the NTPDase, ADA and AChE activities as well changes in the cytokine levels may contribute to immunological alterations observed in DS.
ESTHER : Rodrigues_2014_Clin.Chim.Acta_433C_105
PubMedSearch : Rodrigues_2014_Clin.Chim.Acta_433C_105
PubMedID: 24631131

Title : Neuroprotective role of quercetin in locomotor activities and cholinergic neurotransmission in rats experimentally demyelinated with ethidium bromide - Beckmann_2014_Life.Sci_103_79
Author(s) : Beckmann DV , Carvalho FB , Mazzanti CM , Dos Santos RP , Andrades AO , Aiello G , Rippilinger A , Graca DL , Abdalla FH , Oliveira LS , Gutierres JM , Schetinger MR , Mazzanti A
Ref : Life Sciences , 103 :79 , 2014
Abstract : AIM: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the flavonoid quercetin can prevent alterations in the behavioral tests and of cholinergic neurotransmission in rats submitted to the ethidium bromide (EB) experimental demyelination model during events of demyelination and remyelination. MAIN
METHODS: Wistar rats were randomly distributed into four groups (20 animals per group): Control (pontine saline injection and treatment with ethanol), Querc (pontine saline injection and treatment with quercetin), EB (pontine 0.1% EB injection and treatment with ethanol), and EB+Querc (pontine 0.1% EB injection and treatment with quercetin). The groups Querc and Querc+EB were treated once daily with quercetin (50mg/kg) diluted in 25% ethanol solution (1ml/kg) and the animals of the control and EB groups were treated once daily with 25% ethanol solution (1ml/kg). Two stages were observed: phase of demyelination (peak on day 7) and phase of remyelination (peak on day 21 post-injection). Behavioral tests (beam walking, foot fault and inclined plane test), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and lipid peroxidation in pons, cerebellum, hippocampus, hypothalamus, striatum and cerebral cortex were measured. KEY FINDINGS: The quercetin promoted earlier locomotor recovery, suggesting that there was demyelination prevention or further remyelination velocity as well as it was able to prevent the inhibition of AChE activity and the increase of lipidic peroxidation, suggesting that this compound can protect cholinergic neurotransmission. SIGNIFICANCE: These results may contribute to a better understanding of the neuroprotective role of quercetin and the importance of an antioxidant diet in humans to provide benefits in neurodegenerative diseases such as MS.
ESTHER : Beckmann_2014_Life.Sci_103_79
PubMedSearch : Beckmann_2014_Life.Sci_103_79
PubMedID: 24727240

Title : Effect of vitamin D3 on behavioural and biochemical parameters in diabetes type 1-induced rats - Calgaroto_2014_Cell.Biochem.Funct_32_502
Author(s) : Calgaroto NS , Thome GR , da Costa P , Baldissareli J , Hussein FA , Schmatz R , Rubin MA , Signor C , Ribeiro DA , Carvalho FB , de Oliveira LS , Pereira LB , Morsch VM , Schetinger MR
Ref : Cell Biochemistry & Function , 32 :502 , 2014
Abstract : Diabetes is associated with long-term complications in the brain and reduced cognitive ability. Vitamin D3 (VD3 ) appears to be involved in the amelioration of hyperglycaemia in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Our aim was to analyse the potential of VD3 in avoiding brain damage through evaluation of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), Na(+) K(+) -adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) and delta aminolevulinate dehydratase (delta-ALA-D) activities and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels from cerebral cortex, as well as memory in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Animals were divided into eight groups (n = 5): control/saline, control/metformin (Metf), control/VD3 , control/Metf + VD3 , diabetic/saline, diabetic/Metf, diabetic/VD3 and diabetic/Metf + VD3 . Thirty days after treatment, animals were submitted to contextual fear-conditioning and open-field behavioural tests, after which they were sacrificed and the cerebral cortex was dissected. Our results demonstrate a significant memory deficit, an increase in AChE activity and TBARS levels and a decrease in delta-ALA-D and Na(+) K(+) -ATPase activities in diabetic rats when compared with the controls. Treatment of diabetic rats with Metf and VD3 prevented the increase in AChE activity when compared with the diabetic/saline group. In treated diabetic rats, the decrease in Na(+) K(+) -ATPase was reverted when compared with non-treated rats, but the increase in delta-ALA-D activity was not. VD3 prevented diabetes-induced TBARS level and improved memory. Our results show that VD3 can avoid cognitive deficit through prevention of changes in important enzymes such as Na(+) K(+) -ATPase and AChE in cerebral cortex in type 1 diabetic rats. Copyright (c) 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
ESTHER : Calgaroto_2014_Cell.Biochem.Funct_32_502
PubMedSearch : Calgaroto_2014_Cell.Biochem.Funct_32_502
PubMedID: 24947461

Title : Effects of chlorogenic acid, caffeine, and coffee on behavioral and biochemical parameters of diabetic rats - Stefanello_2014_Mol.Cell.Biochem_388_277
Author(s) : Stefanello N , Schmatz R , Pereira LB , Rubin MA , da Rocha JB , Facco G , Pereira ME , Mazzanti CM , Passamonti S , Rodrigues MV , Carvalho FB , da Rosa MM , Gutierres JM , Cardoso AM , Morsch VM , Schetinger MR
Ref : Molecular & Cellular Biochemistry , 388 :277 , 2014
Abstract : Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with brain alterations that may contribute to cognitive dysfunctions. Chlorogenic acid (CGA) and caffeine (CA), abundant in coffee (CF), are natural compounds that have showed important actions in the brain. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of CGA, CA, and CF on acetylcholinesterase (AChE), Na(+), K(+)-ATPase, aminolevulinate dehydratase (delta-ALA-D) activities and TBARS levels from cerebral cortex, as well as memory and anxiety in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Animals were divided into eight groups (n = 5-10): control; control/CGA 5 mg/kg; control/CA 15 mg/kg; control/CF 0.5 g/kg; diabetic; diabetic/CGA 5 mg/kg; diabetic/CA 15 mg/kg; and diabetic/CF 0.5 g/kg. Our results demonstrated an increase in AChE activity and TBARS levels in cerebral cortex, while delta-ALA-D and Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activities were decreased in the diabetic rats when compared to control water group. Furthermore, a memory deficit and an increase in anxiety in diabetic rats were observed. The treatment with CGA and CA prevented the increase in AChE activity in diabetic rats when compared to the diabetic water group. CGA, CA, and CF intake partially prevented cerebral delta-ALA-D and Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity decrease due to diabetes. Moreover, CGA prevented diabetes-induced TBARS production, improved memory, and decreased anxiety. In conclusion, among the compounds studied CGA proved to be a compound which acts better in the prevention of brain disorders promoted by DM.
ESTHER : Stefanello_2014_Mol.Cell.Biochem_388_277
PubMedSearch : Stefanello_2014_Mol.Cell.Biochem_388_277
PubMedID: 24370728

Title : Protective effect of quercetin in ecto-enzymes, cholinesterases, and myeloperoxidase activities in the lymphocytes of rats exposed to cadmium - Abdalla_2014_Mol.Cell.Biochem_396_201
Author(s) : Abdalla FH , Cardoso AM , Schmatz R , Goncalves JF , Baldissarelli J , Martins CC , Zanini D , de Oliveira LS , da Costa P , Pimentel VC , Pereira LB , Lhamas CL , Schetinger MR , Morsch VM , Mazzanti CM
Ref : Molecular & Cellular Biochemistry , 396 :201 , 2014
Abstract : The ex vivo and in vitro effects of quercetin on NTPDase, adenosine deaminase (ADA), and acetycholinesterase (AChE) activities in lymphocytes, as well as the effects of quercetin on butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activity in serum and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in plasma were determined in rats. For the ex vivo experiment, animals were orally exposed to Cadmium (Cd) for 45 days. Animals were divided into eight groups: saline/ethanol, saline/Querc 5 mg/kg, saline/Querc 25 mg/kg, saline/Querc 50 mg/kg, Cd/ethanol, Cd/Querc 5 mg/kg, Cd/Querc 25 mg/kg, and Cd/Querc 50 mg/kg. The ex vivo data showed an increase in the ATP and ADP hydrolysis and ADA activity in Cd-exposed rats when compared to the control group. The treatment with quercetin 25 and 50 mg/kg prevented this increase in the ATP and ADP hydrolysis, while the treatment with quercetin 5, 25, and 50 mg/kg prevented the increase in the ADA activity. AChE, BChE, and MPO activities ex vivo presented an increase in the Cd-exposed group when compared to the control group, and the treatment with quercetin 5, 25, and 50 mg/kg prevented this increase caused by Cd exposure. The in vitro experiment showed that quercetin 5, 10, 25, or 50 microM decreased the ADA activity proportionally to the increase of the concentrations of quercetin when compared to the control group. Thus, we can suggest that the quercetin is able to modulate NTPDase, ADA, AChE, and MPO activities and contribute to maintain the levels of ATP, adenosine, and acetylcholine normal, respectively, exhibiting potent pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory actions.
ESTHER : Abdalla_2014_Mol.Cell.Biochem_396_201
PubMedSearch : Abdalla_2014_Mol.Cell.Biochem_396_201
PubMedID: 25064450

Title : Influence of experimental infection by Haemonchus contortus on acetylcholinesterase activity in lymphocytes of lambs - Tonin_2014_Exp.Parasitol_139C_19
Author(s) : Tonin AA , Da Silva AS , Schafer AS , Aires AR , Oliveira CB , Zanini D , Schetinger MR , Morsch VM , Lopes ST , Monteiro SG , Leal ML
Ref : Experimental Parasitology , 139C :19 , 2014
Abstract : The aim of this study was to evaluate the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in lymphocytes of lambs experimentally infected by Haemonchus contortus. A total of 14 healthy lambs were used, divided into two groups of seven animals each. Group A (negative control) represented the uninfected animals, and Group B (positive control) was formed by animals infected with 15,000 larvae of H. contortus. Blood was drawn on the days 15, 45 and 75 post-infection (PI) in order to perform the white blood cells (WBC) count, as well as the evaluation of AChE activity in lymphocytes. Parasitological stool exam (eggs per gram of feces - EPG) was performed on the same days to follow up the evolution of the infection. On day 15 PI it was verified negative EPG; however, on days 45 and 75 PI it was observed positive EPG only in the animals of group B. In the three evaluated periods was observed a lower number of leukocytes, associated with decreased lymphocytes and neutrophils in lambs infected by this gastrointestinal nematodes. Lambs infected with H. contortus showed significant (P<0.01) lower AChE activity in lymphocytes compared uninfected. Statistically, there was a positive correlation (P<0.05) between AChE activity in lymphocytes and number of lymphocytes (r=0.69). The lymphocytes are cells with direct participation in the cholinergic system; therefore, based on these results, it can be concluded that the experimental infection with H. contortus influences the number of lymphocytes, and consequently the AChE activity in these cells.
ESTHER : Tonin_2014_Exp.Parasitol_139C_19
PubMedSearch : Tonin_2014_Exp.Parasitol_139C_19
PubMedID: 24560768

