Tjora E

References (6)

Title : Two new mutations in the CEL gene causing diabetes and hereditary pancreatitis: How to correctly identify MODY8 cases - El Jellas_2021_J.Clin.Endocrinol.Metab__
Author(s) : El Jellas K , Dusatkova P , Haldorsen IS , Molnes J , Tjora E , Johansson BB , Fjeld K , Johansson S , Pruhova S , Groop L , Lohr JM , Njolstad PR , Molven A
Ref : J Clinical Endocrinology Metab , : , 2021
Abstract : OBJECTIVE: Maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 8 (MODY8) is associated with mutations in the CEL gene, which encodes the digestive enzyme carboxyl ester lipase. Several diabetes cases and families have in recent years been attributed to mutations in CEL without any functional or clinical evidence provided. To facilitate correct MODY8 diagnostics, we screened two cohorts of diabetes patients and delineated the phenotype. RESEARCH DESIGN: Young, lean Swedish and Finnish patients with a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes (352 cases, 406 controls) were screened for mutations in the CEL gene. We also screened 58 Czech MODY cases who had tested negative for common MODY genes. For CEL mutation-positive subjects, family history was recorded, and clinical investigations and pancreatic imaging performed. RESULTS: One Swedish and one Czech case with germline mutation in CEL were identified. Clinical and radiological investigations of these two probands and their families revealed dominantly inherited insulin-dependent diabetes, pancreatic exocrine dysfunction and atrophic pancreas with lipomatosis and cysts. Notably, hereditary pancreatitis was the predominant phenotype in one pedigree. Both families carried single-base pair deletions in the proximal part of the CEL variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) region in exon 11. The mutations are predicted to lead to aberrant protein tails that make the CEL protein susceptible to aggregation. CONCLUSIONS: The diagnosis of MODY8 requires a pancreatic exocrine phenotype and a deletion in the CEL VNTR in addition to dominantly inherited diabetes. CEL screening may be warranted also in families with hereditary pancreatitis of unknown genetic etiology.
ESTHER : El Jellas_2021_J.Clin.Endocrinol.Metab__
PubMedSearch : El Jellas_2021_J.Clin.Endocrinol.Metab__
PubMedID: 34850019
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-CEL

Title : Protein misfolding in combination with other risk factors in CEL-HYB1-mediated chronic pancreatitis - Tjora_2021_Eur.J.Gastroenterol.Hepatol_33_839
Author(s) : Tjora E , Gravdal A , Engjom T , Cnop M , Johansson BB , Dimcevski GG , Molven A , Fjeld K
Ref : European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology , 33 :839 , 2021
Abstract : OBJECTIVES: The hybrid allele of the carboxyl ester lipase gene (CEL-HYB1) is a genetic risk factor for chronic pancreatitis (CP) although the mechanism promoting disease development is largely unknown. Here, we aimed to clinically describe subjects carrying the CEL-HYB1 allele and to elucidate why the protein product is pathogenic by analyzing pancreatic secretions and cellular models. METHODS: Norwegian cases (n = 154) diagnosed with recurrent acute pancreatitis or CP were subjected to genetic screening by a CEL-HYB1-specific PCR assay followed by Sanger sequencing. For investigation of CEL-HYB1 protein secretion, duodenal juice samples from cases and controls were analyzed by western blotting. HEK293cells were transfected with constructs expressing CEL-HYB1 or the normal CEL protein (CEL-WT) and analyzed by qPCR, cell fractionation and western blotting. RESULTS: Two CEL-HYB1-positive families were identified. In both pedigrees, CEL-HYB1 did not fully co-segregate with disease. One proband had recurrent acute pancreatitis and was an active smoker. Her mother was a CEL-HYB1 carrier who had suffered from several attacks of acute pancreatitis until she stopped smoking. The other proband was diagnosed with CP and pancreas divisum. Her CEL-HYB1-positive parent was symptom-free but exhibited pancreatic imaging changes. When analyzing the CEL protein in duodenal juice, CEL-WT was readily detectable but no band corresponding to the risk variant was seen. In CEL-HYB1-transfected cells, we observed impaired protein secretion, protein aggregation and endoplasmic reticulum stress. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that CEL-HYB1, in combination with well-known pancreatitis risk factors, causes disease through the misfolding-dependent pathway of genetic CP risk.
ESTHER : Tjora_2021_Eur.J.Gastroenterol.Hepatol_33_839
PubMedSearch : Tjora_2021_Eur.J.Gastroenterol.Hepatol_33_839
PubMedID: 33079780

