Goormachtig S

References (9)

Title : Bioassays for the Effects of Strigolactones and Other Small Molecules on Root and Root Hair Development - Villaecija-Aguilar_2021_Methods.Mol.Biol_2309_129
Author(s) : Villaecija-Aguilar JA , Struk S , Goormachtig S , Gutjahr C
Ref : Methods Mol Biol , 2309 :129 , 2021
Abstract : Growth and development of plant roots are highly dynamic and adaptable to environmental conditions. They are under the control of several plant hormone signaling pathways, and therefore root developmental responses can be used as bioassays to study the action of plant hormones and other small molecules. In this chapter, we present different procedures to measure root traits of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We explain methods for phenotypic analysis of lateral root development, primary root length, root skewing and straightness, and root hair density and length. We describe optimal growth conditions for Arabidopsis seedlings for reproducible root and root hair developmental outputs; and how to acquire images and measure the different traits using image analysis with relatively low-tech equipment. We provide guidelines for a semiautomatic image analysis of primary root length, root skewing, and root straightness in Fiji and a script to automate the calculation of root angle deviation from the vertical and root straightness. By including mutants defective in strigolactone (SL) or KAI2 ligand (KL) synthesis and/or signaling, these methods can be used as bioassays for different SLs or SL-like molecules. In addition, the techniques described here can be used for studying seedling root system architecture, root skewing, and root hair development in any context.
ESTHER : Villaecija-Aguilar_2021_Methods.Mol.Biol_2309_129
PubMedSearch : Villaecija-Aguilar_2021_Methods.Mol.Biol_2309_129
PubMedID: 34028684

Title : A Phelipanche ramosa KAI2 protein perceives strigolactones and isothiocyanates enzymatically - de Saint Germain_2021_Plant.Commun_2_100166
Author(s) : de Saint Germain A , Jacobs A , Brun G , Pouvreau JB , Braem L , Cornu D , Clave G , Baudu E , Steinmetz V , Servajean V , Wicke S , Gevaert K , Simier P , Goormachtig S , Delavault P , Boyer FD
Ref : Plant Commun , 2 :100166 , 2021
Abstract : Phelipanche ramosa is an obligate root-parasitic weed that threatens major crops in central Europe. In order to germinate, it must perceive various structurally divergent host-exuded signals, including isothiocyanates (ITCs) and strigolactones (SLs). However, the receptors involved are still uncharacterized. Here, we identify five putative SL receptors in P. ramosa and show that PrKAI2d3 is involved in the stimulation of seed germination. We demonstrate the high plasticity of PrKAI2d3, which allows it to interact with different chemicals, including ITCs. The SL perception mechanism of PrKAI2d3 is similar to that of endogenous SLs in non-parasitic plants. We provide evidence that PrKAI2d3 enzymatic activity confers hypersensitivity to SLs. Additionally, we demonstrate that methylbutenolide-OH binds PrKAI2d3 and stimulates P. ramosa germination with bioactivity comparable to that of ITCs. This study demonstrates that P. ramosa has extended its signal perception system during evolution, a fact that should be considered for the development of specific and efficient biocontrol methods.
ESTHER : de Saint Germain_2021_Plant.Commun_2_100166
PubMedSearch : de Saint Germain_2021_Plant.Commun_2_100166
PubMedID: 34746757
Gene_locus related to this paper: phera-PrKAI2c , phera-PrKAI2d1 , phera-PrKAI2d2 , phera-PrKAI2d3 , phera-PrKAI2d4