Title : Swimming training prevents alterations in acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activities in hypertensive rats - Cardoso_2014_Am.J.Hypertens_27_522
Author(s) : Cardoso AM , Abdalla FH , Bagatini MD , Martins CC , da Silva Fiorin F , Baldissarelli J , Costa P , de Mello FF , Fiorenza AM , da Silva Serres JD , Goncalves JF , Chaves H , Royes LF , Bello-Klein A , Morsch VM , Schetinger MR
Ref : Am J Hypertens , 27 :522 , 2014
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Cholinergic enzyme activities are altered in hypertension, reflecting a low-grade inflammation. Regular physical exercise exerts anti-inflammatory effects and has been described as a coadjutant in the treatment of hypertension. In this study, we investigated the effect of 6 weeks of swimming training on cholinergic enzyme activities (acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase) in Nomega-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME)-induced hypertensive rats.
METHODS: The rats were divided into 4 groups: control (n = 10), exercise (n = 10), L-NAME (n = 10), and exercise L-NAME (n = 10). The animals were trained 5 times per week in an adapted swimming system for 60 minutes with a gradual increase of the workload up to 5% of animal's body weight. Enzyme activities were measured spectrophotometrically in lymphocytes, whole blood, and serum.
RESULTS: A significant rise in acetylcholinesterase activity was observed in lymphocytes and whole blood as well as in serum butyrylcholinesterase activity in the L-NAME group when compared with the other groups (P < 0.05), and the increase in cholinesterase activities was positively correlated with the rise in blood pressure (r = 0.5721, r = 0.6121, and r = 0.5811, respectively). Swimming training was efficient in preventing these alterations in the exercise L-NAME group, which displayed values similar to those of the control group. Exercise training demonstrated a significant hypotensive effect in hypertensive rats.
CONCLUSIONS: Exercise training was shown to prevent increased cholinesterase related to inflammatory processes in hypertensive rats, providing a new insight about protective exercise mechanisms to avoid hypertension-related inflammation.
ESTHER : Cardoso_2014_Am.J.Hypertens_27_522
PubMedSearch : Cardoso_2014_Am.J.Hypertens_27_522
PubMedID: 23479073

Title : Alterations in the cholinesterase and adenosine deaminase activities and inflammation biomarker levels in patients with multiple sclerosis - Polachini_2014_Neurosci_266_266
Author(s) : Polachini CR , Spanevello RM , Casali EA , Zanini D , Pereira LB , Martins CC , Baldissareli J , Cardoso AM , Duarte MF , da Costa P , Prado AL , Schetinger MR , Morsch VM
Ref : Neuroscience , 266 :266 , 2014
Abstract : Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the main chronic inflammatory diseases of the CNS that cause functional disability in young adults. It has unknown etiology characterized by the infiltration of lymphocytes and macrophages into the brain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in lymphocytes and whole blood, as well as butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activities in serum. We also checked the levels of nucleotides, nucleosides, biomarkers of inflammation such as cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, interferon (IFN)-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and IL-10) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in serum from 29 patients with the relapsing-remitting form of MS (RRMS) and 29 healthy subjects as the control group. Results showed that AChE in lymphocytes and whole blood as well as BChE, and ADA activities in serum were significantly increased in RRMS patients when compared to the control group (P<0.05). In addition, we observed a decrease in ATP levels and a significant increase in the levels of ADP, AMP, adenosine and inosine in serum from RRMS patients in relation to the healthy subjects (P<0.05). Results also demonstrated an increase in the IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-1, IL-6 and CRP (P<0.05) and a significant decrease in the IL-10 (P<0.0001) in RRMS patients when compared to control. Our results suggest that alterations in the biomarkers of inflammation and hydrolysis of nucleotides and nucleosides may contribute to the understanding of the neurological dysfunction of RRMS patients.
ESTHER : Polachini_2014_Neurosci_266_266
PubMedSearch : Polachini_2014_Neurosci_266_266
PubMedID: 24508813

Title : Influence of toxoplasmosis on acetylcholinesterase activity, nitric oxide levels and cellular lesion on the brain of mice - Tonin_2014_Pathol.Res.Pract_210_526
Author(s) : Tonin AA , Da Silva AS , Thome GR , Sangoi MB , Oliveira LS , Flores MM , Schetinger MR , Fighera RA , Moresco RN , Camillo G , Vogel FS , Lopes ST
Ref : Pathol Res Pract , 210 :526 , 2014
Abstract : The objective of this study was to investigate the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), nitrite/nitrate (NOx) levels, as well as the biomarkers of cellular damage in the brain of mice experimentally infected with Toxoplasma gondii. Sixty mice were divided into two experiments: in experiment I the mice were infected with T. gondii/RH strain, while in experiment II they were infected with T. gondii, strains VEG and ME-49. Our evaluations were carried out on brain homogenized samples, assessing the AChE and glutathione reductase (GR) activities, and NOx, TBARS and AOPP levels in all the infected animals, compared with the control group. In both experiments, I and II, it was observed an increase in the activity of AChE and GR, as well as in the levels of NOx in the brain of infected mice with T. gondii. TBARS levels were increased in mice infected with the three different strains, RH, ME-49, and VEG. AOPP concentration was increased only in mice infected with the RH strain. Animals infected with the strains VEG and ME-49 showed histological lesions, associated with the presence of the parasite in the brain. Therefore, the infection by T. gondii is able to interfere in cholinesterase activity and NO levels, in association with oxidative stress and histological lesion.
ESTHER : Tonin_2014_Pathol.Res.Pract_210_526
PubMedSearch : Tonin_2014_Pathol.Res.Pract_210_526
PubMedID: 24951243

Title : Neospora caninum: Activity of cholinesterases during the acute and chronic phases of an experimental infection in gerbils - Tonin_2013_Exp.Parasitol_135_669
Author(s) : Tonin AA , Da Silva AS , Thome GR , Oliveira LS , Schetinger MR , Morsch VM , Flores MM , Fighera RA , Toscan G , Vogel FF , Lopes ST
Ref : Experimental Parasitology , 135 :669 , 2013
Abstract : Neosporosis is an infectious disease primarily of dogs and cattle which has been found in many countries around the world. Neospora caninum causes an important immune response (cellular and humoral) in animals that it infects. Since the participation of the cholinergic system in the immune response is well documented, the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between N. caninum infection and activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) during the acute and chronic phase of infection. For that, tachyzoites of N. caninum (Nc-1 strain) were inoculated intraperitoneally in gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus), which were separated in two experiments, I and II, differing in infective doses of tachyzoites, aiming to reach an acute phase as well as chronic phase, respectively. Samples were collected on day 7 post infection (PI) for Experiment I and on days 15 and 30 PI for Experiment II. AChE activity was evaluated on whole blood and brain, while BChE was evaluated in plasma. On day 7 a reduction of AChE in total blood and brain was observed, along with reduction of BChE in plasma of infected animals when compared with non-infected. In Experiment II, AChE activity increased in total blood on day 30 PI; however, maintaining, during the same period, the AChE activity has a reduced in brain tissue. BChE activity was significantly increased on day 30 PI. Based on the results obtained, it was possible to observe a response of the cholinergic system, providing different grades of AChE and BChE activities, in response to the acute and chronic infection of gerbils experimentally infected with N. caninum. These results will serve as initial points to further studies of our research group about the relationship between the infection/disease and the cholinergic system.
ESTHER : Tonin_2013_Exp.Parasitol_135_669
PubMedSearch : Tonin_2013_Exp.Parasitol_135_669
PubMedID: 24140613

Title : Neuroprotective effect of anthocyanins on acetylcholinesterase activity and attenuation of scopolamine-induced amnesia in rats - Gutierres_2013_Int.J.Dev.Neurosci_33C_88
Author(s) : Gutierres JM , Carvalho FB , Schetinger MR , Agostinho P , Marisco PC , Vieira JM , Rosa MM , Bohnert C , Rubin MA , Morsch VM , Spanevello R , Mazzanti CM
Ref : Int J Developmental Neuroscience , 33C :88 , 2013
Abstract : Anthocyanins are a group of natural phenolic compounds responsible for the color to plants and fruits. These compounds might have beneficial effects on memory and have antioxidant properties. In the present study we have investigated the therapeutic efficacy of anthocyanins in an animal model of cognitive deficits, associated to Alzheimer's disease, induced by scopolamine. We evaluated whether anthocyanins protect the effects caused by SCO on nitrite/nitrate (NOx) levels and Na+,K+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus (of rats. We used 4 different groups of animals: control (CTRL), anthocyanins treated (ANT), scopolamine-challenged (SCO), and scopolamine+anthocyanins (SCO+ANT). After seven days of treatment with ANT (200mgkg-1; oral), the animals were SCO injected (1mgkg-1; IP) and were performed the behavior tests, and submitted to euthanasia. A memory deficit was found in SCO group, but ANT treatment prevented this impairment of memory (P<0.05). The ANT treatment per se had an anxiolytic effect. AChE activity was increased in both in cortex and hippocampus of SCO group, this effect was significantly attenuated by ANT (P<0.05). SCO decreased Na+,K+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase activities in hippocampus, and ANT was able to significantly (P<0.05) prevent these effects. No significant alteration was found on NOx levels among the groups. In conclusion, the ANT is able to regulate cholinergic neurotransmission and restore the Na+,K+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase activities, and also prevented memory deficits caused by scopolamine administration.
ESTHER : Gutierres_2013_Int.J.Dev.Neurosci_33C_88
PubMedSearch : Gutierres_2013_Int.J.Dev.Neurosci_33C_88
PubMedID: 24374256

Title : Neuroprotective effect of quercetin in ectoenzymes and acetylcholinesterase activities in cerebral cortex synaptosomes of cadmium-exposed rats - Abdalla_2013_Mol.Cell.Biochem_381_1
Author(s) : Abdalla FH , Cardoso AM , Pereira LB , Schmatz R , Goncalves JF , Stefanello N , Fiorenza AM , Gutierres JM , Serres JD , Zanini D , Pimentel VC , Vieira JM , Schetinger MR , Morsch VM , Mazzanti CM
Ref : Molecular & Cellular Biochemistry , 381 :1 , 2013
Abstract : This study investigated the effect of quercetin on nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTP-Dase), 50-nucleotidase, adenosine deaminase (ADA), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities in synaptosomes from cerebral cortex of adult rats exposed to cadmium (Cd). Rats were exposed to Cd (2.5 mg/Kg) and quercetin (5, 25 or 50 mg/Kg) by gavage for 45 days. Rats were randomly divided into eight groups (n = 8-10): saline/ethanol, saline/Querc 5 mg/kg, saline/Querc 25 mg/kg, saline/Querc 50 mg/kg, Cd/ethanol, Cd/Querc 5 mg/kg, Cd/Querc 25 mg/kg, and Cd/Querc 50 mg/kg. Results demonstrated that AChE activity increased in the Cd/ethanol group when compared to saline/ethanol group. Treatment with quercetin prevented the increase in AChE activity when compared to Cd/ethanol group. Quercetin treatment prevented the cadmium-induced increase in NTPDase, 5-nucleotidase, and ADA activities in Cd/ethanol group when compared to saline/ethanol group. Our data showed that quercetin have a protector effect against Cd intoxication. This way, is a promising candidate among the flavonoids to be investigated as a therapeutic agent to attenuate neurological disorders associated with Cd intoxication.
ESTHER : Abdalla_2013_Mol.Cell.Biochem_381_1
PubMedSearch : Abdalla_2013_Mol.Cell.Biochem_381_1
PubMedID: 23797318

