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References (7)

Title : Discovery of drug-like acetylcholinesterase inhibitors by rapid virtual screening of a 6.9 million compound database - Miles_2021_Chem.Biol.Drug.Des__
Author(s) : Miles JA , Ng JH , Sreenivas BY , Courageux C , Igert A , Dias J , McGeary RP , Brazzolotto X , Ross BP
Ref : Chemical Biology Drug Des , : , 2021
Abstract : Cholinesterase inhibitors remain the mainstay of Alzheimer's disease treatment, and the search for new inhibitors with better efficacy and side effect profiles is ongoing. Virtual screening (VS) is a powerful technique for searching large compound databases for potential hits. This study used a sequential VS workflow combining ligand-based VS, molecular docking and physicochemical filtering to screen for CNS drug-like acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) amongst the 6.9 million compounds of the CoCoCo database. Eleven in silico hits were initially selected, resulting in the discovery of an AChEI with a K(i) of 3.2 microM. In vitro kinetics and in silico molecular dynamics experiments informed the selection of an additional seven analogues. This led to the discovery of two further AChEIs, with K(i) values of 2.9 microM and 0.65 microM. All three compounds exhibited reversible, mixed inhibition of AChE. Importantly, the in silico physicochemical filter facilitated the discovery of CNS drug-like compounds, such that all three inhibitors displayed high in vitro blood-brain barrier model permeability.
ESTHER : Miles_2021_Chem.Biol.Drug.Des__
PubMedSearch : Miles_2021_Chem.Biol.Drug.Des__
PubMedID: 33455074

Title : Diisopropylfluorophosphate-induced status epilepticus drives complex glial cell phenotypes in adult male mice - Maupu_2021_Neurobiol.Dis__105276
Author(s) : Maupu C , Enderlin J , Igert A , Oger M , Auvin S , Hassan-Abdi R , Soussi-Yanicostas N , Brazzolotto X , Nachon F , Bo GD , Dupuis N
Ref : Neurobiol Dis , :105276 , 2021
Abstract : Organophosphate pesticides and nerve agents (OPs), are characterized by cholinesterase inhibition. In addition to severe peripheral symptoms, high doses of OPs can lead to seizures and status epilepticus (SE). Long lasting seizure activity and subsequent neurodegeneration promote neuroinflammation leading to profound pathological alterations of the brain. The aim of this study was to characterize neuroinflammatory responses at key time points after SE induced by the OP, diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis and RT-qPCR on cerebral tissue are often insufficient to identity and quantify precise neuroinflammatory alterations. To address these needs, we performed RT-qPCR quantification after whole brain magnetic-activated cell-sorting (MACS) of CD11B (microglia/infiltrated macrophages) and GLAST (astrocytes)-positive cells at 1, 4, 24 h and 3 days post-SE. In order to compare these results to those obtained by IHC, we performed, classical Iba1 (microglia/infiltrated macrophages) and GFAP (astrocytes) IHC analysis in parallel, focusing on the hippocampus, a brain region affected by seizure activity and neurodegeneration. Shortly after SE (1-4 h), an increase in pro-inflammatory (M1-like) markers and A2-specific markers, proposed as neurotrophic, were observed in CD11B and GLAST-positive isolated cells, respectively. Microglial cells successively expressed immuno-regulatory (M2b-like) and anti-inflammatory (M2a-like) at 4 h and 24 h post-SE induction. At 24 h and 3 days, A1-specific markers, proposed as neurotoxic, were increased in isolated astrocytes. Although IHC analysis presented no modification in terms of percentage of marked area and cell number at 1 and 4 h after SE, at 24 h and 3 days after SE, microglial and astrocytic activation was visible by IHC as an increase in Iba1 and GFAP-positive area and Iba1-positive cells in DFP animals when compared to the control. Our work identified sequential microglial and astrocytic phenotype activation. Although the role of each phenotype in SE cerebral outcomes requires further study, targeting specific markers at specific time point could be a beneficial strategy for DFP-induced SE treatment.
ESTHER : Maupu_2021_Neurobiol.Dis__105276
PubMedSearch : Maupu_2021_Neurobiol.Dis__105276
PubMedID: 33529768

