Ronning DR

References (21)

Title : Structural and Functional Characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Homoserine Transacetylase - Sharma_2023_ACS.Infect.Dis__
Author(s) : Sharma S , Jayasinghe YP , Mishra NK , Orimoloye MO , Wong TY , Dalluge JJ , Ronning DR , Aldrich CC
Ref : ACS Infect Dis , : , 2023
Abstract : Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) lacking functional homoserine transacetylase (HTA) is compromised in methionine biosynthesis, protein synthesis, and in the activity of multiple essential S-adenosyl-l-methionine-dependent enzymes. Additionally, deficient mutants are further disarmed by the toxic accumulation of lysine due to a redirection of the metabolic flux toward the lysine biosynthetic pathway. Studies with deletion mutants and crystallographic studies of the apoenzyme have, respectively, validated Mtb HTA as an essential enzyme and revealed a ligandable binding site. Seeking a mechanistic characterization of this enzyme, we report crucial structural details and comprehensive functional characterization of Mtb HTA. Crystallographic and mass spectral observation of the acetylated HTA intermediate and initial velocity studies were consistent with a ping-pong kinetic mechanism. Wild-type HTA and its site-directed mutants were kinetically characterized with a panel of natural and alternative substrates to understand substrate specificity and identify critical residues for catalysis. Titration experiments using fluorescence quenching showed that both substratesacetyl-CoA and l-homoserineengage in a strong and weak binding interaction with HTA. Additionally, substrate inhibition by acetyl-CoA and product inhibition by CoA and O-acetyl-l-homoserine were proposed to form the basis of a feedback regulation mechanism. By furnishing key mechanistic and structural information, these studies provide a foundation for structure-based design efforts around this attractive Mtb target.
ESTHER : Sharma_2023_ACS.Infect.Dis__
PubMedSearch : Sharma_2023_ACS.Infect.Dis__
PubMedID: 36753622
Gene_locus related to this paper: myctu-metx

Title : Total Synthesis of Tetrahydrolipstatin, Its Derivatives, and Evaluation of Their Ability to Potentiate Multiple Antibiotic Classes against Mycobacterium Species - Khan_2021_ACS.Infect.Dis_7_2876
Author(s) : Khan SS , Sudasinghe TD , Landgraf AD , Ronning DR , Sucheck SJ
Ref : ACS Infect Dis , 7 :2876 , 2021
Abstract : Tetrahydrolipstatin (THL, 1a) has been shown to inhibit both mammalian and bacterial alpha/beta hydrolases. In the case of bacterial systems, THL is a known inhibitor of several Mycobacterium tuberculosis hydrolases involved in mycomembrane biosynthesis. Herein we report a highly efficient eight-step asymmetric synthesis of THL using a route that allows modification of the THL alpha-chain substituent to afford compounds 1a through 1e. The key transformation in the synthesis was use of a (TPP)CrCl/Co(2)(CO)(8)-catalyzed regioselective and stereospecific carbonylation on an advanced epoxide intermediate to yield a trans-beta-lactone. These compounds are modest inhibitors of Ag85A and Ag85C, two alpha/beta hydrolases of M. tuberculosis involved in the biosynthesis of the mycomembrane. Among these compounds, 10d showed the highest inhibitory effect on Ag85A (34 +/- 22 microM) and Ag85C (66 +/- 8 microM), and its X-ray structure was solved in complex with Ag85C to 2.5 A resolution. In contrast, compound 1e exhibited the best-in-class MICs of 50 microM (25 microg/mL) and 16 microM (8.4 microg/mL) against M. smegmatis and M. tuberculosis H37Ra, respectively, using a microtiter assay plate. Combination of 1e with 13 well-established antibiotics synergistically enhanced the potency of few of these antibiotics in M. smegmatis and M. tuberculosis H37Ra. Compound 1e applied at concentrations 4-fold lower than its MIC enhanced the MIC of the synergistic antibiotic by 2-256-fold. In addition to observing synergy with first-line drugs, rifamycin and isoniazid, the MIC of vancomycin against M. tuberculosis H37Ra was 65 microg/mL; however, the MIC was lowered to 0.25 microg/mL in the presence of 2.1 microg/mL 1e demonstrating the potential of targeting mycobacterial hydrolases involved in mycomembrane and peptidoglycan biosynthesis.
ESTHER : Khan_2021_ACS.Infect.Dis_7_2876
PubMedSearch : Khan_2021_ACS.Infect.Dis_7_2876
PubMedID: 34478259
Gene_locus related to this paper: myctu-a85c