Title : Ectoenzymes and cholinesterase activity and biomarkers of oxidative stress in patients with lung cancer - Zanini_2013_Mol.Cell.Biochem_374_137
Author(s) : Zanini D , Schmatz R , Pelinson LP , Pimentel VC , da Costa P , Cardoso AM , Martins CC , Schetinger CC , Baldissareli J , do Carmo Araujo M , Oliveira L , Chiesa J , Morsch VM , Leal DB , Schetinger MR
Ref : Molecular & Cellular Biochemistry , 374 :137 , 2013
Abstract : We aimed to examine the nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (NTPDase) in lymphocytes; adenosine deaminase (ADA) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) in serum; and acetylcholinesterase (AChE), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activity in whole blood; since these enzymes are involved in inflammation responses as well as in oxidative stress conditions. We also checked the levels of total thiols (T-SH), non-protein thiols (NPSH), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in serum of patients with lung cancer. We collected blood samples from patients (n = 31) previously treated for lung cancer with chemotherapy. Patients were classified as stage IIIb and IV according to the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC). The results showed a significant increase in the hydrolysis of ATP, ADP, and adenosine in patients when compared with the control group. The activity of AChE, SOD, and CAT as well as the T-SH and NPSH levels were higher in patients group and TBARS levels were lower in patients compared with the control group. These findings demonstrated that the enzymes activity involved in the control of inflammatory and immune processes as well as the oxidative stress parameters are altered in patients with lung cancer.
ESTHER : Zanini_2013_Mol.Cell.Biochem_374_137
PubMedSearch : Zanini_2013_Mol.Cell.Biochem_374_137
PubMedID: 23180243

Title : Toxicological effect of N, N, N', N'-tetramethylethylene on rat brain acetylcholinesterase - Ahmed_2012_Toxicol.Ind.Health_30_415
Author(s) : Ahmed M , Latif N , Khan RA , Ahmad A , Schetinger MR , Rocha JB
Ref : Toxicol Ind Health , 30 :415 , 2012
Abstract : N, N, N', N'-tetramethylethylenediamine (TEMED) is extensively used for initiating polymerization of acrylamide and bisacrylamide gel for electrophoresis and for inorganic complex structure formation. The present study evaluates the toxicological effect of TEMED on structures of rat brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. In vitro study showed that the Ki values for striatum, cortex, cerebellum and hypothalamus were found to be 1.24, 1.4, 1.45 and 1.47 mM. Kinetics studies indicated that TEMED caused mixed type of inhibition that is a combination of competitive and noncompetitive inhibition in striatum, cortex, hypothalamus and cerebellum. The result showed that km increased and V max decreased with increase in TEMED concentration. The IC50 values calculated for striatum, cortex, cerebellum and hypothalamus were found to be as 0.92, 0.92, 1.44 and 1.42 mM. The present study indicates that TEMED is a toxicant for brain via inhibition of AChE. Therefore, proper precaution should be made during its handling.
ESTHER : Ahmed_2012_Toxicol.Ind.Health_30_415
PubMedSearch : Ahmed_2012_Toxicol.Ind.Health_30_415
PubMedID: 22914266

Title : Hematological indices and activity of NTPDase and cholinesterase enzymes in rats exposed to cadmium and treated with N-acetylcysteine - Goncalves_2012_Biometals_25_1195
Author(s) : Goncalves JF , Duarte MM , Fiorenza AM , Spanevello RM , Mazzanti CM , Schmatz R , Bagatini MD , Antes FG , Costa P , Abdalla FH , Dressler VL , Morsch VM , Schetinger MR
Ref : Biometals , 25 :1195 , 2012
Abstract : The present study aimed to investigate the influence of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on cadmium (Cd) poisoning by evaluating Cd concentration in tissues, hematological indices as well as the activity of NTPDase, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) enzymes of rats exposed to Cd and co-treated with NAC. For this purpose, the rats received Cd (2 mg/kg) and NAC (150 mg/kg) by gavage every other day for 30 days. Animals were divided into four groups (n = 6-8): control/saline, NAC, Cd, and Cd/NAC. Cd exposure increased Cd concentration in plasma, spleen and thymus, and NAC co-treatment modulated this augment in both lymphoid organs. Cd exposure reduced red blood cell count, hemoglobin content and hematocrit value. Cd intoxication caused a decrease in total white blood cell count. NAC treatment per se caused an increase in lymphocyte and a decrease in neutrophil counts. On contrary, Cd exposure caused a decrease in lymphocyte and an increase in neutrophil and monocyte counts. NAC reversed or ameliorated the hematological impairments caused by Cd poisoning. There were no significant alterations in the NTPDase activity in lymphocytes of rats treated with Cd and/or NAC. Cd caused a decrease in the activities of lymphocyte AChE, whole blood AChE and serum BChE. However, NAC co-treatment was inefficient in counteracting the negative effect of Cd in the cholinesterase activities. The present investigation provides ex vivo evidence supporting the hypothesis that Cd induces immunotoxicity by interacting with the lymphoid organs, altering hematological parameters and inhibiting peripheral cholinesterase activity. Also, it highlights the possibility to use NAC as adjuvant against toxicological conditions.
ESTHER : Goncalves_2012_Biometals_25_1195
PubMedSearch : Goncalves_2012_Biometals_25_1195
PubMedID: 22991071

Title : Effects of caffeic acid on behavioral parameters and on the activity of acetylcholinesterase in different tissues from adult rats - Anwar_2012_Pharmacol.Biochem.Behav_103_386
Author(s) : Anwar J , Spanevello RM , Thome G , Stefanello N , Schmatz R , Gutierres J , Vieira J , Baldissarelli J , Carvalho FB , da Rosa MM , Rubin MA , Fiorenza A , Morsch VM , Schetinger MR
Ref : Pharmacol Biochem Behav , 103 :386 , 2012
Abstract : Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is distributed throughout the body in both neuronal and non-neuronal tissues and plays an important role in the regulation of physiological events. Caffeic acid is a phenolic compound that has anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties. The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro and in vivo whether caffeic acid alters the AChE activity and behavioral parameters in rats. In the in vitro study, the concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2mM of caffeic acid were used. For the in vivo study, five groups were evaluated: group I (control); group II (canola oil), group III (10mg/kg of caffeic acid); group IV (50mg/kg of caffeic acid) and group V (100mg/kg of caffeic acid). Caffeic acid was diluted in canola oil and administered for 30days. In vitro, the caffeic acid increased the AChE activity in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, hypothalamus, whole blood, and lymphocytes at different concentrations. In muscle, this compound caused an inhibition in the AChE activity at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2mM when compared to the control (P<0.05). In vivo, 50 and 100mg/kg of caffeic acid decreased the AChE activity in the cerebral cortex and striatum and increased the activity of this enzyme in the cerebellum, hippocampus, hypothalamus, pons, lymphocytes, and muscles when compared to the control group (P<0.05). The amount of 100mg/kg of caffeic acid improved the step-down latencies in the inhibitory avoidance. Our results demonstrated that caffeic acid improved memory and interfered with the cholinergic signaling. As a natural and promising compound caffeic acid should be considered potentially therapeutic in disorders that involve the cholinergic system.
ESTHER : Anwar_2012_Pharmacol.Biochem.Behav_103_386
PubMedSearch : Anwar_2012_Pharmacol.Biochem.Behav_103_386
PubMedID: 22982740

Title : Biochemistry detection of acetylcholinesterase activity in Trypanosoma evansi and possible functional correlations - Wolkmer_2012_Exp.Parasitol_132_546
Author(s) : Wolkmer P , da Silva CB , Paim FC , Da Silva AS , Tavares KC , Lazzarotto CR , Palma HE , Thome GR , Miletti LC , Schetinger MR , Lopes ST , Mazzanti CM
Ref : Experimental Parasitology , 132 :546 , 2012
Abstract : Several chemical and immunohistochemical techniques can be used for the detection of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. In this experiment we aimed to detect AChE activity in Trypanosoma evansi. For this, the parasites were isolated from the blood of experimentally infected rats using a DEA-cellulose column. Enzymatic activity was determined in trypomastigote forms at 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.2mg/mL of protein concentrations by a standard biochemical protocol. At all concentrations tested, the study showed that T. evansi expresses the enzyme AChE and its activity was proportional to the concentration of protein, ranging between 0.64 and 2.70mumol of AcSCh/h. Therefore, we concluded that it is possible to biochemically detect AChE in T. evansi, an enzyme that may be associated with vital functions of the parasite and also can be related to chemotherapy treatments, as further discussed in this article.
ESTHER : Wolkmer_2012_Exp.Parasitol_132_546
PubMedSearch : Wolkmer_2012_Exp.Parasitol_132_546
PubMedID: 22981718

Title : 17-beta estradiol in the acetylcholinesterase activity and lipid peroxidation in the brain and blood of ovariectomized adult and middle-aged rats - Martins_2012_Life.Sci_90_351
Author(s) : Martins DB , Mazzanti CM , Franca RT , Pagnoncelli M , Costa MM , de Souza EM , Goncalves J , Spanevello R , Schmatz R , da Costa P , Mazzanti A , Beckmann DV , Cecim Mda S , Schetinger MR , Lopes ST
Ref : Life Sciences , 90 :351 , 2012
Abstract : AIMS: To investigate the 17-beta estradiol in the acetylcholinesterase activity and lipid peroxidation in the brain and blood of ovariectomized rats of different ages. MAIN METHODS: Animals were randomly assigned into three experimental groups of each age (n=6). Control groups consisted of adult (sham-A) and middle-aged (sham-MA) female rats, ovariectomized adult (OVX-A) and middle-aged (OVX-MA) rats without estrogen therapy reposition, and ovariectomized adult (OVX+E2-A) and middle-aged (OVX+E2-MA) rats treated with 17-beta estradiol for 30days. After this period, AChE activity and lipid peroxidation were measured in the brain and blood. KEY FINDINGS: The AChE activity increased (p<0.05) in striatum (ST) in OVX-A, OVX+E2-A and OVX-MA, and hippocampus (HP) in OVX-MA. The enzyme activity decreased (p<0.05) in ST of OVX+E2-MA, and cerebral cortex (CC) in OVX+E2-A, OVX-MA and OVX+E2-MA. Blood AChE activity increased (p<0.05) in OVX+E2-A and decreased (p<0.05) in OVX-MA. Lymphocyte AChE activity increased (p<0.05) in OVX-A and OVX+E2-A and decreased (p<0.05) in OVX-MA. Lipid peroxidation increased (p<0.05) in ST of OVX-A, CC of OVX-A and OVX-MA, HP of OVX-A, and cerebellum (CE) of OVX-A, OVX-MA, and OVX+E2-MA. Lipid peroxidation decreased (p<0.05) in ST, CC and CE of OVX+E2-A, and ST and HP of OVX+E2-MA. Similar values of lipid peroxidation to control groups were found in ST and HP of OVX-MA, HP of OVX+E2-A and CC of OVX+E2-MA. SIGNIFICANCE: 17-beta estradiol is able to modulate the AChE activity and non-neuronal cholinergic response as well as to reduce lipid peroxidation. Its response is dependent on the age and brain structure analyzed.
ESTHER : Martins_2012_Life.Sci_90_351
PubMedSearch : Martins_2012_Life.Sci_90_351
PubMedID: 22227472

