Cook EH, Jr.

References (4)

Title : Analysis of the neuroligin 4Y gene in patients with autism - Yan_2008_Psychiatr.Genet_18_204
Author(s) : Yan J , Feng J , Schroer R , Li W , Skinner C , Schwartz CE , Cook EH, Jr. , Sommer SS
Ref : Psychiatr Genet , 18 :204 , 2008
Abstract : Frameshift and missense mutations in the X-linked neuroligin 4 (NLGN4, MIM# 300427) and neuroligin 3 (NLGN3, MIM# 300336) genes have been identified in patients with autism, Asperger syndrome and mental retardation. We hypothesize that sequence variants in NLGN4Y are associated with autism or mental retardation. The coding sequences and splice junctions of the NLGN4Y gene were analyzed in 335 male samples (290 with autism and 45 with mental retardation). A total of 1.1 Mb of genomic DNA was sequenced. One missense variant, p.I679V, was identified in a patient with autism, as well as his father with learning disabilities. The I679 residue is highly conserved in three members of the neuroligin family. The absence of p.I679V in 2986 control Y chromosomes and the high similarity of NLGN4 and NLGN4Y are consistent with the hypothesis that p.I679V contributes to the etiology of autism. The presence of only one structural variant in our population of 335 males with autism/mental retardation, the unavailability of significant family cosegregation and an absence of functional assays are, however, important limitations of this study.
ESTHER : Yan_2008_Psychiatr.Genet_18_204
PubMedSearch : Yan_2008_Psychiatr.Genet_18_204
PubMedID: 18628683
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-NLGN4Y

Title : Analysis of the neuroligin 3 and 4 genes in autism and other neuropsychiatric patients -
Author(s) : Yan J , Oliveira G , Coutinho A , Yang C , Feng J , Katz C , Sram J , Bockholt A , Jones IR , Craddock N , Cook EH, Jr. , Vicente A , Sommer SS
Ref : Mol Psychiatry , 10 :329 , 2005
PubMedID: 15622415
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-NLGN3 , human-NLGN4X

Title : Determination and analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotype structure of the human carboxylesterase 2 gene - Wu_2004_Pharmacogenet_14_595
Author(s) : Wu MH , Chen P , Wu X , Liu W , Strom S , Das S , Cook EH, Jr. , Rosner GL , Dolan ME
Ref : Pharmacogenetics , 14 :595 , 2004
Abstract : Carboxylesterases are members of the serine esterase super family important in the metabolism of a wide variety of substrates, including xenobiotics and prodrugs. There are two known carboxylesterases expressed in human liver, small intestine and other tissues, carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) and carboxylesterase 2 (CES2). The aim of this study was to identify polymorphisms in the CES2 gene and determine whether these polymorphisms affect expression levels of CES2 or rate of metabolism of irinotecan (7-ethyl-10-[4-(1-piperidino)-1-piperidino] carbonyloxy-camptothecin). Microsome samples prepared from liver tissues of 78 normal individuals were used to determine the rate of hydrolysis of irinotecan and procaine (an anaesthetic hydrolysed by CES2 but not CES1). The rate of hydrolysis of irinotecan is highly variable among individuals, ranging from 2.7-138 pmol/mg protein/h (mean +/- SD 26.0 +/- 22.9). Fifteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified, one is in an exon, 9 are in introns, three are in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR), and two are in the 5'-flanking region. Eight of the 15 SNP loci have rare allele frequencies greater than 5%, of which three were greater than 20%. Genotyping of samples from the SNP Consortium demonstrated different distributions among African-Americans, Asian-Americans and European-Americans. We also analysed the haplotype structure and estimated linkage disequilibrium (LD). A SNP located in the 5'-UTR (5'-UTR-363) was found in LD with loci in intron 1 (Intron1 + 947, Intron1 + 1361, Intron1 + 1643). Haplotypes with homozygous rare alleles on these loci exhibit lower mRNA levels as determined by real time polymerase chain reaction (P < 0.01) and the incorporation of rare alleles in haplotypes correlate with reduced mRNA (P = 0.03). The 5'-UTR-363 SNP is located in one of the three promoters of CES2. However, we did not observe significant differences in CES2 activities (irinotecan and procaine hydrolysis) among individuals with different haplotypes.
ESTHER : Wu_2004_Pharmacogenet_14_595
PubMedSearch : Wu_2004_Pharmacogenet_14_595
PubMedID: 15475733
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-CES2

Title : Characterization of multiple promoters in the human carboxylesterase 2 gene - Wu_2003_Pharmacogenet_13_425
Author(s) : Wu MH , Chen P , Remo BF , Cook EH, Jr. , Das S , Dolan ME
Ref : Pharmacogenetics , 13 :425 , 2003
Abstract : Carboxylesterases are a broad class of enzymes important in the detoxification of many ester- or amide-bond containing xenobiotics. They also activate analgesics, anticancer prodrugs, and other biologically active compounds, such as cocaine and heroin. The objective of this work was to identify the CES2 gene structure, complex 5' untranslated regions and three potential promoters for the initiation of transcription in different human tissues. Using bioinformatics and progressive reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, we found that the 5' untranslated region is more than 1100 bases longer than previously reported. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends showed three distinctive transcription start sites at -74, -629 and -1187. DNA fragments upstream of each of the three transcription start sites were found to be transcriptionally active in HepG2 cells. The distal promoter is active in both orientations, suggesting its potential role in the transcription of another gene, CGI-128, located immediately upstream to the distal promoter in the opposite direction with respect to CES2. Hybridization analyses showed that CES2 is highly expressed in the heart, skeletal muscle, colon, spleen, kidney and liver, but considerably less expressed in fetal tissues (e.g. fetal heart, kidney, spleen, and liver) and cancer cells. It is also evident that the distal promoter is responsible for low level expression of the gene in many tissues, whereas the other two promoters are tissue specific. These findings shed some light on CES2 gene regulation, a gene important in the metabolism of many drugs.
ESTHER : Wu_2003_Pharmacogenet_13_425
PubMedSearch : Wu_2003_Pharmacogenet_13_425
PubMedID: 12835618
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-CES2