Title : Mycolyltransferase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis in covalent complex with tetrahydrolipstatin provides insights into antigen 85 catalysis - Goins_2018_J.Biol.Chem_293_3651
Author(s) : Goins CM , Dajnowicz S , Smith MD , Parks JM , Ronning DR
Ref : Journal of Biological Chemistry , 293 :3651 , 2018
Abstract : Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen 85 (Ag85) enzymes catalyze the transfer of mycolic acid (MA) from trehalose monomycolate to produce the mycolyl arabinogalactan (mAG) or trehalose dimycolate (TDM). These lipids define the protective mycomembrane of mycobacteria. The current model of substrate binding within the active sites of Ag85s for the production of TDM is not sterically and geometrically feasible; additionally, this model does not account for the production of mAG. Furthermore, this model does not address how Ag85s limit the hydrolysis of the acyl-enzyme intermediate while catalyzing acyl transfer. To inform an updated model, we obtained an Ag85 acyl-enzyme intermediate structure that resembles the mycolated form. Here, we present a 1.45-A X-ray crystal structure of M. tuberculosis Ag85C covalently modified by tetrahydrolipstatin (THL), an esterase inhibitor that suppresses M. tuberculosis growth and mimics structural attributes of MAs. The mode of covalent inhibition differs from that observed in the reversible inhibition of the human fatty-acid synthase by THL. Similarities between the Ag85-THL structure and previously determined Ag85C structures suggest that the enzyme undergoes structural changes upon acylation, and positioning of the peptidyl arm of THL limits hydrolysis of the acyl-enzyme adduct. Molecular dynamics simulations of the modeled mycolated-enzyme form corroborate the structural analysis. From these findings, we propose an alternative arrangement of substrates that rectifies issues with the previous model and suggest a direct role for the beta-hydroxy of MA in the second half-reaction of Ag85 catalysis. This information affords the visualization of a complete mycolyltransferase catalytic cycle.
ESTHER : Goins_2018_J.Biol.Chem_293_3651
PubMedSearch : Goins_2018_J.Biol.Chem_293_3651
PubMedID: 29352107
Gene_locus related to this paper: myctu-a85c

Title : Characterization of Tetrahydrolipstatin and Stereoderivatives on the Inhibition of Essential Mycobacterium tuberculosis Lipid Esterases - Goins_2018_Biochemistry_57_2383
Author(s) : Goins CM , Sudasinghe TD , Liu X , Wang Y , O'Doherty GA , Ronning DR
Ref : Biochemistry , 57 :2383 , 2018
Abstract : Tetrahydrolipstatin (THL) is a covalent inhibitor of many serine esterases. In mycobacteria, THL has been found to covalently react with 261 lipid esterases upon treatment of Mycobacterium bovis cell lysate. However, the covalent adduct is considered unstable in some cases because of the hydrolysis of the enzyme-linked THL adduct resulting in catalytic turnover. In this study, a library of THL stereoderivatives was tested against three essential Mycobacterium tuberculosis lipid esterases of interest for drug development to assess how the stereochemistry of THL affects respective enzyme inhibition and allows for cross enzyme inhibition. The mycolyltransferase Antigen 85C (Ag85C) was found to be stereospecific with regard to THL; covalent inhibition occurs within minutes and was previously shown to be irreversible. Conversely, the Rv3802 phospholipase A/thioesterase was more accepting of a variety of THL configurations and uses these compounds as alternative substrates. The reaction of the THL stereoderivatives with the thioesterase domain of polyketide synthase 13 (Pks13-TE) also leads to hydrolytic turnover and is nonstereospecific but occurs on a slower, multihour time scale. Our findings suggest the stereochemistry of the beta-lactone ring of THL is important for cross enzyme reactivity, while the two stereocenters of the peptidyl arm can affect enzyme specificity and the catalytic hydrolysis of the beta-lactone ring. The observed kinetic data for all three target enzymes are supported by recently published X-ray crystal structures of Ag85C, Rv3802, and Pks13-TE. Insights from this study provide a molecular basis for the kinetic modulation of three essential M. tuberculosis lipid esterases by THL and can be applied to increase potency and enzyme residence times and enhance the specificity of the THL scaffold.
ESTHER : Goins_2018_Biochemistry_57_2383
PubMedSearch : Goins_2018_Biochemistry_57_2383
PubMedID: 29601187
Gene_locus related to this paper: myctu-a85c , myctu-PKS13 , myctu-Rv3802c