Title : Cholinesterase as inflammatory markers in a experimental infection by Trypanosoma evansi in rabbits - Costa_2012_An.Acad.Bras.Cienc_84_1105
Author(s) : Costa MM , Silva AS , Paim FC , Franca R , Dornelles GL , Thome GR , Serres JD , Schmatz R , Spanevello RM , Goncalves JF , Schetinger MR , Mazzanti CM , Lopes ST , Monteiro SG
Ref : An Acad Bras Cienc , 84 :1105 , 2012
Abstract : The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of cholinesterases as an inflammatory marker in acute and chronic infection by Trypanosoma evansi in rabbits experimentally infected. Twelve adult female New Zealand rabbits were used and divided into two groups with 6 animals each: control group (rabbits 1-6) and infected group (rabbits 7-12). Infected group received intraperitoneally 0.5 mL of blood from a rat containing 108 parasites per animal. Blood samples used for cholinesterases evaluation were collected on days 0, 2, 7, 12, 27, 42, 57, 87, 102 and 118 days post-inoculation (PI). Increased activity (P<0.05) of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were observed in the blood on days 7 and 27, respectively and no differences were observed in cholinesterase activity in other periods. No significant difference in AChE activity (P>0.05) was observed in the encephalic structures. The increased activities of AChE and BChE probably have a pro-inflammatory purpose, attempting to reduce the concentration of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter which has an anti-inflammatory property. Therefore, cholinesterase may be inflammatory markers in infection with T. evansi in rabbits.
ESTHER : Costa_2012_An.Acad.Bras.Cienc_84_1105
PubMedSearch : Costa_2012_An.Acad.Bras.Cienc_84_1105
PubMedID: 23011112

Title : Pre-treatment with curcumin modulates acetylcholinesterase activity and proinflammatory cytokines in rats infected with Trypanosoma evansi - Wolkmer_2012_Parasitol.Int_62_144
Author(s) : Wolkmer P , da Silva CB , Paim FC , Duarte MM , Castro V , Palma HE , Franca RT , Felin DV , Siqueira LC , Lopes ST , Schetinger MR , Monteiro SG , Mazzanti CM
Ref : Parasitol Int , 62 :144 , 2012
Abstract : The potent activity against Trypanosomes and health beneficial effects of curcumin (Cur) has been demonstrated in various experimental models. In this study, we evaluated the in vivo effect of Cur as trypanocide and as potential anti-inflammatory agent, through the evaluation of immunomodulatory mechanisms in rats infected with Trypanosoma evansi. Daily oral Cur was administered at doses of 0, 20 or 60mg/kg as preventive treatment (30 and 15days pre infection) and as treatment (post infection). The treatment of the groups continued until the day of euthanasia. Fifteen days after inoculation, parasitemia, plasma proinflammatory cytokines (IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-1, IL-6), anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10) and blood acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE) were analyzed. Pretreatment with Cur reduced parasitemia and lethality. Cur inhibited AChE activity and improved immunological response by cytokines proinflammatory, fundamental during T. evansi infection. We found that Cur is not so important as an antitrypanosomal activity but as immunomodulator agent. These findings reveal that the preventive use of Cur stimulates anti-inflammatory mechanisms, reducing an excessive inflammatory response.
ESTHER : Wolkmer_2012_Parasitol.Int_62_144
PubMedSearch : Wolkmer_2012_Parasitol.Int_62_144
PubMedID: 23200738

Title : Acetylcholinesterase activity and lipid peroxidation in the brain and spinal cord of rats infected with Trypanosoma evansi - da Silva_2011_Vet.Parasitol_175_237
Author(s) : Da Silva AS , Monteiro SG , Goncalves JF , Spanevello R , Oliveira CB , Costa MM , Jaques JA , Morsch VM , Schetinger MR , Mazzanti CM , Lopes ST
Ref : Vet Parasitol , 175 :237 , 2011
Abstract : Neurological and locomotor clinical signs are described in animals infected with Trypanosoma evansi. These disturbances may be related to changes in the amount of acetylcholine (neurotransmitter) in the synaptic cleft. Therefore, changes in acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and lipid peroxidation in brain and spinal cord of T. evansi-infected rats were investigated. Each rat was intraperitoneally infected with 10(6) trypomastigotes kept in fresh (group A; n=13) and cryopreserved blood (group B; n=13). Thirteen served as uninfected (not-infected; group C). In days 4 and 30 post-infection (PI) the rats were anesthetized and subsequently decapitated to obtain the brain and the spinal cord (between vertebrae L1 and S2). The brain was removed and dissected (cerebellum, cerebral cortex, striatum and hippocampus) to measure the activity of AChE and lipid peroxidation, determined by TBARS levels. To verify if T. evansi was present in the central nervous system (CNS), brain structures of three rats of each group were processed by PCR T. evansi-specific. AChE activity was significantly increased in all brain structures and decrease in spinal cord in infected rats in 4 PI (P<0.05). The levels of TBARS were decreased in the brain structures, differently from spinal cord, which showed increased lipid peroxidation in 4 PI. The AChE activity in striatum, cerebral cortex, hippocampus and spinal cord reduced concomitantly with the increase of the enzyme in cerebellum of the infected rats (P<0.05), and the TBARS levels increased in cerebellum, striatum and spinal cord of infected rats compared to non-infected animals in 30 PI. The PCR was positive for T. evansi in all structures of the brain, confirming the presence of the parasite in the CNS. Based on the results, we conclude that the changes in AChE activity and lipid peroxidation in the CNS are induced by infection with T. evansi, suggesting that the parasite interferes with the cholinergic neurotransmission in this experimental condition.
ESTHER : da Silva_2011_Vet.Parasitol_175_237
PubMedSearch : da Silva_2011_Vet.Parasitol_175_237
PubMedID: 21055876

Title : Trypanosoma evansi: immune response and acetylcholinesterase activity in lymphocytes from infected rats - Da Silva_2011_Exp.Parasitol_127_475
Author(s) : Da Silva AS , Monteiro SG , Goncalves JF , Spanevello R , Schmatz R , Oliveira CB , Costa MM , Franca RT , Jaques JA , Schetinger MR , Mazzanti CM , Lopes ST
Ref : Experimental Parasitology , 127 :475 , 2011
Abstract : The existence of cholinergic receptors in the immune system cells is well documented. This study aimed to evaluate the acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE) in lymphocytes from rats infected with Trypanosoma evansi in acute and chronic phase disease. Twenty animals were infected with 10(6) trypomastigotes forms each and 10 were used as negative controls. The two groups of inoculated rats were formed according to the degree of parasitemia and the period post-infection (PI). Group A: rats with 4 days PI and between 24 and 45 parasites/field (1000x); group B: rats with 30 days PI and parasitemia with jagged peaks between 0 and 1 parasites/field; group C: not-infected animals. At 4 days PI (acute phase) and 30 days PI (chronic phase) the rats were anesthetized to collect blood for hemogram and separation of lymphocytes. After separation, the AChE activity was measured in lymphocytes. It was observed that the number of lymphocytes increased significantly in group A compared to group C. The activity of AChE in lymphocytes significantly increased in acute phase and decreased in chronic phase in the infected rats when compared to not-infected (P<0.05). Statistical analysis showed a positive correlation between the number of lymphocytes and AChE activity in lymphocytes in 4 days PI (r(2): 0.59). Therefore, the infection by T. evansi influences AChE activity in lymphocytes of rats indicating changes in the responses of cholinergic system in acute phase, possibly due to immune functions performed by these enzymes.
ESTHER : Da Silva_2011_Exp.Parasitol_127_475
PubMedSearch : Da Silva_2011_Exp.Parasitol_127_475
PubMedID: 21036170

Title : The effect of curcumin in the ectonucleotidases and acetylcholinesterase activities in synaptosomes from the cerebral cortex of cigarette smoke-exposed rats - Jaques_2011_Cell.Biochem.Funct_29_703
Author(s) : Jaques JA , Rezer JF , Goncalves JF , Spanevello RM , Gutierres JM , Pimentel VC , Thome GR , Morsch VM , Schetinger MR , Leal DB
Ref : Cell Biochemistry & Function , 29 :703 , 2011
Abstract : With the evidence that curcumin may be a potent neuroprotective agent and that cigarette smoke is associated with a decline in the cognitive performance as our bases, we investigated the activities of Ecto-Nucleoside Triphosphate Diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase), 5'-nucleotidase and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in cerebral cortex synaptosomes from cigarette smoke-exposed rats treated with curcumin (Cur). The experimental procedures entailed two sets of experiments. In the first set, the groups were vehicle, Cur 12.5, 25 and 50 mg.kg(-1) ; those in the second set were vehicle, smoke, smoke and Cur 12.5, 25 and 50 mg.kg(-1) . Curcumin prevented the increased NTPDase, 5'-nucleotidase and AChE activities caused by smoke exposure. We suggest that treatment with Cur was protective because the decrease of ATP and acetylcholine (ACh) concentrations is responsible for cognitive impairment, and both ATP and ACh have key roles in neurotransmission.
ESTHER : Jaques_2011_Cell.Biochem.Funct_29_703
PubMedSearch : Jaques_2011_Cell.Biochem.Funct_29_703
PubMedID: 21932293

Title : Vitamin E decreased the activity of acetylcholinesterase and level of lipid peroxidation in brain of rats exposed to aged and diluted sidestream smoke - Thome_2011_Nicotine.Tob.Res_13_1210
Author(s) : Thome GR , Spanevello RM , Mazzanti A , Fiorenza AM , Duarte MM , da Luz SC , Pereira ME , Morsch VM , Schetinger MR , Mazzanti CM
Ref : Nicotine Tob Res , 13 :1210 , 2011
Abstract : INTRODUCTION: The biological systems of both smoker and passive smoking suffer changes caused by toxic compounds from cigarette smoke such as inflammation, lipid peroxidation, and deficiency of vitamin E. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of vitamin E on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and the lipid peroxidation level in the brain of rats in the model of exposure to aged and diluted sidestream smoke (ADSS). METHODS: Adult male Wistar rats (200-300 g) were exposed to ADSS for 4 weeks and treated with vitamin E (50 mg/kg/day) loaded by gavage. In the first, second, third, and fourth weeks, animals were concomitantly exposed to the smoke of 1, 2, 3, and 4 cigarettes/day, respectively. The duration of each exposure was 15 min, daily. RESULTS: For rats exposed to ADSS, the AChE activity and lipid peroxidation level increased in the striatum, cerebral cortex, and cerebellum. In contrast, the activity of AChE and the level of lipid peroxidation decreased in the smoke group treated with vitamin E. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the rats exposed to ADSS and treated with vitamin E significantly reduced the raised activity of AChE and level lipid peroxidation from the brain structures studied. The study, therefore, concludes that vitamin E could be considered as a therapeutic agent in this type of exposure.
ESTHER : Thome_2011_Nicotine.Tob.Res_13_1210
PubMedSearch : Thome_2011_Nicotine.Tob.Res_13_1210
PubMedID: 21896885

Title : Influence of Trypanosoma evansi in blood, plasma, and brain cholinesterase of experimentally infected cats - Da Silva_2010_Res.Vet.Sci_88_281
Author(s) : Da Silva AS , Spanevello R , Stefanello N , Wolkmer P , Costa MM , Zanette RA , Lopes ST , Santurio JM , Schetinger MR , Monteiro SG
Ref : Res Vet Sci , 88 :281 , 2010
Abstract : Changes in blood, plasma and brain cholinesterase activities in Trypanosoma evansi-infected cats were investigated. Seven animals were infected with 10(8) trypomastigote forms each and six were used as control. Animals were monitored for 56 days by examining daily blood smears. Blood samples were collected at days 28 and 56 post-inoculation to determine the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in blood and the activity of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) in plasma. AChE was also evaluated in total brain. The activity of AChE in blood and brain, and the activity of BChE in plasma significantly reduced in the infected cats. Therefore, the infection by T. evansi influenced cholinesterases of felines indicating changes in the responses of the cholinergic system.
ESTHER : Da Silva_2010_Res.Vet.Sci_88_281
PubMedSearch : Da Silva_2010_Res.Vet.Sci_88_281
PubMedID: 19781725