Title : The role of the carboxyl ester lipase (CEL) gene in pancreatic disease - Johansson_2018_Pancreatology_18_12
Author(s) : Johansson BB , Fjeld K , El Jellas K , Gravdal A , Dalva M , Tjora E , Raeder H , Kulkarni RN , Johansson S , Njolstad PR , Molven A
Ref : Pancreatology , 18 :12 , 2018
Abstract : The enzyme carboxyl ester lipase (CEL), also known as bile salt-dependent or -stimulated lipase (BSDL, BSSL), hydrolyzes dietary fat, cholesteryl esters and fat-soluble vitamins in the duodenum. CEL is mainly expressed in pancreatic acinar cells and lactating mammary glands. The human CEL gene resides on chromosome 9q34.3 and contains a variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) region that encodes a mucin-like protein tail. Although the number of normal repeats does not appear to significantly influence the risk for pancreatic disease, single-base pair deletions in the first VNTR repeat cause a syndrome of endocrine and exocrine dysfunction denoted MODY8. Hallmarks are low fecal elastase levels and pancreatic lipomatosis manifesting before the age of twenty, followed by development of diabetes and pancreatic cysts later in life. The mutant protein forms intracellular and extracellular aggregates, suggesting that MODY8 is a protein misfolding disease. Recently, a recombined allele between CEL and its pseudogene CELP was discovered. This allele (CEL-HYB) encodes a chimeric protein with impaired secretion increasing five-fold the risk for chronic pancreatitis. The CEL gene has proven to be exceptionally polymorphic due to copy number variants of the CEL-CELP locus and alterations involving the VNTR. Genome-wide association studies or deep sequencing cannot easily pick up this wealth of genetic variation. CEL is therefore an attractive candidate gene for further exploration of links to pancreatic disease.
ESTHER : Johansson_2018_Pancreatology_18_12
PubMedSearch : Johansson_2018_Pancreatology_18_12
PubMedID: 29233499
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-CEL

Title : Carboxyl-ester lipase maturity-onset diabetes of the young disease protein biomarkers in secretin-stimulated duodenal juice - Bjorlykke_2015_J.Proteome.Res_14_521
Author(s) : Bjorlykke Y , Vethe H , Vaudel M , Barsnes H , Berven FS , Tjora E , Raeder H
Ref : J Proteome Res , 14 :521 , 2015
Abstract : Patients with carboxyl-ester lipase-maturity-onset diabetes of the young (CEL-MODY) display distinct disease stages toward the development of monogenic diabetes and exocrine pancreatic disease. The finding of differentially increased proteins, some related to MAPK signaling, in a discovery proteomics study of secretin-stimulated duodenal juice in three CEL-MODY patients, prompted us to monitor their abundance in an extensive number of CEL-MODY subjects at different disease stages and controls using targeted proteomics. In the current study, we demonstrate the feasibility of selected reaction monitoring assays to quantify protein levels in secretin-stimulated duodenal juice. Furthermore, we define a set of five peptides for potential use as diagnostic tests in CEL-MODY patients. Finally, we propose a further set of seven proteins with a likely pathogenic role in CEL-MODY disease progression.
ESTHER : Bjorlykke_2015_J.Proteome.Res_14_521
PubMedSearch : Bjorlykke_2015_J.Proteome.Res_14_521
PubMedID: 25369532