Title : Structural basis for lipid binding and mechanism of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv3802 phospholipase - Goins_2018_J.Biol.Chem_293_1363
Author(s) : Goins CM , Schreidah CM , Dajnowicz S , Ronning DR
Ref : Journal of Biological Chemistry , 293 :1363 , 2018
Abstract : The Mycobacterium tuberculosis rv3802c gene encodes an essential enzyme with thioesterase and phospholipase A activity. Overexpression of Rv3802 orthologs in Mycobacterium smegmatis and Corynebacterium glutamicum increases mycolate content and decreases glycerophospholipids. Although a role in modulating the lipid composition of the unique mycomembrane has been proposed, the true biological function of Rv3802 remains uncertain. In this study, we present the first M. tuberculosis Rv3802 X-ray crystal structure, solved to 1.7 A resolution. On the basis of the binding of PEG molecules to Rv3802, we identified its lipid-binding site and the structural basis for phosphatidyl-based substrate binding and phospholipase A activity. We found that movement of the alpha8-helix affords lipid binding and is required for catalytic turnover through covalent tethering. We gained insights into the mechanism of acyl hydrolysis by observing differing arrangements of PEG and water molecules within the active site. This study provides structural insights into biological function and facilitates future structure-based drug design toward Rv3802.
ESTHER : Goins_2018_J.Biol.Chem_293_1363
PubMedSearch : Goins_2018_J.Biol.Chem_293_1363
PubMedID: 29247008
Gene_locus related to this paper: myctu-Rv3802c

Title : Exploring Covalent Allosteric Inhibition of Antigen 85C from Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Ebselen Derivatives - Goins_2017_ACS.Infect.Dis_3_378
Author(s) : Goins CM , Dajnowicz S , Thanna S , Sucheck SJ , Parks JM , Ronning DR
Ref : ACS Infect Dis , 3 :378 , 2017
Abstract : Previous studies identified ebselen as a potent in vitro and in vivo inhibitor of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) antigen 85 (Ag85) complex, comprising three homologous enzymes required for the biosynthesis of the mycobacterial cell wall. In this study, the Mtb Ag85C enzyme was cocrystallized with azido and adamantyl ebselen derivatives, resulting in two crystallographic structures of 2.01 and 1.30 A resolution, respectively. Both structures displayed the anticipated covalent modification of the solvent accessible, noncatalytic Cys209 residue forming a selenenylsulfide bond. Continuous difference density for both thiol modifiers allowed for the assessment of interactions that influence ebselen binding and inhibitor orientation that were unobserved in previous Ag85C ebselen structures. The kinact/KI values for ebselen, adamantyl ebselen, and azido ebselen support the importance of observed constructive chemical interactions with Arg239 for increased in vitro efficacy toward Ag85C. To better understand the in vitro kinetic properties of these ebselen derivatives, the energetics of specific protein-inhibitor interactions and relative reaction free energies were calculated for ebselen and both derivatives using density functional theory. These studies further support the different in vitro properties of ebselen and two select ebselen derivatives from our previously published ebselen library with respect to kinetics and protein-inhibitor interactions. In both structures, the alpha9 helix was displaced farther from the enzyme active site than the previous Ag85C ebselen structure, resulting in the restructuring of a connecting loop and imparting a conformational change to residues believed to play a role in substrate binding specific to Ag85C. These notable structural changes directly affect protein stability, reducing the overall melting temperature by up to 14.5 degrees C, resulting in the unfolding of protein at physiological temperatures. Additionally, this structural rearrangement due to covalent allosteric modification creates a sizable solvent network that encompasses the active site and extends to the modified Cys209 residue. In all, this study outlines factors that influence enzyme inhibition by ebselen and its derivatives while further highlighting the effects of the covalent modification of Cys209 by said inhibitors on the structure and stability of Ag85C. Furthermore, the results suggest a strategy for developing new classes of Ag85 inhibitors with increased specificity and potency.
ESTHER : Goins_2017_ACS.Infect.Dis_3_378
PubMedSearch : Goins_2017_ACS.Infect.Dis_3_378
PubMedID: 28285521
Gene_locus related to this paper: myctu-a85c