Title : N-acetylcysteine prevents memory deficits, the decrease in acetylcholinesterase activity and oxidative stress in rats exposed to cadmium - Goncalves_2010_Chem.Biol.Interact_186_53
Author(s) : Goncalves JF , Fiorenza AM , Spanevello RM , Mazzanti CM , Bochi GV , Antes FG , Stefanello N , Rubin MA , Dressler VL , Morsch VM , Schetinger MR
Ref : Chemico-Biological Interactions , 186 :53 , 2010
Abstract : The present study investigated the effect of the administration of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), on memory, on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and on lipid peroxidation in different brain structures in cadmium (Cd)-exposed rats. The rats received Cd (2 mg/kg) and NAC (150 mg/kg) by gavage every other day for 30 days. The animals were divided into four groups (n=12-13): control/saline, NAC, Cd, and Cd/NAC. The results showed a decrease in step-down latency in the Cd-group, but NAC reversed the impairment of memory induced by Cd intoxication. Rats exposed to Cd and/or treated with NAC did not demonstrate altered shock sensitivity. Decreased AChE activity was found in hippocampus, cerebellum and hypothalamus in the Cd-group but NAC reversed this effect totally or partially while in cortex synaptosomes and striatum there was no alteration in AChE activity. An increase in TBARS levels was found in hippocampus, cerebellum and hypothalamus in the Cd-group and NAC abolished this effect while in striatum there was no alteration in TBARS levels. Urea and creatinine levels were increased in serum of Cd-intoxicated rats, but NAC was able to abolish these undesirable effects. The present findings show that treatment with NAC prevented the Cd-mediated decrease in AChE activity, as well as oxidative stress and consequent memory impairment in Cd-exposed rats, demonstrating that this compound may modulate cholinergic neurotransmission and consequently improve cognition. However, it is necessary to note that the mild renal failure may be a contributor to the behavioral impairment found in this investigation.
ESTHER : Goncalves_2010_Chem.Biol.Interact_186_53
PubMedSearch : Goncalves_2010_Chem.Biol.Interact_186_53
PubMedID: 20399762

Title : Changes in acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity in lymphocytes and whole blood in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients - Battisti_2009_Clin.Chim.Acta_402_114
Author(s) : Battisti V , Schetinger MR , Maders LD , Santos KF , Bagatini MD , Correa MC , Spanevello RM , do Carmo Araujo M , Morsch VM
Ref : Clinica Chimica Acta , 402 :114 , 2009
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a type of cancer that affects lymphocytes and it is the most common form of cancer in children. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is well known as having non-cholinergic functions and has been detected in the blood and plasma of humans including in lymphocytes. Thus, we investigated whole blood and lymphocyte AChE activity in patients with ALL.
METHODS: This study was performed on 72 children with ALL divided into 4 groups: newly diagnosed, remission induction, remission maintenance and out-of-treatment and one control group of 50 healthy subjects. We determined AChE activity in whole blood and lymphocytes of these patients.
RESULTS: Results demonstrated that whole blood AChE activity was enhanced in the newly diagnosed group and reduced in the remission induction and remission maintenance groups in relation to the control group. For lymphocyte AChE activity we found an increase in the newly diagnosed group and a decrease in the remission induction group in relation to the control. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that AChE activity was altered in ALL patients. This fact may be related with the essential role played by AChE in the development of hematological disease and its contribution to the regulation of immune function.
ESTHER : Battisti_2009_Clin.Chim.Acta_402_114
PubMedSearch : Battisti_2009_Clin.Chim.Acta_402_114
PubMedID: 19185568

Title : Ectonucleotidase and acetylcholinesterase activities in synaptosomes from the cerebral cortex of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and treated with resveratrol - Schmatz_2009_Brain.Res.Bull_80_371
Author(s) : Schmatz R , Mazzanti CM , Spanevello R , Stefanello N , Gutierres J , Maldonado PA , Correa M , da Rosa CS , Becker L , Bagatini M , Goncalves JF , Jaques Jdos S , Schetinger MR , Morsch VM
Ref : Brain Research Bulletin , 80 :371 , 2009
Abstract : The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of resveratrol (RV), an important neuroprotective compound on NTPDase, 5'-nucleotidase and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities in cerebral cortex synaptosomes of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The animals were divided into six groups (n=8): control/saline; control/RV 10mg/kg; control/RV 20mg/kg; diabetic/saline; diabetic/RV 10mg/kg; diabetic/RV 20mg/kg. After 30 days of treatment with resveratrol the animals were sacrificed and the cerebral cortex was removed for synaptosomes preparation and enzymatic assays. The results demonstrated that NTPDase and 5'-nucleotidase activities were significantly increased in the diabetic/saline group (p<0.05) compared to control/saline group. Treatment with resveratrol significantly increased NTPDase, 5'-nucleotidase activities in the diabetic/RV10 and diabetic/RV20 groups (p<0.05) compared to diabetic/saline group. When resveratrol was administered per se there was also an increase in the activities of these enzymes in the control/RV10 and control/RV20 groups (p<0.05) compared to control/saline group. AChE activity was significantly increased in the diabetic/saline group (p<0.05) compared to control/saline group. The treatment with resveratrol prevented this increase in the diabetic/RV10 and diabetic/RV20 groups. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the resveratrol interfere with the purinergic and cholinergic neurotransmission by altering NTPDase, 5'-nucleotidase and AChE activities in cerebral cortex synaptosomes of diabetic rats. In this context, we can suggest that resveratrol should be considered potential therapeutics and scientific tools to be investigated in brain disorders associated with the diabetes.
ESTHER : Schmatz_2009_Brain.Res.Bull_80_371
PubMedSearch : Schmatz_2009_Brain.Res.Bull_80_371
PubMedID: 19723569

Title : Pre-treatment with ebselen and vitamin E modulate acetylcholinesterase activity: interaction with demyelinating agents - Mazzanti_2009_Int.J.Dev.Neurosci_27_73
Author(s) : Mazzanti CM , Spanevello R , Ahmed M , Pereira LB , Goncalves JF , Correa M , Schmatz R , Stefanello N , Leal DB , Mazzanti A , Ramos AT , Martins TB , Danesi CC , Graca DL , Morsch VM , Schetinger MR
Ref : Int J Developmental Neuroscience , 27 :73 , 2009
Abstract : The ethidium bromide (EB) demyelinating model was associated with vitamin E (Vit E) and ebselen (Ebs) treatment to evaluate acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the striatum (ST), hippocampus (HP), cerebral cortex (CC) and erythrocytes. Rats were divided into seven groups: I-Control (saline), II-(canola); III-(Ebs), IV-(Vit E); V-(EB); VI-(EB+Ebs) and VII-(EB+Vit E). At 3 days after the EB injection, AChE activity in the CC and HC was significantly reduced in groups III, IV, V, VI and VII (p<0.05) and in the ST it was reduced in groups III and V (p<0.05) when compared to the control group. At 21 days after the EB injection, AChE activity in the CC was significantly reduced in groups III, IV and V, while in groups VI and VII a significant increase was observed when compared to the control group. In the HC and ST, AChE activity was significantly reduced in groups V, VI and VII when compared to the control group (p<0.05). In the erythrocytes, at 3 days after the EB injection, AChE activity was significantly reduced in groups III, IV, V, VI and VII and at 21 days there was a significant reduction only in groups VI and VII (p<0.05) when compared to the control group. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that Ebs and Vit E interfere with the cholinergic neurotransmission by altering AChE activity in the different brain regions and in the erythrocytes. Furthermore, treatment with Vit E and Ebs protected against the demyelination lesion caused by EB. In this context, we can suggest that ebselen and Vit E should be considered potential therapeutics and scientific tools to be investigated in brain disorders associated with demyelinating events.
ESTHER : Mazzanti_2009_Int.J.Dev.Neurosci_27_73
PubMedSearch : Mazzanti_2009_Int.J.Dev.Neurosci_27_73
PubMedID: 18930802

Title : Effect of long-term exposure to aluminum on the acetylcholinesterase activity in the central nervous system and erythrocytes - Kaizer_2008_Neurochem.Res_33_2294
Author(s) : Kaizer RR , Correa MC , Gris LR , da Rosa CS , Bohrer D , Morsch VM , Schetinger MR
Ref : Neurochem Res , 33 :2294 , 2008
Abstract : Aluminum (Al), a neurotoxic agent, has been associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is characterized by cholinergic dysfunction in the central nervous system. In this study, we evaluated the effect of long-term exposure to aluminum on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the central nervous system in different brain regions, in synaptosomes of the cerebral cortex and in erythrocytes. The animals were loaded by gavage with AlCl(3) 50 mg/kg/day, 5 days per week, totalizing 60 administrations. Rats were divided into four groups: (1) control (C); (2) 50 mg/kg of citrate solution (Ci); (3) 50 mg/kg of Al plus citrate (Al + Ci), and (4) 50 mg/kg of Al (Al). AChE activity in striatum was increased by 15% for Ci, 19% for Al + Ci and 30% for Al, when compared to control (P < 0.05). The activity in hypothalamus increased 23% for Ci, 26% for Al + Ci and 28% for Al, when compared to control (P < 0.05). AChE activity in cerebellum, hippocampus and cerebral cortex was decreased by 11%, 23% and 21% respectively, for Al, when compared to the respective controls (P < 0.05). AChE activity in synaptosomes was increased by 14% for Al, when compared to control (P < 0.05). Erythrocyte AChE activity was increased by 17% for Al + Ci and 11% for Al, when compared to control (P < 0.05). These results indicate that Al affects at the same way AChE activity in the central nervous system and erythrocyte. AChE activity in erythrocytes may be considered a marker of easy access of the central cholinergic status.
ESTHER : Kaizer_2008_Neurochem.Res_33_2294
PubMedSearch : Kaizer_2008_Neurochem.Res_33_2294
PubMedID: 18470612

Title : Oxidative stress and erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in hypertensive and ischemic patients of both acute and chronic stages - Correa_2008_Biomed.Pharmacother_62_317
Author(s) : Correa Mde C , Maldonado P , da Rosa CS , Lunkes G , Lunkes DS , Kaizer RR , Ahmed M , Morsch VM , Pereira ME , Schetinger MR
Ref : Biomed Pharmacother , 62 :317 , 2008
Abstract : Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of mortality and disability particularly in the elderly. Hypertension is the most important risk factor in strokes, representing roughly 70% of all cases. Oxidative stress is believed to be one of the mechanisms taking part in neuronal damage in stroke. It is well documented that cholinergic system plays a key role in normal brain functions and in memory disturbances of several pathological processes, such as in cerebral blood flow regulation. This study investigated the oxidative status and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in whole blood in patients diagnosed with acute and chronic stages of ischemia, as well as with hypertension. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and protein carbonylation content showed increased levels both in the acute ischemic groups and in the hypertensive group, when compared to the control. Catalase activity and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in the acute group were also higher than in the hypertensive, chronic ischemic and control groups (p<0.05). The activity of AChE in acute ischemic patients was significantly higher than that presented by the control, hypertensive and chronic ischemic patients (p<0.05). The hypertensive group presented AChE activity significantly lower than control and chronic groups. In spite of having a defined location the ischemic event results in a systemic disorder that induces changes, which can be detected by measuring the peripheral markers of oxidative stress and AChE activity in erythrocytes.
ESTHER : Correa_2008_Biomed.Pharmacother_62_317
PubMedSearch : Correa_2008_Biomed.Pharmacother_62_317
PubMedID: 18031975