Title : Unraveling the MAX2 Protein Network in Arabidopsis thaliana: Identification of the Protein Phosphatase PAPP5 as a Novel MAX2 Interactor - Struk_2020_Mol.Cell.Proteomics__
Author(s) : Struk S , De Cuyper C , Jacobs A , Braem L , Walton A , De Keyser A , Depuydt S , Vu LD , De Smet I , Boyer FD , Eeckhout D , Persiau G , Gevaert K , De Jaeger G , Goormachtig S
Ref : Mol Cell Proteomics , : , 2020
Abstract : The F-box protein MORE AXILLARY GROWTH 2 (MAX2) is a central component in the signaling cascade of strigolactones (SLs) as well as of the smoke derived karrikins (KARs) and the so far unknown endogenous KAI2 ligand (KL). The two groups of molecules are involved in overlapping and unique developmental processes, and signal-specific outcomes are attributed to perception by the paralogous alpha/beta-hydrolases DWARF14 (D14) for SL and KARRIKIN INSENSITIVE 2/ HYPOSENSITIVE TO LIGHT (KAI2/HTL) for KAR/KL. Additionally, depending on which receptor is activated, specific members of the SUPPRESSOR OF MAX2 1 (SMAX1) - LIKE (SMXL) family control KAR/KL and SL responses. As proteins that function in the same signal transduction pathway often occur in large protein complexes, we aimed at discovering new players of the MAX2, D14 and KAI2 protein network by tandem affinity purification using Arabidopsis cell cultures. When using MAX2 as a bait, various proteins were co-purified among which general components of the Skp1-Cullin-F-box complex and members of the CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 9 signalosome. Here, we report the identification of a novel interactor of MAX2, a type 5 serine/threonine protein phosphatase, designated PHYTOCHROME-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 5 (PAPP5). Quantitative affinity purification pointed at PAPP5 as being more present in KAI2 rather than D14 protein complexes. In agreement, mutant analysis suggests that PAPP5 modulates KAR/KL-dependent seed germination in suboptimal conditions and seedling development. Additionally, a phosphopeptide enrichment experiment revealed that PAPP5 might dephosphorylate MAX2 in vivo independently of the synthetic strigolactone analog, rac-GR24. Together, by analyzing the protein complexes to which MAX2, D14 and KAI2 belong, we revealed a new MAX2 interactor, PAPP5, that might act through dephosphorylation of MAX2 to control mainly KAR/KL- related phenotypes and, hence, provide another link with the light pathway.
ESTHER : Struk_2020_Mol.Cell.Proteomics__
PubMedSearch : Struk_2020_Mol.Cell.Proteomics__
PubMedID: 33372050

Title : Strigolactones, karrikins and beyond - De Cuyper_2017_Plant.Cell.Environ_40_1691
Author(s) : De Cuyper C , Struk S , Braem L , Gevaert K , De Jaeger G , Goormachtig S
Ref : Plant Cell Environ , 40 :1691 , 2017
Abstract : The plant hormones strigolactones are synthesized from carotenoids and signal via the alpha/beta hydrolase DWARF 14 (D14) and the F-box protein MORE AXILLARY GROWTH 2 (MAX2). Karrikins, molecules produced upon fire, share MAX2 for signalling, but depend on the D14 paralog KARRIKIN INSENSITIVE 2 (KAI2) for perception with strong evidence that the MAX2-KAI2 protein complex might also recognize so far unknown plant-made karrikin-like molecules. Thus, the phenotypes of the max2 mutants are the complex consequence of a loss of both D14-dependent and KAI2-dependent signalling, hence, the reason why some biological roles, attributed to strigolactones based on max2 phenotypes, could never be observed in d14 or in the strigolactone-deficient max3 and max4 mutants. Moreover, the broadly used synthetic strigolactone analog rac-GR24 has been shown to mimic strigolactone as well as karrikin(-like) signals, providing an extra level of complexity in the distinction of the unique and common roles of both molecules in plant biology. Here, a critical overview is provided of the diverse biological processes regulated by strigolactones and/or karrikins. These two growth regulators are considered beyond their boundaries, and the importance of the yet unknown karrikin-like molecules is discussed as well.
ESTHER : De Cuyper_2017_Plant.Cell.Environ_40_1691
PubMedSearch : De Cuyper_2017_Plant.Cell.Environ_40_1691
PubMedID: 28558130