Title : Thermal and Photoinduced Copper-Promoted C-Se Bond Formation: Synthesis of 2-Alkyl-1,2-benzisoselenazol-3(2H)-ones and Evaluation against Mycobacterium tuberculosis - Thanna_2017_J.Org.Chem_82_3844
Author(s) : Thanna S , Goins CM , Knudson SE , Slayden RA , Ronning DR , Sucheck SJ
Ref : J Org Chem , 82 :3844 , 2017
Abstract : 2-Alkyl-1,2-benzisoselenazol-3(2H)-ones, represented by ebselen (1a), are being studied intensively for a range of medicinal applications. We describe both a new thermal and photoinduced copper-mediated cross-coupling between potassium selenocyanate (KSeCN) and N-substituted ortho-halobenzamides to form 2-alkyl-1,2-benzisoselenazol-3(2H)-ones containing a C-Se-N bond. The copper ligand (1,10-phenanthroline) facilitates C-Se bond formation during heating via a mechanism that likely involves atom transfer (AT), whereas, in the absence of ligand, photoinduced activation likely proceeds through a single electron transfer (SET) mechanism. A library of 15 2-alkyl-1,2-benzisoselenazol-3(2H)-ones was prepared. One member of the library was azide-containing derivative 1j that was competent to undergo a strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition. The library was evaluated for inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) growth and Mtb Antigen 85C (Mtb Ag85C) activity. Compound 1f was most potent with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 12.5 mug/mL and an Mtb Ag85C apparent IC50 of 8.8 muM.
ESTHER : Thanna_2017_J.Org.Chem_82_3844
PubMedSearch : Thanna_2017_J.Org.Chem_82_3844
PubMedID: 28273423

Title : Synthesis and evaluation of new 2-aminothiophenes against Mycobacterium tuberculosis - Thanna_2016_Org.Biomol.Chem_14_6119
Author(s) : Thanna S , Knudson SE , Grzegorzewicz A , Kapil S , Goins CM , Ronning DR , Jackson M , Slayden RA , Sucheck SJ
Ref : Org Biomol Chem , 14 :6119 , 2016
Abstract : Tuberculosis (TB) and its drug resistant forms kills more people than any other infectious disease. This fact emphasizes the need to identify new drugs to treat TB. 2-Aminothiophenes (2AT) have been reported to inhibit Pks13, a validated anti-TB drug target. We synthesized a library of 42 2AT compounds. Among these, compound 33 showed remarkable potency against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) H37RV (MIC = 0.23 muM) and showed an impressive potency (MIC = 0.20-0.44 muM) against Mtb strains resistant to isoniazid, rifampicin and fluoroquinolones. The site of action for the compound 33 is presumed to be Pks13 or an earlier enzyme in the mycolic acid biosynthetic pathway. This inference is based on structural similarity of the compound 33 with known Pks13 inhibitors, which is corroborated by mycolic acid biosynthesis studies showing that the compound strongly inhibits the biosynthesis of all forms of mycolic acid in Mtb. In summary, these studies suggest 33 represents a promising anti-TB lead that exhibits activity well below toxicity to human monocytic cells.
ESTHER : Thanna_2016_Org.Biomol.Chem_14_6119
PubMedSearch : Thanna_2016_Org.Biomol.Chem_14_6119
PubMedID: 27251120
Gene_locus related to this paper: myctu-PKS13

Title : Inactivation of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen 85 complex by covalent, allosteric inhibitors - Favrot_2014_J.Biol.Chem_289_25031
Author(s) : Favrot L , Lajiness DH , Ronning DR
Ref : Journal of Biological Chemistry , 289 :25031 , 2014
Abstract : The rise of multidrug-resistant and totally drug-resistant tuberculosis and the association with an increasing number of HIV-positive patients developing tuberculosis emphasize the necessity to find new antitubercular targets and drugs. The antigen 85 (Ag85) complex from Mycobacterium tuberculosis plays important roles in the biosynthesis of major components of the mycobacterial cell envelope. For this reason, Ag85 has emerged as an attractive drug target. Recently, ebselen was identified as an effective inhibitor of the Ag85 complex through covalent modification of a cysteine residue proximal to the Ag85 active site and is therefore a covalent, allosteric inhibitor. To expand the understanding of this process, we have solved the x-ray crystal structures of Ag85C covalently modified with ebselen and other thiol-reactive compounds, p-chloromercuribenzoic acid and iodoacetamide, as well as the structure of a cysteine to glycine mutant. All four structures confirm that chemical modification or mutation at this particular cysteine residue leads to the disruption of the active site hydrogen-bonded network essential for Ag85 catalysis. We also describe x-ray crystal structures of Ag85C single mutants within the catalytic triad and show that a mutation of any one of these three residues promotes the same conformational change observed in the cysteine-modified forms. These results provide evidence for active site dynamics that may afford new strategies for the development of selective and potent Ag85 inhibitors.
ESTHER : Favrot_2014_J.Biol.Chem_289_25031
PubMedSearch : Favrot_2014_J.Biol.Chem_289_25031
PubMedID: 25028518
Gene_locus related to this paper: myctu-a85c