Title : Effects in vitro of guanidinoacetate on adenine nucleotide hydrolysis and acetylcholinesterase activity in tissues from adult rats - Spanevello_2008_Neurochem.Res_33_1129
Author(s) : Spanevello RM , de Souza Wyse AT , Mazzanti CM , Schmatz R , Stefanello N , Goncalves JF , Bagatini M , Battisti V , Morsch VM , Schetinger MR
Ref : Neurochem Res , 33 :1129 , 2008
Abstract : Guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) deficiency is a disorder of creatine metabolism characterized by low plasma creatine concentrations in combination with elevated guanidinoacetate (GAA) concentrations. The aim of this work was to investigate the in vitro effect of guanidinoacetate in NTPDase, 5'-nucleotidase and acetylcholinesterase activities in the synaptosomes, platelets and blood of rats. The results showed that in synaptosomes the NTPDase and 5'-nucleotidase activities were inhibited significantly in the presence of GAA at concentrations of 50, 100, 150 and 200 microM (P < 0.05). However, in platelets GAA at the same concentrations caused a significant increase in the activities of these two enzymes (P < 0.05). In relation to the acetylcholinesterase activity, GAA caused a significant inhibition in the activity of this enzyme in blood at concentrations of 150 and 200 microM (P < 0.05), but did not alter the acetylcholinesterase activity in synaptosomes from the cerebral cortex. Our results suggest that alterations caused by GAA in the activities of these enzymes may contribute to the understanding of the neurological dysfunction of GAMT-deficient patients.
ESTHER : Spanevello_2008_Neurochem.Res_33_1129
PubMedSearch : Spanevello_2008_Neurochem.Res_33_1129
PubMedID: 18256932

Title : Biochemical effects of clomazone herbicide on piava (Leporinus obtusidens) - Miron_2008_Chemosphere_74_1
Author(s) : Miron Ddos S , Pretto A , Crestani M , Glusczak L , Schetinger MR , Loro VL , Morsch VM
Ref : Chemosphere , 74 :1 , 2008
Abstract : This study aims to verify the effects of the clomazone concentration used in rice fields on acetylcholinesterase (AChE), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein carbonyl and catalase activity in tissues of piava (Leporinus obtusidens). LC(50)-96h was 5.0 mg L(-1) and the fish were exposed to 1/10 of LC(50)-96 h: 0.5 mg L(-1) of clomazone for 96 and 192h. The same parameters were also assayed after a recovery period of 192 h in clean water. AChE activity was reduced only in the brain and heart of fish exposed for 96 h. AChE activity was decreased in the brain, muscle and heart tissues after 192 h of exposure. After 192 h of recovery period, AChE activity remained diminished in brain and muscle and showed a decrease in eye. However, after 192 h of recovery, AChE activity in heart was recovered. Fish showed increased TBARS levels in brain at all experimental periods. TBARS levels decreased in liver and muscle tissues after 192 h of exposure. The increase in muscle TBARS persisted in fish transferred to clean water. Protein carbonyl in the liver was increased in all periods studied including the recovery period. Catalase activity was reduced during all periods. The present study demonstrates the occurrence of disorders in AChE, TBARS, protein carbonyl and catalase activity in piava. The results also show changes in fish after exposure to an environmentally relevant concentration of clomazone. Most effects observed persisted after the recovery period. Thus, these parameters may be used to monitor clomazone toxicity in fish.
ESTHER : Miron_2008_Chemosphere_74_1
PubMedSearch : Miron_2008_Chemosphere_74_1
PubMedID: 18990427

Title : Comparative study of the inhibitory effect of antidepressants on cholinesterase activity in Bungarus sindanus (krait) venom, human serum and rat striatum - Ahmed_2008_J.Enzyme.Inhib.Med.Chem_23_912
Author(s) : Ahmed M , Batista J , Rocha T , Mazzanti CM , Hassan W , Morsch VM , Loro VL , Thome G , Schetinger MR
Ref : J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem , 23 :912 , 2008
Abstract : Cholinesterases are divided into two classes based on differences in their substrate specificity and tissue distribution: acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). These enzymes may be inhibited by several compounds, such as antidepressants. The antidepressants paroxetine, imipramine, clomipramine and sertraline inhibited both venom AChE as well as human serum BChE in a concentration-dependent manner but had no effect on AChE in the rat brain striatum. The IC(50) of venom calculated for imipramine was 0.3 mM, paroxetine 0.38 mM, clomipramine 0.34 mM and sertraline 0.35 mM. Analysis of kinetic data indicated that the inhibition caused by sertraline and paroxetine was mixed, i.e. K(m) values increased and V(max) decreased in a concentration dependent manner. Imipramine and clomipramine exhibited competitive inhibition, i.e. K(m) values increased and V(max) remained constant. The present results suggest that these therapeutic agents used for depression can also be considered as inhibitors of snake venom and human serum cholinesterase.
ESTHER : Ahmed_2008_J.Enzyme.Inhib.Med.Chem_23_912
PubMedSearch : Ahmed_2008_J.Enzyme.Inhib.Med.Chem_23_912
PubMedID: 18608756

Title : Acute and subacute exposure to malathion impairs aversive but not non-associative memory in rats - Valvassori_2007_Neurotox.Res_12_71
Author(s) : Valvassori SS , Fortunato JJ , Gomes KM , Reus GZ , Martins MR , Gavioli EC , Schetinger MR , Dal-Pizzol F , Quevedo J
Ref : Neurotox Res , 12 :71 , 2007
Abstract : Malathion [S-(1,2-dicarbethoxy) ethyl-0,0-dimethyl-phosphorodithioate] is an organophosphorus compound that is widely used as pesticide especially in developing countries. This pesticide affects the central nervous system by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase, leading to an increase of acetylcholine in the synaptic cleft, and subsequent activation of cholinergic muscarinic and nicotinic receptors. In humans, intoxication with organophosphates causes a wide range of neurological symptoms, including memory deficits. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of the acute (1 h prior the test) and subacute (once a day for 28 days) exposure to malathion at doses of 25, 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg in rats tested in the step-down inhibitory avoidance task, open-field habituation and elevated plus-maze tests. Interestingly, the acute and subacute treatment with malathion impaired aversive-memory in the step-down inhibitory avoidance task, but did not alter the animal performance in the elevated plus-maze and in the habituation to the open-field tests, and neither modified spontaneous locomotion. The activity of acetylcholinesterase enzyme was significantly reduced after subacute, but not acute, treatment with malathion (25, 100 and 150 mg/kg). Our results suggest that malathion impairs aversive-memory retention but not non-associative memory, without affecting anxiety-related behaviors. These findings support the view that the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase enzyme is not correlated with cognitive deficits observed in acute and subacute malathion-treated rats.
ESTHER : Valvassori_2007_Neurotox.Res_12_71
PubMedSearch : Valvassori_2007_Neurotox.Res_12_71
PubMedID: 17513201

Title : Malathion, carbofuran and paraquat inhibit Bungarus sindanus (krait) venom acetylcholinesterase and human serum butyrylcholinesterase in vitro - Ahmed_2007_Ecotoxicology_16_363
Author(s) : Ahmed M , Rocha JB , Mazzanti CM , Morsch AL , Cargnelutti D , Correa M , Loro V , Morsch VM , Schetinger MR
Ref : Ecotoxicology , 16 :363 , 2007
Abstract : Carbofuran and malathion, well known pesticides, and paraquat, a world widely used herbicide, were tested on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) from Bungarus sindanus venom and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) from human serum. The calculated IC(50 )values for inhibition of venom enzyme by malathion, carbofuran and paraquat were 2.5, 0.14, and 0.16 microM, respectively. The values for inhibition of serum butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) were 3.5, 0.09 and 0.18 microM, respectively. Analysis of kinetic data indicated that the inhibition caused by malathion, carbofuran and paraquat was mixed for venom AChE. For BChE from human serum, the inhibition caused by malathion and paraquat was mixed and for carbofuran it was uncompetitive. The present results suggest a commercial paraquat preparation (a popular herbicide) inhibits cholinesterases with similar or higher potency than classical pesticide inhibitors. Furthermore, this inhibition was observed both in human serum and snake venom, a newly studied source of AChE.
ESTHER : Ahmed_2007_Ecotoxicology_16_363
PubMedSearch : Ahmed_2007_Ecotoxicology_16_363
PubMedID: 17364237

Title : Cyclosporine A inhibits acetylcholinesterase activity in rats experimentally demyelinated with ethidium bromide - Mazzanti_2007_Int.J.Dev.Neurosci_25_259
Author(s) : Mazzanti CM , Spanevello R , Ahmed M , Schmatz R , Mazzanti A , Salbego FZ , Graca DL , Sallis ES , Morsch VM , Schetinger MR
Ref : Int J Developmental Neuroscience , 25 :259 , 2007
Abstract : Cyclosporine A is the major immunosuppressive agent used for organ transplantation and for the treatment of a variety of autoimmune disorders such as multiple sclerosis. In this work, we investigated the effect of the cyclosporine A on the acetylcholinesterase activity in the cerebral cortex, striatum, hippocampus, hypothalamus, cerebellum and pons of the rats experimentally demyelinated by ethidium bromide. Rats were divided into four groups: I control (injected with saline), II (treated with cyclosporine A), III (injected with 0.1% ethidium bromide) and IV (injected with 0.1% the ethidium bromide and treated with cyclosporine A). The results showed a significant inhibition (p<0.05) of acetylcholinesterase activity in the groups II, III and IV in all brain structures analyzed. In the striatum, hippocampus, hypothalamus and pons the inhibition was greater (p<0.005) when ethidium bromide was associated with cyclosporine A. In conclusion, the present investigation demonstrated that cyclosporine A is an inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase activity and this effect is increased after an event of toxic demyelination of the central nervous system.
ESTHER : Mazzanti_2007_Int.J.Dev.Neurosci_25_259
PubMedSearch : Mazzanti_2007_Int.J.Dev.Neurosci_25_259
PubMedID: 17467222

Title : Inhibition of two different cholinesterases by tacrine - Ahmed_2006_Chem.Biol.Interact_162_165
Author(s) : Ahmed M , Rocha JB , Correa M , Mazzanti CM , Zanin RF , Morsch AL , Morsch VM , Schetinger MR
Ref : Chemico-Biological Interactions , 162 :165 , 2006
Abstract : Kinetic parameters of the effect of tacrine as a cholinesterase inhibitor have been studied in two different sources: snake venom (Bungarus sindanus) acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and human serum butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). Tacrine inhibited both venom acetylcholinesterase (AChE) as well as human serum butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) in a concentration-dependent manner. Kinetic studies indicated that the nature of inhibition was mixed for both enzymes, i.e. Km values increase and Vmax decrease with the increase of the tacrine concentration. The calculated IC50 for snake venom and for human serum were 31 and 25.6 nM, respectively. Ki was observed to be 13 nM for venom acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and 12 nM for serum butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). KI (constant of AChE-ASCh-tacrine complex into AChE-ASCh complex and tacrine) was estimated to be 20 nM for venom and 10 nM for serum butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), while the gammaKm (dissociation constant of AChE-ASCh-tacrine complex into AChE-tacrine complex and ASCh) were 0.086 and 0.147 mM for snake venom AChE and serum BChE, respectively. The present results suggest that this therapeutic agent used for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease can also be considered an inhibitor of snake venom and human serum butyrylcholinesterase. Values of Ki and KI show that tacrine had more affinity with these enzymes as compared with other cholinesterases from the literature.
ESTHER : Ahmed_2006_Chem.Biol.Interact_162_165
PubMedSearch : Ahmed_2006_Chem.Biol.Interact_162_165
PubMedID: 16860785