Title : Characterization of four BCHE mutations associated with prolonged effect of suxamethonium - Brazzolotto_2021_Pharmacogenomics.J_21_165
Author(s) : Brazzolotto X , Courcelle S , Sauvanet C , Guillon V , Igert A , Kononchik J , Nachon F , Ceppa F , Delacour H
Ref : Pharmacogenomics J , 21(2):165-173 : , 2021
Abstract : Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) deficiency is characterized by prolonged apnea after the use of muscle relaxants (suxamethonium or mivacurium) in patients who have mutations in the BCHE gene. Here, we report the characterization of four BCHE mutations associated with prolonged effect of suxamethonium (amino acid numbering based on the matured enzyme): p.20delValPheGlyGlyThrValThr, p.Leu88His, p.Ile140del and p.Arg386Cys. Expression of recombinant BCHE mutants, kinetic analysis and molecular dynamics were undertaken to understand how these mutations induce BChE deficiency. Three of the mutations studied (p.20delValPheGlyGlyThrValThr, p.Ile140del and p.Arg386Cys) lead to a "silent" BChE phenotype. Recombinant BCHE expression studies for these mutants revealed BChE activity levels comparable to untransfected cells. Only the last one (hBChE-L88H) presented BChE activity in the transfected cell culture medium. This BChE mutant (p.Leu88His) is associated with a lower k(cat) value compare to the wild-type enzyme. Molecular dynamics simulations analyses suggest that a destabilization of a structure implicated in enzyme activity (-loop) can explain the modification of the kinetic parameter of the mutated protein.
ESTHER : Brazzolotto_2021_Pharmacogenomics.J_21_165
PubMedSearch : Brazzolotto_2021_Pharmacogenomics.J_21_165
PubMedID: 33024248

Title : Organophosphorus diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) intoxication in zebrafish larvae causes behavioral defects, neuronal hyperexcitation and neuronal death - Brenet_2020_Sci.Rep_10_19228
Author(s) : Brenet A , Somkhit J , Hassan-Abdi R , Yanicostas C , Romain C , Bar O , Igert A , Saurat D , Taudon N , Dal-Bo G , Nachon F , Dupuis N , Soussi-Yanicostas N
Ref : Sci Rep , 10 :19228 , 2020
Abstract : With millions of intoxications each year and over 200,000 deaths, organophosphorus (OP) compounds are an important public health issue worldwide. OP poisoning induces cholinergic syndrome, with respiratory distress, hypertension, and neuron damage that may lead to epileptic seizures and permanent cognitive deficits. Existing countermeasures are lifesaving but do not prevent long-lasting neuronal comorbidities, emphasizing the urgent need for animal models to better understand OP neurotoxicity and identify novel antidotes. Here, using diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP), a prototypic and moderately toxic OP, combined with zebrafish larvae, we first showed that DFP poisoning caused major acetylcholinesterase inhibition, resulting in paralysis and CNS neuron hyperactivation, as indicated by increased neuronal calcium transients and overexpression of the immediate early genes fosab, junBa, npas4b, and atf3. In addition to these epileptiform seizure-like events, DFP-exposed larvae showed increased neuronal apoptosis, which were both partially alleviated by diazepam treatment, suggesting a causal link between neuronal hyperexcitation and cell death. Last, DFP poisoning induced an altered balance of glutamatergic/GABAergic synaptic activity with increased NR2B-NMDA receptor accumulation combined with decreased GAD65/67 and gephyrin protein accumulation. The zebrafish DFP model presented here thus provides important novel insights into the pathophysiology of OP intoxication, making it a promising model to identify novel antidotes.
ESTHER : Brenet_2020_Sci.Rep_10_19228
PubMedSearch : Brenet_2020_Sci.Rep_10_19228
PubMedID: 33154418
Gene_locus related to this paper: danre-ACHE