Title : Mechanism of inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen 85 by ebselen - Favrot_2013_Nat.Commun_4_2748
Author(s) : Favrot L , Grzegorzewicz AE , Lajiness DH , Marvin RK , Boucau J , Isailovic D , Jackson M , Ronning DR
Ref : Nat Commun , 4 :2748 , 2013
Abstract : The increasing prevalence of drug-resistant tuberculosis highlights the need for identifying new antitubercular drugs that can treat these infections. The antigen 85 (Ag85) complex has emerged as an intriguing mycobacterial drug target due to its central role in synthesizing major components of the inner and outer leaflets of the mycobacterial outer membrane. Here we identify ebselen (EBS) as a potent inhibitor of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Ag85 complex. Mass spectrometry data show that EBS binds covalently to a cysteine residue (C209) located near the Ag85C active site. The crystal structure of Ag85C in the presence of EBS shows that C209 modification restructures the active site, thereby disrupting the hydrogen-bonded network within the active site that is essential for enzymatic activity. C209 mutations display marked decreases in enzymatic activity. These data suggest that compounds using this mechanism of action will strongly inhibit the Ag85 complex and minimize the selection of drug resistance.
ESTHER : Favrot_2013_Nat.Commun_4_2748
PubMedSearch : Favrot_2013_Nat.Commun_4_2748
PubMedID: 24193546
Gene_locus related to this paper: myctu-a85c

Title : Zafirlukast inhibits complexation of Lsr2 with DNA and growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis - Pinault_2013_Antimicrob.Agents.Chemother_57_2134
Author(s) : Pinault L , Han JS , Kang CM , Franco J , Ronning DR
Ref : Antimicrobial Agents & Chemotherapy , 57 :2134 , 2013
Abstract : The mycobacterial nucleoid-associated protein Lsr2 is a DNA-bridging protein that plays a role in condensation and structural organization of the genome and acts as a global repressor of gene transcription. Here we describe experiments demonstrating that zafirlukast inhibits the complexation between Lsr2 and DNA in vitro. Zafirlukast is shown to inhibit growth in two different species of mycobacteria tested but exhibits no growth inhibition of Escherichia coli. The Lsr2 inhibitory activity is reflected in vivo as determined by monitoring of transcription levels in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These data suggest that zafirlukast inhibits Lsr2 function in vivo, promoting dysregulation of the expression of an array of genes typically bound by Lsr2 and hindering growth. Since zafirlukast likely operates by a mechanism distinct from current M. tuberculosis drugs and is currently used as a prophylactic treatment for asthma, it offers an intriguing lead for development of new treatments for tuberculosis.
ESTHER : Pinault_2013_Antimicrob.Agents.Chemother_57_2134
PubMedSearch : Pinault_2013_Antimicrob.Agents.Chemother_57_2134
PubMedID: 23439641

Title : Targeting the mycobacterial envelope for tuberculosis drug development - Favrot_2012_Expert.Rev.Anti.Infect.Ther_10_1023
Author(s) : Favrot L , Ronning DR
Ref : Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther , 10 :1023 , 2012
Abstract : The bacterium that causes tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, possesses a rather unique outer membrane composed largely of lipids that possess long-chain and branched fatty acids, called mycolic acids. These lipids form a permeability barrier that prevents entry of many environmental solutes, thereby making these bacteria acid-fast and able to survive extremely hostile surroundings. Antitubercular drugs must penetrate this layer to reach their target. This review highlights drug development efforts that have added to the slowly growing tuberculosis drug pipeline, identified new enzyme activities to target with drugs and increased the understanding of important biosynthetic pathways for mycobacterial outer membrane and cell wall core assembly. In addition, a portion of this review looks at discovery efforts aimed at weakening this barrier to decrease mycobacterial virulence, decrease fitness in the host or enhance the efficacy of the current drug repertoire by disrupting the permeability barrier.
ESTHER : Favrot_2012_Expert.Rev.Anti.Infect.Ther_10_1023
PubMedSearch : Favrot_2012_Expert.Rev.Anti.Infect.Ther_10_1023
PubMedID: 23106277