Title : Acetylcholinesterase activity in rats experimentally demyelinated with ethidium bromide and treated with interferon beta - Mazzanti_2006_Neurochem.Res_31_1027
Author(s) : Mazzanti CM , Spanevello RM , Pereira LB , Goncalves JF , Kaizer R , Correa M , Ahmed M , Mazzanti A , Festugatto R , Graca DL , Morsch VM , Schetinger MR
Ref : Neurochem Res , 31 :1027 , 2006
Abstract : The ethidium bromide (EB) demyelinating model was associated with interferon beta (IFN-beta) to evaluate acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the striatum (ST), hippocampus (HP), cerebral cortex (CC), cerebellum (CB), hypothalamus (HY), pons (PN) and synaptosomes from the CC. Rats were divided into four groups: I control (saline), II (IFN-beta), III (EB) and IV (EB and IFN-beta). After 7, 15 and 30 days rats (n = 6) were sacrificed, and the brain structures were removed for enzymatic assay. AChE activity was found to vary in all the brain structures in accordance with the day studied (7-15-30 days) (P < 0.05). In the group III, there was an inhibition of the AChE activity in the ST, CB, HY, HP and also in synaptosomes of the CC (P < 0.05). It was observed that IFN-beta per se was capable to significantly inhibit (P < 0.05) AChE activity in the ST, HP, HY and synaptosomes of the CC. Our results suggest that one of the mechanisms of action of IFN-beta is through the inhibition of AChE activity, and EB could be considered an inhibitor of AChE activity by interfering with cholinergic neurotransmission in the different brain regions.
ESTHER : Mazzanti_2006_Neurochem.Res_31_1027
PubMedSearch : Mazzanti_2006_Neurochem.Res_31_1027
PubMedID: 16871442

Title : Ethidium bromide inhibits rat brain acetylcholinesterase activity in vitro - Mazzanti_2006_Chem.Biol.Interact_162_121
Author(s) : Mazzanti CM , Spanevello RM , Obregon A , Pereira LB , Streher CA , Ahmed M , Mazzanti A , Graca DL , Morsch VM , Schetinger MR
Ref : Chemico-Biological Interactions , 162 :121 , 2006
Abstract : Ethidium bromide (EtBr), a fluorescent dark red compound and stain for double-stranded DNA and RNA was used to study acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in vitro together with kinetic parameters of this enzyme in the striatum (ST), hippocampus (HP), cerebral cortex (CC) and cerebellum (CB) of adult rats. AChE activity in vitro in the ST, HP, CC and CB was significantly reduced (p<0.05) in the presence of EtBr at concentrations of 0.00625, 0.0125, 0.025, 0.05 and 0.1 mM. For the analysis of the kinetic three concentrations of EtBr were tested (0.00625, 0.025 and 0.1 mM). An uncompetitive inhibition type was observed in the ST, HP and CC, whereas in the CB the inhibition type was mixed. These data indicate that EtBr should be considered a strong inhibitor of AChE activity demonstrating that there is an interaction between this compound and the cholinergic system.
ESTHER : Mazzanti_2006_Chem.Biol.Interact_162_121
PubMedSearch : Mazzanti_2006_Chem.Biol.Interact_162_121
PubMedID: 16839531

Title : Inhibition of NTPDase, 5'-nucleotidase, Na+\/K+-ATPase and acetylcholinesterase activities by subchronic treatment with Casearia sylvestris - da Silva_2006_Phytomedicine_13_509
Author(s) : da Silva AC , Balz D , de Souza JB , Morsch VM , Correa MC , Zanetti GD , Manfron MP , Schetinger MR
Ref : Phytomedicine , 13 :509 , 2006
Abstract : The aqueous extract of Casearia sylvestris was tested in cortical membrane preparations. C. sylvestris was obtained commercially from two different sources, designated as Sample A and Sample B. The enzymes studied in this work were NTPDase-like, 5'-Nucleotidase, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Adult rats received aqueous extracts from C. sylvestris in a dose of 20mg/kg body wt. daily for a 75-day-period, by oral administration (gavage). Our study showed that this treatment caused an inhibition of NTPDase-like activity with both, ATP (19.41% with Sample A and 25.03% with Sample B) and ADP (41.57% with Sample A and 31.20% with Sample B) as substrates. This treatment also caused an inhibition of 5'-nucleotidase activity (28.34% with Sample A and 31.46% with Sample B) and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (25.08% with Sample A and 24.81% with Sample B). The rate of acetylcholine degradation was reduced, as shown by the inhibition of AChE (31.65% and 26.74%, Samples A and B, respectively). These results suggest that extracts of C. sylvestris can cause neurochemical alterations in the purinergic and cholinergic systems of the central nervous system.
ESTHER : da Silva_2006_Phytomedicine_13_509
PubMedSearch : da Silva_2006_Phytomedicine_13_509
PubMedID: 16785042

Title : Serum cholinesterase activity in diabetes and associated pathologies - Inacio_2006_Diabetes.Res.Clin.Pract_72_28
Author(s) : Inacio Lunkes G , Stefanello F , Sausen Lunkes D , Maria Morsch V , Schetinger MR , Goncalves JF
Ref : Diabetes Res Clin Pract , 72 :28 , 2006
Abstract : Serum cholinesterase activity was measured in diabetes, hypertensive and diabetic/hypertensive patients. The sample consisted of volunteer patients and was divided in a control group (n=26), type 2 diabetic group (n=16), hypertensive group (n=12) and type 2 diabetic/hypertensive group (n=26). In addition, blood glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride levels were determined. Serum cholinesterase activity in the control group was significantly lower in relation to the other groups (p<0.001). Blood glucose levels were elevated in type 2 diabetic and type 2 diabetic/hypertensive groups. In vitro studies showed increased cholinesterase activity in the presence of glucose 5-100mM or insulin 0.5-25 UI (p<0.001). Cholesterol and triglycerides were at normal levels only in the control group. Possibly, a relationship exists between the increase in serum cholinesterase and the vascular complications in the diabetic patients, potentially stimulated by the levels of glycemia and dyslipidemia. Although patients were receiving different medicines, the increase in enzyme activity was similar in all groups. This enzymatic profile suggests a possible interference of the diseases in the catalytic mechanism of the serum cholinesterase enzyme.
ESTHER : Inacio_2006_Diabetes.Res.Clin.Pract_72_28
PubMedSearch : Inacio_2006_Diabetes.Res.Clin.Pract_72_28
PubMedID: 16233931

Title : Influence of malathion on acetylcholinesterase activity in rats submitted to a forced swimming test - Ramos_2006_Neurotox.Res_9_285
Author(s) : Ramos ZR , Fortunato JJ , Agostinho FR , Martins MR , Correa M , Schetinger MR , Dal-Pizzol F , Quevedo J
Ref : Neurotox Res , 9 :285 , 2006
Abstract : The organophosphorus insecticides, including malathion, are used indiscriminately in large amounts, causing environmental pollution and risk to human health. Classically, this toxicity is attributed mainly to the accumulation of acetylcholine (ACh), due to inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and consequently overstimulation of the nicotinic and muscarinic receptors. The present study investigated the effects of acute and chronic malathion administration in immobility time in the forced swimming test (FST), open-field test and AChE activity in neural tissue of rats. Malathion was administered intraperitoneally once a day for one day (acute) or for 28 days (chronic) (in both protocols malathion was administered at 25, 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg). No significant effect was seen in immobility time in the FST after acute malathion treatment. The chronic malathion treatment induced an increase in the time of immobility in the FST. Both treatments do not interfere in locomotor activity evaluated in a novel environment. The inhibition of AChE activity was significant in the hippocampus (25, 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg), cortex (100 and 150 mg/kg) and striatum (150 mg/kg) after chronic treatment, but not significantly after acute treatment. These data suggest a possible interaction between increased immobility time in the FST and activation of cholinergic receptors by accumulated ACh subsequent to AChE inhibition.
ESTHER : Ramos_2006_Neurotox.Res_9_285
PubMedSearch : Ramos_2006_Neurotox.Res_9_285
PubMedID: 16782587

Title : Effects per se of organic solvents in the cerebral acetylcholinesterase of rats - Obregon_2005_Neurochem.Res_30_379
Author(s) : Obregon AD , Schetinger MR , Correa MM , Morsch VM , da Silva JE , Martins MA , Bonacorso HG , Zanatta N
Ref : Neurochem Res , 30 :379 , 2005
Abstract : Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was studied in different rat brain regions (cerebellum, hypothalamus, striatum, hippocampus and cortex) in the presence of different organic solvents normally used in the in vitro assay. The organic solvents used were acetone (C3H6O), acetonitrile (C2H3N), ethyl alcohol (C2H6O), isopropyl alcohol (C3H8O), methyl alcohol (CH4O), tert-butyl alcohol (C4H10O) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, C2H6OS) ranging from 0.6 to 10%. Ethyl and methyl alcohol presented no effect on AChE activity at any of the concentrations and brain structures tested. In the hippocampus, isopropyl alcohol did not demonstrate a significant inhibitory effect, even at high concentrations. Tert-butyl alcohol presented an interesting result, increased AChE activity (P < .05) in the hypothalamus (1.8%), cortex (1.8 and 2.5) and striatum (1.2, 1.8 and 2.5%) and decreased activity at a concentration of 10% in the cortex (P < .05) and striatum (P < .01). Acetone and acetonitrile presented similar results, both significantly inhibiting AChE in all structures (5%, P < .05 and 10%, P < .01). DMSO exhibited a highly inhibitory effect at practically all concentrations tested (P < .01). In conclusion, for testing new compounds on AChE activity in vitro, methyl and ethyl alcohol may be the best organic solvent choice.
ESTHER : Obregon_2005_Neurochem.Res_30_379
PubMedSearch : Obregon_2005_Neurochem.Res_30_379
PubMedID: 16018582

Title : Acetylcholinesterase activation and enhanced lipid peroxidation after long-term exposure to low levels of aluminum on different mouse brain regions - Kaizer_2005_J.Inorg.Biochem_99_1865
Author(s) : Kaizer RR , Correa MC , Spanevello RM , Morsch VM , Mazzanti CM , Goncalves JF , Schetinger MR
Ref : J Inorg Biochem , 99 :1865 , 2005
Abstract : Aluminum (Al), oxidative stress and impaired cholinergic functions have all been related to Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present study evaluates the effect of aluminum on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and lipid peroxidation in the mouse brain. Mice were loaded by gavage with Al 0.1 mmol/kg/day 5 days per week during 12 weeks. The mice were divided into four groups: (1) control; (2) 10 mg/mL of citrate solution; (3) 0.1 mmol/kg of Al solution; (4) 0.1 mmol/kg of Al plus 10 mg/mL of citrate solution. AChE activity was determined in the hippocampus, striatum, cortex, hypothalamus and cerebellum and lipid peroxidation was determined in the hippocampus, striatum and cortex. An increase of AChE activity was observed in the fourth group (Al + Ci) in the hippocampus (36%), striatum (54%), cortex (44%) and hypothalamus (22%) (p<0.01). The third group (Al) presented a decrease of AChE activity in the hypothalamus (20%) and an enhancement in the striatum (27%). Lipid peroxidation, measured by TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances), was elevated in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex when compared with the control (p < 0.01). The effect of aluminum on AChE activity may be due to a direct neurotoxic effect of the metal or perhaps a disarrangement of the plasmatic membrane caused by increased lipid peroxidation.
ESTHER : Kaizer_2005_J.Inorg.Biochem_99_1865
PubMedSearch : Kaizer_2005_J.Inorg.Biochem_99_1865
PubMedID: 16055195