Title : Characterization of organophosphate-induced brain injuries in a convulsive mouse model of diisopropylfluorophosphate exposure - Enderlin_2020_Epilepsia__
Author(s) : Enderlin J , Igert A , Auvin S , Nachon F , Dal Bo G , Dupuis N
Ref : Epilepsia , : , 2020
Abstract : Organophosphate (OP) compounds constitute a class of highly toxic molecules, characterized by irreversible cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition. Being either pesticides or chemical warfare agents, they present a major health issue in some countries, as well as a terrorist or military threat. Prompted by the need for suitable animal models to test novel medical countermeasures, we developed a new convulsive mouse model of OP poisoning using diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP). Using electrocorticography (ECoG), we analyzed seizure and status epilepticus (SE) occurrences, as well as relative power of ECoG frequency band modifications after DFP injection in male Swiss mice. Next, we investigated DFP effect on ChE inhibition. Histological changes on neuronal activity and neuronal damage were examined by c-Fos immunolabeling and Fluoro-Jade C staining. We showed that mice exposed to DFP presented electrocorticographic seizures that rapidly progressed to SE within 20 minutes. Lasting >8 hours, DFP-induced SE was associated with major power spectrum modifications in seizing DFP animals compared to control animals. Seizures and SE development were concomitant with profound ChE inhibition and induced massive neuronal degeneration. Presenting all hallmarks of convulsive OP poisoning, we showed that our mouse model is valuable for studying pathophysiological mechanisms and preclinical testing of newly available therapeutic molecules.
ESTHER : Enderlin_2020_Epilepsia__
PubMedSearch : Enderlin_2020_Epilepsia__
PubMedID: 32359085

Title : Rapid discovery of a selective butyrylcholinesterase inhibitor using structure-based virtual screening - Miles_2020_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett__127609
Author(s) : Miles JA , Kapure JS , Singh Deora G , Courageux C , Igert A , Dias J , McGeary RP , Brazzolotto X , Ross BP
Ref : Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Lett , :127609 , 2020
Abstract : Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are the mainstay of Alzheimer's disease treatments, despite only short-term symptomatic benefits and severe side effects. Selective butyrylcholinesterase inhibitors (BuChEIs) may be more effective treatments in late-stage Alzheimer's disease with fewer side effects. Virtual screening is a powerful tool for identifying potential inhibitors in large digital compound databases. This study used structure-based virtual screening combined with physicochemical filtering to screen two the InterBioScreen and Maybridge databases for novel selective BuChEIs. The workflow rapidly identified 22 potential hits in silico, resulting in the discovery of a human BuChEI with low-micromolar potency in vitro (IC(50) 2.4 muM) and high selectivity for butyrylcholinesterase over acetylcholinesterase. The compound was a rapidly reversible BuChEI with mixed-model in vitro inhibition kinetics. The binding interactions were investigated using in silico molecular dynamics, and by developing structure-activity relationships using nine analogues. The compound also displayed high permeability in an in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier.
ESTHER : Miles_2020_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett__127609
PubMedSearch : Miles_2020_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett__127609
PubMedID: 33039562

Title : Bacterial Expression of Human Butyrylcholinesterase as a Tool for Nerve Agent Bioscavengers Development - Brazzolotto_2017_Molecules_22_
Author(s) : Brazzolotto X , Igert A , Guillon V , Santoni G , Nachon F
Ref : Molecules , 22 : , 2017
Abstract : Human butyrylcholinesterase is a performant stoichiometric bioscavenger of organophosphorous nerve agents. It is either isolated from outdated plasma or functionally expressed in eukaryotic systems. Here, we report the production of active human butyrylcholinesterase in a prokaryotic system after optimization of the primary sequence through the Protein Repair One Stop Shop process, a structure- and sequence-based algorithm for soluble bacterial expression of difficult eukaryotic proteins. The mutant enzyme was purified to homogeneity. Its kinetic parameters with substrate are similar to the endogenous human butyrylcholinesterase or recombinants produced in eukaryotic systems. The isolated protein was prone to crystallize and its 2.5-A X-ray structure revealed an active site gorge region identical to that of previously solved structures. The advantages of this alternate expression system, particularly for the generation of butyrylcholinesterase variants with nerve agent hydrolysis activity, are discussed.
ESTHER : Brazzolotto_2017_Molecules_22_
PubMedSearch : Brazzolotto_2017_Molecules_22_
PubMedID: 29077024
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-BCHE