Title : Design, synthesis, and X-ray analysis of a glycoconjugate bound to Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen 85C - Ibrahim_2012_Bioconjug.Chem_23_2403
Author(s) : Ibrahim DA , Boucau J , Lajiness DH , Veleti SK , Trabbic KR , Adams SS , Ronning DR , Sucheck SJ
Ref : Bioconjug Chem , 23 :2403 , 2012
Abstract : Tuberculosis (TB) is a global health threat with nearly 500 000 new cases of multidrug-resistant TB estimated to occur every year, so new drugs are desperately needed. A number of current antimycobacterial drugs work by interfering with the biosynthesis of key components of the mycolylarabinogalactan (mAG). In light of this observation, other enzymes involved in the synthesis of the mAG should also serve as targets for antimycobacterial drug development. One potential target is the Antigen 85 (Ag85) complex, a family of mycolyltransferases that are responsible for the transfer of mycolic acids from trehalose monomycolate (TMM) to the arabinogalactan. Virtual thiophenyl-arabinoside conjugates were docked to antigen Ag85C (PDB code: 1va5 ) using Glide. Compounds with good docking scores were synthesized by a Gewald synthesis followed by linking to 5-thioarabinofuranosides. The resulting thiophenyl-thioarabinofuranosides were assayed for inhibition of mycoyltransferase activity using a 4-methylumbelliferyl butyrate fluorescence assay. The conjugates showed K(i) values ranging from 18.2 to 71.0 muM. The most potent inhibitor was soaked into crystals of Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen 85C and the structure of the complex determined. The X-ray structure shows the compound bound within the active site of the enzyme with the thiophene moiety positioned in the putative alpha-chain binding site of TMM and the arabinofuranoside moiety within the known carbohydrate-binding site as exhibited for the Ag85B-trehalose crystal structure. Unexpectedly, no specific hydrogen bonding interactions are being formed between the arabinofuranoside and the carbohydrate-binding site of the active site suggesting that the binding of the arabinoside within this structure is driven by shape complementarily between the arabinosyl moiety and the carbohydrate binding site.
ESTHER : Ibrahim_2012_Bioconjug.Chem_23_2403
PubMedSearch : Ibrahim_2012_Bioconjug.Chem_23_2403
PubMedID: 23190459

Title : Recent advances toward the inhibition of mAG and LAM synthesis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis - Umesiri_2010_Med.Res.Rev_30_290
Author(s) : Umesiri FE , Sanki AK , Boucau J , Ronning DR , Sucheck SJ
Ref : Med Res Rev , 30 :290 , 2010
Abstract : Drug-resistant forms of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) are increasing worldwide, underscoring the need to develop new drugs to treat the disease. One of the factors that make tuberculosis difficult to treat is the unique architecture of the mycobacterial cell wall. In this review, we catalogue the enzymes involved in the synthesis of the mycolylarabinogalactan (mAG), a key structural component of the mycobacterial cell wall. In addition, we review the enzymes required for the synthesis of the related lipoarabinomannan (LAM), a structure that possesses immunomodulatory properties. The integrity of the mAG and LAM is critical to the viability of mycobacteria, and many of the established antimycobacterial agents target enzymes critical to the synthesis of the mAG and LAM. Recently, new enzymes catalyzing synthetic steps in the synthesis of the mAG and LAM have been characterized and their substrate specificity determined. In this report, we review recent efforts to characterize the enzymes involved in mAG and LAM synthesis and describe the compounds used to inhibit the enzymes or characterize their catalytic activity.
ESTHER : Umesiri_2010_Med.Res.Rev_30_290
PubMedSearch : Umesiri_2010_Med.Res.Rev_30_290
PubMedID: 20099253

Title : Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of sugar-derived esters, alpha-ketoesters and alpha-ketoamides as inhibitors for Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen 85C - Sanki_2009_Mol.Biosyst_5_945
Author(s) : Sanki AK , Boucau J , Umesiri FE , Ronning DR , Sucheck SJ
Ref : Mol Biosyst , 5 :945 , 2009
Abstract : Peptide-based 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds have emerged as potent inhibitors for serine proteases. Herein, we have designed and synthesized d-arabinose and d-trehalose-based esters, alpha-ketoesters and alpha-ketoamides, and evaluated their inhibitory activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) antigen 85C (ag85C), an acyltransferase in the serine hydrolase superfamily. In addition the compounds were evaluated for the ability to inhibit the growth of Mycobacterium smegmatis ATCC 14 468, a non-pathogenic surrogate for Mtb. Among the synthetic analogs evaluated only the methyl ester derived from d-arabinose was found to inhibit the acyltransferase activity of ag85C (IC(50) = 25 mM). Based on this weak inhibitory activity it was not surprising that none of the compounds inhibits the growth of M. smegmatis. In spite of the weak inhibitory activity of , X-ray crystallography on crystals of ag85C soaked with suggested the formation of a covalent ester adduct between and the Ser124 side chain hydroxyl moiety found within the catalytic site of ag85C; however, some of the active site electron density appears to result from bound glycerol. The lack of activity associated with the alpha-ketoester and alpha-ketoamide derivatives of d-trehalose may be the result of intramolecular cyclization of the alpha-keto moiety with the nearby C-4/4' hydroxyls leading to the formation of stable bicyclo-ester and amide derivatives.
ESTHER : Sanki_2009_Mol.Biosyst_5_945
PubMedSearch : Sanki_2009_Mol.Biosyst_5_945
PubMedID: 19668859
Gene_locus related to this paper: myctu-a85c

