Stewart GD


Full name : Stewart Gregory D

First name : Gregory D

Mail : Drug Discovery Biology, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences & Department of Pharmacology, Monash University, Parkville, Victori

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Country : Australia

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References (3)

Title : Detection of novel functional selectivity at M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors using a Saccharomyces cerevisiae platform - Stewart_2010_ACS.Chem.Biol_5_365
Author(s) : Stewart GD , Sexton PM , Christopoulos A
Ref : ACS Chemical Biology , 5 :365 , 2010
Abstract : "Functional selectivity", although new to many chemists and biologists only a few years ago, has now become a dominant theme in drug discovery. This concept posits that different ligands engender unique receptor conformations such that only a subset of signaling pathways linked to a given receptor are recruited. However, successful exploitation of the phenomenon to achieve pathway-based selectivity requires the ability to routinely detect it when assessing ligand behavior. We have utilized different strains of the yeast S. cerevisiae, each expressing a specific human Galpha/yeast Gpa1 protein chimera coupled to a MAP kinase-linked reporter gene readout, to investigate the signaling of the M(3) muscarinic receptor, a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) for which various antagonists are used clinically. Using this novel platform, we found that the "antagonists", atropine, N-methylscopolamine, and pirenzepine, were inverse agonists for Gpa1/Galpha(q) but low efficacy agonists for Gpa1/Galpha(12.) Subsequent studies with atropine performed in mammalian 3T3 cells validated these findings by demonstrating inverse agonism for G(q/11)-mediated calcium mobilization but positive agonism for G(12)-mediated membrane ruffling. This is the first study to utilize a yeast platform to discover pathway-biased functional selectivity in a GPCR. In addition to the likely applicability of this approach for identifying biased signaling by novel chemical entities, our findings also suggest that currently marketed medications may exhibit hitherto unappreciated functional selectivity.
ESTHER : Stewart_2010_ACS.Chem.Biol_5_365
PubMedSearch : Stewart_2010_ACS.Chem.Biol_5_365
PubMedID: 20155933

Title : Prediction of functionally selective allosteric interactions at an M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mutant using Saccharomyces cerevisiae - Stewart_2010_Mol.Pharmacol_78_205
Author(s) : Stewart GD , Sexton PM , Christopoulos A
Ref : Molecular Pharmacology , 78 :205 , 2010
Abstract : Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a tractable yeast species for expression and coupling of heterologous G protein-coupled receptors with the endogenous pheromone response pathway. Although this platform has been used for ligand screening, no studies have probed its ability to predict novel pharmacology and functional selectivity of allosteric ligands. As a proof of concept, we expressed a rat M(3) muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) bearing a mutation (K(7.32)E) recently identified to confer positive cooperativity between acetylcholine and the allosteric modulator brucine in various strains of S. cerevisiae, each expressing a different human Galpha/yeast Gpa1 protein chimera, and probed for G protein-biased allosteric modulation. Subsequent assays performed in this system revealed that brucine was a partial allosteric agonist and positive modulator of carbachol when coupled to Gpa1/G(q) proteins, a positive modulator (no agonism) when coupled to Gpa1/G(12) proteins, and a neutral modulator when coupled to Gpa1/G(i) proteins. It is noteworthy that these results were validated at the human M(3)K(7.32)E mAChR expressed in a mammalian (Chinese hamster ovary) cell background by determination of calcium mobilization and membrane ruffling as surrogate measures of G(q) and G(12) protein activation, respectively. Furthermore, the combination of this functionally selective allosteric modulator with G protein-biased yeast screens allowed us to ascribe a potential G protein candidate (G(12)) as a key mediator for allosteric modulation of M(3)K(7.32)E mAChR-mediated ERK1/2 phosphorylation, which was confirmed by small interfering RNA knockdown experiments. These results highlight how the yeast platform can be used to identify functional selectivity of allosteric ligands and to facilitate dissection of convergent signaling pathways.
ESTHER : Stewart_2010_Mol.Pharmacol_78_205
PubMedSearch : Stewart_2010_Mol.Pharmacol_78_205
PubMedID: 20466821

Title : Determination of adenosine A1 receptor agonist and antagonist pharmacology using Saccharomyces cerevisiae: implications for ligand screening and functional selectivity - Stewart_2009_J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther_331_277
Author(s) : Stewart GD , Valant C , Dowell SJ , Mijaljica D , Devenish RJ , Scammells PJ , Sexton PM , Christopoulos A
Ref : Journal of Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics , 331 :277 , 2009
Abstract : The budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a convenient system for coupling heterologous G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to the pheromone response pathway to facilitate empirical ligand screening and/or GPCR mutagenesis studies. However, few studies have applied this system to define GPCR-G protein-coupling preferences and furnish information on ligand affinities, efficacies, and functional selectivity. We thus used different S. cerevisiae strains, each expressing a specific human Galpha/yeast Gpa1 protein chimera, and determined the pharmacology of various ligands of the coexpressed human adenosine A(1) receptor. These assays, in conjunction with the application of quantitative models of agonism and antagonism, revealed that (-)-N(6)-(2-phenylisopropyl)adenosine was a high-efficacy agonist that selectively coupled to Gpa/1Galpha(o), Gpa1/Galpha(i1/2), and Gpa1/Galpha(i3), whereas the novel compound, 5'-deoxy-N(6)-(endo-norborn-2-yl)-5'-(2-fluorophenylthio)adenosine (VCP-189), was a lower-efficacy agonist that selectively coupled to Gpa1/Galpha(i) proteins; the latter finding suggested that VCP-189 might be functionally selective. The affinity of the antagonist, 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine, was also determined at the various strains. Subsequent experiments performed in mammalian Chinese hamster ovary cells monitoring cAMP formation/inhibition, intracellular calcium mobilization, phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 or (35)S-labeled guanosine 5'-(gamma-thio)triphosphate binding, were in general agreement with the yeast data regarding agonist efficacy estimation and antagonist affinity estimation, but revealed that the apparent functional selectivity of VCP-189 could be explained by differences in stimulus-response coupling between yeast and mammalian cells. Our results suggest that this yeast system is a useful tool for quantifying ligand affinity and relative efficacy, but it may lack the sensitivity required to detect functional selectivity of low-efficacy agonists.
ESTHER : Stewart_2009_J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther_331_277
PubMedSearch : Stewart_2009_J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther_331_277
PubMedID: 19641164