Title : A recombined allele of the lipase gene CEL and its pseudogene CELP confers susceptibility to chronic pancreatitis - Fjeld_2015_Nat.Genet_47_518
Author(s) : Fjeld K , Weiss FU , Lasher D , Rosendahl J , Chen JM , Johansson BB , Kirsten H , Ruffert C , Masson E , Steine SJ , Bugert P , Cnop M , Grutzmann R , Mayerle J , Mossner J , Ringdal M , Schulz HU , Sendler M , Simon P , Sztromwasser P , Torsvik J , Scholz M , Tjora E , Ferec C , Witt H , Lerch MM , Njolstad PR , Johansson S , Molven A
Ref : Nat Genet , 47 :518 , 2015
Abstract : Carboxyl ester lipase is a digestive pancreatic enzyme encoded by the CEL gene. Mutations in CEL cause maturity-onset diabetes of the young as well as pancreatic exocrine dysfunction. Here we describe a hybrid allele (CEL-HYB) originating from a crossover between CEL and its neighboring pseudogene, CELP. In a discovery series of familial chronic pancreatitis cases, we observed CEL-HYB in 14.1% (10/71) of cases compared to 1.0% (5/478) of controls (odds ratio (OR) = 15.5; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 5.1-46.9; P = 1.3 x 10(-6) by two-tailed Fisher's exact test). In three replication studies of nonalcoholic chronic pancreatitis, we identified CEL-HYB in a total of 3.7% (42/1,122) cases and 0.7% (30/4,152) controls (OR = 5.2; 95% CI = 3.2-8.5; P = 1.2 x 10(-11); formal meta-analysis). The allele was also enriched in alcoholic chronic pancreatitis. Expression of CEL-HYB in cellular models showed reduced lipolytic activity, impaired secretion, prominent intracellular accumulation and induced autophagy. These findings implicate a new pathway distinct from the protease-antiprotease system of pancreatic acinar cells in chronic pancreatitis.
ESTHER : Fjeld_2015_Nat.Genet_47_518
PubMedSearch : Fjeld_2015_Nat.Genet_47_518
PubMedID: 25774637

Title : Diabetes and pancreatic exocrine dysfunction due to mutations in the carboxyl ester lipase gene-maturity onset diabetes of the young (CEL-MODY): a protein misfolding disease - Johansson_2011_J.Biol.Chem_286_34593
Author(s) : Johansson BB , Torsvik J , Bjorkhaug L , Vesterhus M , Ragvin A , Tjora E , Fjeld K , Hoem D , Johansson S , Raeder H , Lindquist S , Hernell O , Cnop M , Saraste J , Flatmark T , Molven A , Njolstad PR
Ref : Journal of Biological Chemistry , 286 :34593 , 2011
Abstract : CEL-maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY), diabetes with pancreatic lipomatosis and exocrine dysfunction, is due to dominant frameshift mutations in the acinar cell carboxyl ester lipase gene (CEL). As Cel knock-out mice do not express the phenotype and the mutant protein has an altered and intrinsically disordered tandem repeat domain, we hypothesized that the disease mechanism might involve a negative effect of the mutant protein. In silico analysis showed that the pI of the tandem repeat was markedly increased from pH 3.3 in wild-type (WT) to 11.8 in mutant (MUT) human CEL. By stably overexpressing CEL-WT and CEL-MUT in HEK293 cells, we found similar glycosylation, ubiquitination, constitutive secretion, and quality control of the two proteins. The CEL-MUT protein demonstrated, however, a high propensity to form aggregates found intracellularly and extracellularly. Different physicochemical properties of the intrinsically disordered tandem repeat domains of WT and MUT proteins may contribute to different short and long range interactions with the globular core domain and other macromolecules, including cell membranes. Thus, we propose that CEL-MODY is a protein misfolding disease caused by a negative gain-of-function effect of the mutant proteins in pancreatic tissues.
ESTHER : Johansson_2011_J.Biol.Chem_286_34593
PubMedSearch : Johansson_2011_J.Biol.Chem_286_34593
PubMedID: 21784842
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-CEL