Title : A coupled assay measuring Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen 85C enzymatic activity - Boucau_2009_Anal.Biochem_385_120
Author(s) : Boucau J , Sanki AK , Voss BJ , Sucheck SJ , Ronning DR
Ref : Analytical Biochemistry , 385 :120 , 2009
Abstract : The prevalence of drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) emphasizes the need for new antitubercular drugs. An essential component of the drug discovery process is the development of tools to rapidly screen potential drug libraries against important biological targets. Similarly to well-documented M. tb targets, the antigen 85 (Ag85) enzymes are involved in the maintenance of the mycobacterial cell wall. The products synthesized by these mycolyltransferases are the cell wall components most responsible for the reduced permeability of drugs into the bacterial cell, thereby linking Ag85 activity directly with drug resistance. This article presents the development of a high-throughput colorimetric assay suitable for direct monitoring of the enzymatic activity. The assay uses a synthetic substrate containing three chemical moieties: an octanoyl fatty acid, beta-D-glucose, and p-nitrophenyl. In the context of the assay, Ag85 catalyzes the removal of the fatty acid and releases p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucoside. The glucoside is hydrolyzed by beta-glucosidase to release the p-nitrophenolate chromophore. With this assay, the K(M) and k(cat) values of Ag85C were determined to be 0.047 +/- 0.008 mM and 0.062 s(-1), respectively. In addition, the assay exhibits a Z' value of 0.81 +/- 0.06, indicating its suitability for high-throughput screening applications and drug development.
ESTHER : Boucau_2009_Anal.Biochem_385_120
PubMedSearch : Boucau_2009_Anal.Biochem_385_120
PubMedID: 18992216

Title : Antigen 85C-mediated acyl-transfer between synthetic acyl donors and fragments of the arabinan - Sanki_2009_Glycoconj.J_26_589
Author(s) : Sanki AK , Boucau J , Ronning DR , Sucheck SJ
Ref : Glycoconj J , 26 :589 , 2009
Abstract : Antigen 85 (ag85) is a complex of acyltransferases (ag85A-C) known to play a role in the mycolation of the D-arabino-D-galactan (AG) component of the mycobacterial cell wall. In order to better understand the chemistry and substrate specificity of ag85, a trehalose monomycolate mimic p-nitrophenyl 6-O-octanoyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1) containing an octanoyl moiety in lieu of a mycolyl moiety was synthesized as an acyl donor. Arabinofuranoside acceptors, methyl alpha-D-arabinofuranoside (2), methyl beta-D-arabinofuranoside (3), and methyl 2-O-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl-alpha-D-arabinofuranoside (9) were synthesized to mimic the terminal saccharides found on the AG. The acyl transfer reaction between acyl donor 1 and acceptors 2, 3, and 9 in the presence of ag85C from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) resulted in the formation of esters, methyl 2, 5-di-O-octanoyl-alpha-D-arabinofuranoside (10), methyl 5-O-octanoyl-beta-D-arabinofuranoside (11), and methyl 2-O-(5-O-octanoyl-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)-5-O-octanoyl-alpha-D-arabinofuranoside (12) in 2 h, 2 h and 8 h, respectively. The initial velocities of the reactions were determined with a newly developed assay for acyltransferases. As expected, the regioselectivity corresponds to mycolylation patterns found at the terminus of the AG in M. tuberculosis. The study shows that D-arabinose-based derivatives are capable of acting as substrates for ag85C-mediated acyl-transfer and the acyl glycoside 1 can be used in lieu of TMM extracted from bacteria to study ag85-mediated acyl-transfer and inhibition leading to the better understanding of the ag85 protein class.
ESTHER : Sanki_2009_Glycoconj.J_26_589
PubMedSearch : Sanki_2009_Glycoconj.J_26_589
PubMedID: 19052863