Title : Effect of subchronic treatment with mercury chloride on NTPDase, 5'-nucleotidase and acetylcholinesterase from cerebral cortex of rats - Moretto_2004_J.Trace.Elem.Med.Biol_17_255
Author(s) : Moretto MB , Lermen CL , Morsch VM , Bohrer D , Ineu RP , da Silva AC , Balz D , Schetinger MR
Ref : J Trace Elem Med Biol , 17 :255 , 2004
Abstract : The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the effect of a subchronic treatment (30 days/30 doses) with subcutaneous injections (0.1 mg/kg) of HgCl2 on NTPDase (E.C. 3.6.1.5), 5'-nucleotidase (E.C 3.1.3.5) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE, E.C. 3.1.1.7) activities in brain from adult rats. NTPDase and 5'-nucleotidase were measured in cortical synaptosomal fraction and AChE was measured in the homogenate of cerebral cortex and hippocampus. After the subchronic treatment (30 days), NTPDase activity was enhanced approximately 35% (p < 0.05) with ATP and ADP as substrates and no difference was observed in 5'-nucleotidase activity (AMP hydrolysis). In addition, AChE activity was enhanced in the cerebral cortex (22%, p < 0.05) and hippocampus (26%, p < 0.05) after the subchronic treatment. Mercury deposited in brain was measured by cold vapor (atomic absorption spectrometry) and no difference between the control and the subchronically treated group was observed. Here we showed for the first time that exposure to low levels of Hg2+, which resembles occupational exposure to low levels of mercury, caused a marked increase in NTPDase and AChE activities. The relationship of these alterations with the neurotoxicity of inorganic mercury deserves further studies.
ESTHER : Moretto_2004_J.Trace.Elem.Med.Biol_17_255
PubMedSearch : Moretto_2004_J.Trace.Elem.Med.Biol_17_255
PubMedID: 15139388

Title : Diet-induced changes in AChE activity after long-term exposure - Kaizer_2004_Neurochem.Res_29_2251
Author(s) : Kaizer RR , da Silva AC , Morsch VM , Correa MC , Schetinger MR
Ref : Neurochem Res , 29 :2251 , 2004
Abstract : In the present study we investigated a potential mechanism by which high sugar (HS) and high fat (HF) diets could affect acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. The treatment with HS and HF diet was done for six months on male and female rats. The results showed decreased hippocampal AChE activity in male and females receiving HS and HF diets (HS 24% and 36%; HF 38% and 32%, males and females, respectively; P < 0.05). The activity in the cerebral cortex was reduced in males (49 and 40%) and females (19 and 17%) (P < 0.05) on HS and HF diets, respectively. In the hypothalamus AChE activity was decreased on HS diet in males (46%) and female (25%) (P < 0.05) and also on HF diet in males (34%) and females (21%) (P < 0.05). However, in the cerebellum no changes in AChE activity were observed. These results indicate that HS and HF diets produced mainly inhibition in acetylcholine degradation. It probably indicates a chronic alteration induced by these diets on the cholinergic system.
ESTHER : Kaizer_2004_Neurochem.Res_29_2251
PubMedSearch : Kaizer_2004_Neurochem.Res_29_2251
PubMedID: 15672547

Title : Antidepressants inhibit human acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activity - Muller_2002_Biochim.Biophys.Acta_1587_92
Author(s) : Muller TC , Rocha JB , Morsch VM , Neis RT , Schetinger MR
Ref : Biochimica & Biophysica Acta , 1587 :92 , 2002
Abstract : This study examines the effect of the antidepressants fluoxetine, sertraline and amitriptyline on cholinesterase (acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE)) activities in human serum and erythrocyte membrane (ghost). The concentrations used range from 3 to 60 microM for fluoxetine and amitriptyline and 0.3 to 12 microM for sertraline. At the micromolar range concentration, different classes of antidepressants, including fluoxetine and sertraline (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)) and amitriptyline (tricyclic antidepressant) inhibited human serum cholinesterase. The order of inhibitory potency was sertraline>amitriptyline>>fluoxetine and the IC(50) values were 4.05, 9.43 and 62 microM, respectively. Analysis of kinetic data indicated that the inhibition caused by all the antidepressants was mixed in nature. At the micromolar range concentration, sertraline (60-120 microM) and amitriptyline (60-180 microM) inhibited human erythrocyte AChE. The order of inhibitory potency was sertraline>amitriptyline and the IC(50) values were 80 and 134 microM, respectively. Analysis of kinetic data indicated that the inhibition caused by all the antidepressants in AChE human erythrocyte membrane (ghost) was mixed in nature. The interaction of sertraline with the cholinesterase is labile since the removal of inhibitor by gel filtration recovered completely the enzyme activity. Our results demonstrate that the usual clinical antidepressants are inhibitors of the cholinesterases on human serum and erythrocyte membrane.
ESTHER : Muller_2002_Biochim.Biophys.Acta_1587_92
PubMedSearch : Muller_2002_Biochim.Biophys.Acta_1587_92
PubMedID: 12009429

Title : New benzodiazepines alter acetylcholinesterase and ATPDase activities - Schetinger_2000_Neurochem.Res_25_949
Author(s) : Schetinger MR , Porto NM , Moretto MB , Morsch VM , da Rocha JB , Vieira V , Moro F , Neis RT , Bittencourt S , Bonacorso HG , Zanatta N
Ref : Neurochem Res , 25 :949 , 2000
Abstract : This study examines the effect of new 1,5 benzodiazepines on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and ATPDase (apyrase) activities from cerebral cortex of adult rats. Simultaneously, the effects of the classical 1,4-benzodiazepine on these enzymes were also studied for comparative purpose. The compounds 2-trichloromethyl-4-phenyl-3H-1,5-benzodiazepin and 2-trichloromethyl-4(p-methyl-phenyl)-3H- 1,5-benzodiazepin significantly inhibited acetylcholinesterase activity (p < 0.01) when tested in the range of 0.18-0.35 mM. The inhibition caused by these two new benzodiazepines was noncompetitive in nature. Similarly, at concentrations ranging from 0.063 to 0.25 mM, the 1,5 benzodiazepines inhibited ATP and ADP hydrolysis by synaptosomes from cerebral cortex (p < 0.01). However, the inhibition of nucleotide hydrolysis was uncompetitive in nature. Our results suggest that, although diazepam and the new benzodiazepines have chemical differences, they both presented an inhibitory effect on acetylcholinesterase and ATPDase activities.
ESTHER : Schetinger_2000_Neurochem.Res_25_949
PubMedSearch : Schetinger_2000_Neurochem.Res_25_949
PubMedID: 10959491

Title : Pre-conditioning to global cerebral ischemia changes hippocampal acetylcholinesterase in the rat - Schetinger_1999_Biochem.Mol.Biol.Int_47_473
Author(s) : Schetinger MR , Bonan CD , Frassetto SS , Wyse AT , Schierholt RC , Webber A , Dias RD , Sarkis JJ , Netto CA
Ref : Biochemistry & Molecular Biology International , 47 :473 , 1999
Abstract : This study shows the effect of transient global cerebral ischemia (ISC) on hippocampal acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. Naive adult Wistar rats received either a brief (2 min) or a long (10 min) ischemic episode by the four-vessel occlusion method. Pre-conditioned rats received double ischemia: a 10 min episode inflicted 24 h after a 2 min event, a condition known to confer cytoprotection to CA1 pyramidal cells of hippocampus. 2 min of ischemia caused an increase in acetylcholinesterase activity both immediately and 30 min after the episode, however enzyme activity was significantly decreased after 24 h of reperfusion. 10 min of ischemia caused an increase in activity both 60 min and 24 h after ischemia. Conversely, pre-conditioned rats displayed lower activity both immediately and 60 min after ischemia. Our results suggest that: a) neuronal death, that follows 10 min of ischemia, is associated to a late increase in acetylcholinesterase activity; b) pre-conditioning is related to diminished acetylcholinesterase activity. This is in agreement with previous evidence that acetylcholinesterase inhibition and maintenance of acetylcholine levels are beneficial for cell surviving after cerebral ischemia.
ESTHER : Schetinger_1999_Biochem.Mol.Biol.Int_47_473
PubMedSearch : Schetinger_1999_Biochem.Mol.Biol.Int_47_473
PubMedID: 10204084

Title : In vitro effect of central nervous system active drugs on the ATPase- ADPase activity and acetylcholinesterase activity from cerebral cortex of adult rats - Barcellos_1998_Gen.Pharmacol_31_563
Author(s) : Barcellos CK , Schetinger MR , Dias RD , Sarkis JJ
Ref : General Pharmacology , 31 :563 , 1998
Abstract : 1. The effect of several central nervous system active drugs was studied in vitro on ATPase-ADPase activity and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity from the cerebral cortex of adult rats. 2. Lithium (1.0-10.0 mM) had no effect on either ATPase-ADPase or acetylcholinesterase activity. 3. Imipramine (0.5-5.0 mM), desipramine (0.5-5.0 mM), amitriptyline (0.1-1.0 mM) and diazepam (0.5-2.0 mM) inhibited ATP and ADP hydrolysis at all concentrations tested. 4. AChE activity was altered by imipramine (1.0-2.0 mM) and by diazepam (0.5-2.0 mM). 5. The possible participation of ATP diphosphohydrolase and AChE in the action of these drugs cannot be ruled out. The probable reduction of ATP, ADP and acetylcholine hydrolysis by the inhibitory effect of these drugs is discussed.
ESTHER : Barcellos_1998_Gen.Pharmacol_31_563
PubMedSearch : Barcellos_1998_Gen.Pharmacol_31_563
PubMedID: 9792215

Title : Effects of 9-amino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroacridine (THA) on ATP diphosphohydrolase (EC 3.6.1.5) and 5'-nucleotidase (EC 3.1.3.5) from rat brain synaptosomes - Bonan_1997_Gen.Pharmacol_28_761
Author(s) : Bonan CD , Battastini AM , Schetinger MR , Moreira CM , Frassetto SS , Dias RD , Sarkis JJ
Ref : General Pharmacology , 28 :761 , 1997
Abstract : 1. 9-Amino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroacridine (THA), an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, significantly inhibited in vitro the ATP diphosphohydrolase activity of synaptosomes from the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of adult rats. 2. THA did not inhibit in vitro the 5'-nucleotidase activity of synaptosomes from cerebral cortex and hippocampus of rats. 3. THA exerted an uncompetitive inhibition on ATP diphosphohydrolase activity. This mechanism of inhibition was the same in the 2 different synaptosomal fractions (cerebral cortex and hippocampus) studied. 4. THA, proposed as a drug for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, can alter in vitro ATP degradation in synaptosomes from the central nervous system.
ESTHER : Bonan_1997_Gen.Pharmacol_28_761
PubMedSearch : Bonan_1997_Gen.Pharmacol_28_761
PubMedID: 9184816