Title : The Whats, the Wheres and the Hows of strigolactone action in the roots - Matthys_2016_Planta_243_1327
Author(s) : Matthys C , Walton A , Struk S , Stes E , Boyer FD , Gevaert K , Goormachtig S
Ref : Planta , 243 :1327 , 2016
Abstract : Strigolactones control various aspects of plant development, including root architecture. Here, we review how strigolactones act in the root and survey the strigolactone specificity of signaling components that affect root development. Strigolactones are a group of secondary metabolites produced in plants that have been assigned multiple roles, of which the most recent is hormonal activity. Over the last decade, these compounds have been shown to regulate various aspects of plant development, such as shoot branching and leaf senescence, but a growing body of literature suggests that these hormones play an equally important role in the root. In this review, we present all known root phenotypes linked to strigolactones. We examine the expression and presence of the main players in biosynthesis and signaling of these hormones and bring together the available information that allows us to explain how strigolactones act to modulate the root system architecture.
ESTHER : Matthys_2016_Planta_243_1327
PubMedSearch : Matthys_2016_Planta_243_1327
PubMedID: 26895337

Title : Strigolactones spatially influence lateral root development through the cytokinin signaling network - Jiang_2016_J.Exp.Bot_67_379
Author(s) : Jiang L , Matthys C , Marquez-Garcia B , De Cuyper C , Smet L , De Keyser A , Boyer FD , Beeckman T , Depuydt S , Goormachtig S
Ref : J Exp Bot , 67 :379 , 2016
Abstract : Strigolactones are important rhizosphere signals that act as phytohormones and have multiple functions, including modulation of lateral root (LR) development. Here, we show that treatment with the strigolactone analog GR24 did not affect LR initiation, but negatively influenced LR priming and emergence, the latter especially near the root-shoot junction. The cytokinin module ARABIDOPSIS HISTIDINE KINASE3 (AHK3)/ARABIDOPSIS RESPONSE REGULATOR1 (ARR1)/ARR12 was found to interact with the GR24-dependent reduction in LR development, because mutants in this pathway rendered LR development insensitive to GR24. Additionally, pharmacological analyses, mutant analyses, and gene expression analyses indicated that the affected polar auxin transport stream in mutants of the AHK3/ARR1/ARR12 module could be the underlying cause. Altogether, the data reveal that the GR24 effect on LR development depends on the hormonal landscape that results from the intimate connection with auxins and cytokinins, two main players in LR development.
ESTHER : Jiang_2016_J.Exp.Bot_67_379
PubMedSearch : Jiang_2016_J.Exp.Bot_67_379
PubMedID: 26519957

Title : The Response of the Root Proteome to the Synthetic Strigolactone GR24 in Arabidopsis - Walton_2016_Mol.Cell.Proteomics_15_2744
Author(s) : Walton A , Stes E , Goeminne G , Braem L , Vuylsteke M , Matthys C , De Cuyper C , Staes A , Vandenbussche J , Boyer FD , Vanholme R , Fromentin J , Boerjan W , Gevaert K , Goormachtig S
Ref : Mol Cell Proteomics , 15 :2744 , 2016
Abstract : Strigolactones are plant metabolites that act as phytohormones and rhizosphere signals. Whereas most research on unraveling the action mechanisms of strigolactones is focused on plant shoots, we investigated proteome adaptation during strigolactone signaling in the roots of Arabidopsis thaliana. Through large-scale, time-resolved, and quantitative proteomics, the impact of the strigolactone analog rac-GR24 was elucidated on the root proteome of the wild type and the signaling mutant more axillary growth 2 (max2). Our study revealed a clear MAX2-dependent rac-GR24 response: an increase in abundance of enzymes involved in flavonol biosynthesis, which was reduced in the max2-1 mutant. Mass spectrometry-driven metabolite profiling and thin-layer chromatography experiments demonstrated that these changes in protein expression lead to the accumulation of specific flavonols. Moreover, quantitative RT-PCR revealed that the flavonol-related protein expression profile was caused by rac-GR24-induced changes in transcript levels of the corresponding genes. This induction of flavonol production was shown to be activated by the two pure enantiomers that together make up rac-GR24. Finally, our data provide much needed clues concerning the multiple roles played by MAX2 in the roots and a comprehensive view of the rac-GR24-induced response in the root proteome.
ESTHER : Walton_2016_Mol.Cell.Proteomics_15_2744
PubMedSearch : Walton_2016_Mol.Cell.Proteomics_15_2744
PubMedID: 27317401