Title : Synthesis of methyl 5-S-alkyl-5-thio-D-arabinofuranosides and evaluation of their antimycobacterial activity - Sanki_2008_Bioorg.Med.Chem_16_5672
Author(s) : Sanki AK , Boucau J , Srivastava P , Adams SS , Ronning DR , Sucheck SJ
Ref : Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry , 16 :5672 , 2008
Abstract : The emergence of drug resistant tuberculosis necessitates a search for new antimycobacterial compounds. The antigen 85 (ag85) complex is a family of mycolyl transferases involved in the synthesis of trehalose-6,6'-dimycolate and the mycolated hexasaccharide motif found at the terminus of the arabinogalactan in mycobacterium. Enzymes involved in the synthesis of cell wall structures like these are potential targets for the development of new antiinfectives. To potentially inhibit the ag85 complex, methyl 5-S-alkyl-5-thio-arabinofuranoside analogues were designed based on docking studies with ag85C derived from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The target arabinofuranosides were then synthesized and the antibacterial activity evaluated against Mycobacterium smegmatis ATCC 14468. Two of the compounds, 5-S-octyl-5-thio-alpha-d-arabinofuranoside (8) and 5-S-octyl-5-thio-beta-d-arabinofuranoside (11), showed MICs of 256 and 512microg/mL, respectively. Attempts to directly evaluate acyltransferase inhibitory activity of the arabinofuranosides against ag85C are also described. In conclusion, a new class of antimycobacterial arabinofuranosides has been discovered.
ESTHER : Sanki_2008_Bioorg.Med.Chem_16_5672
PubMedSearch : Sanki_2008_Bioorg.Med.Chem_16_5672
PubMedID: 18450455

Title : Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen 85A and 85C structures confirm binding orientation and conserved substrate specificity - Ronning_2004_J.Biol.Chem_279_36771
Author(s) : Ronning DR , Vissa V , Besra GS , Belisle JT , Sacchettini JC
Ref : Journal of Biological Chemistry , 279 :36771 , 2004
Abstract : The maintenance of the highly hydrophobic cell wall is central to the survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis within its host environment. The antigen 85 proteins (85A, 85B, and 85C) of M. tuberculosis help maintain the integrity of the cell wall 1) by catalyzing the transfer of mycolic acids to the cell wall arabinogalactan and 2) through the synthesis of trehalose dimycolate (cord factor). Additionally, these secreted proteins allow for rapid invasion of alveolar macrophages via direct interactions between the host immune system and the invading bacillus. Here we describe two crystal structures: the structure of antigen 85C co-crystallized with octylthioglucoside as substrate, resolved to 2.0 A, and the crystal structure of antigen 85A, which was solved at a resolution of 2.7 A. The structure of 85C with the substrate analog identifies residues directly involved in substrate binding. Elucidation of the antigen 85A structure, the last of the three antigen 85 homologs to be solved, shows that the active sites of the three antigen 85 proteins are virtually identical, indicating that these share the same substrate. However, in contrast to the high level of conservation within the substrate-binding site and the active site, surface residues disparate from the active site are quite variable, indicating that three antigen 85 enzymes are needed to evade the host immune system.
ESTHER : Ronning_2004_J.Biol.Chem_279_36771
PubMedSearch : Ronning_2004_J.Biol.Chem_279_36771
PubMedID: 15192106
Gene_locus related to this paper: myctu-a85a , myctu-a85c

Title : Crystal structure of the secreted form of antigen 85C reveals potential targets for mycobacterial drugs and vaccines - Ronning_2000_Nat.Struct.Biol_7_141
Author(s) : Ronning DR , Klabunde T , Besra GS , Vissa VD , Belisle JT , Sacchettini JC
Ref : Nat Struct Biol , 7 :141 , 2000
Abstract : The antigen 85 (ag85) complex, composed of three proteins (ag85A, B and C), is a major protein component of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell wall. Each protein possesses a mycolyltransferase activity required for the biogenesis of trehalose dimycolate (cord factor), a dominant structure necessary for maintaining cell wall integrity. The crystal structure of recombinant ag85C from M. tuberculosis, refined to a resolution of 1.5 A, reveals an alpha/beta-hydrolase polypeptide fold, and a catalytic triad formed by Ser 124, Glu 228 and His 260. ag85C complexed with a covalent inhibitor implicates residues Leu 40 and Met 125 as components of the oxyanion hole. A hydrophobic pocket and tunnel extending 21 A into the core of the protein indicates the location of a probable trehalose monomycolate binding site. Also, a large region of conserved surface residues among ag85A, B and C is a probable site for the interaction of ag85 proteins with human fibronectin.
ESTHER : Ronning_2000_Nat.Struct.Biol_7_141
PubMedSearch : Ronning_2000_Nat.Struct.Biol_7_141
PubMedID: 10655617
Gene_locus related to this paper: myctu-a85c

Title : The mycobacterial antigens 85 complex--from structure to function: response -
Author(s) : Sacchettini JC , Ronning DR
Ref : Trends Microbiol , 8 :441 , 2000
PubMedID: 11203233