Title : New strigolactone analogs as plant hormones with low activities in the rhizosphere - Boyer_2014_Mol.Plant_7_675
Author(s) : Boyer FD , de Saint Germain A , Pouvreau JB , Clave G , Pillot JP , Roux A , Rasmussen A , Depuydt S , Lauressergues D , Frei dit Frey N , Heugebaert TS , Stevens CV , Geelen D , Goormachtig S , Rameau C
Ref : Mol Plant , 7 :675 , 2014
Abstract : Strigolactones (SLs) are known not only as plant hormones, but also as rhizosphere signals for establishing symbiotic and parasitic interactions. The design of new specific SL analogs is a challenging goal in understanding the basic plant biology and is also useful to control plant architectures without favoring the development of parasitic plants. Two different molecules (23 (3'-methyl-GR24), 31 (thia-3'-methyl-debranone-like molecule)) already described, and a new one (AR36), for which the synthesis is presented, are biologically compared with the well-known GR24 and the recently identified CISA-1. These different structures emphasize the wide range of parts attached to the D-ring for the bioactivity as a plant hormone. These new compounds possess a common dimethylbutenolide motif but their structure varies in the ABC part of the molecules: 23 has the same ABC part as GR24, while 31 and AR36 carry, respectively, an aromatic ring and an acyclic carbon chain. Detailed information is given for the bioactivity of such derivatives in strigolactone synthesis or in perception mutant plants (pea rms1 and rms4, Arabidopsis max2 and, max4) for different hormonal functions along with their action in the rhizosphere on arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphal growth and parasitic weed germination.
ESTHER : Boyer_2014_Mol.Plant_7_675
PubMedSearch : Boyer_2014_Mol.Plant_7_675
PubMedID: 24249726

Title : A fluorescent alternative to the synthetic strigolactone GR24 - Rasmussen_2013_Mol.Plant_6_100
Author(s) : Rasmussen A , Heugebaert T , Matthys C , Van Deun R , Boyer FD , Goormachtig S , Stevens C , Geelen D
Ref : Mol Plant , 6 :100 , 2013
Abstract : Strigolactones have recently been implicated in both above- and below-ground developmental pathways in higher plants. To facilitate the molecular and chemical properties of strigolactones in vitro and in vivo, we have developed a fluorescent strigolactone molecule, CISA-1, synthesized via a novel method which was robust, high-yielding, and used simple starting materials. We demonstrate that CISA-1 has a broad range of known strigolactone activities and further report on an adventitious rooting assay in Arabidopsis which is a highly sensitive and rapid method for testing biological activity of strigolactone analogs. In this rooting assay and the widely used Orobanche germination assay, CISA-1 showed stronger biological activity than the commonly tested GR24. CISA-1 and GR24 were equally effective at inhibiting branching in Arabidopsis inflorescence stems. In both the branching and adventitious rooting assay, we also demonstrated that CISA-1 activity is dependent on the max strigolactone signaling pathway. In water methanol solutions, CISA-1 was about threefold more stable than GR24, which may contribute to the increased activity observed in the various biological tests.
ESTHER : Rasmussen_2013_Mol.Plant_6_100
PubMedSearch : Rasmussen_2013_Mol.Plant_6_100
PubMedID: 23024210