Jones MK

References (5)

Title : Lentiviral Transduction-based CRISPR\/Cas9 Editing of Schistosoma mansoni Acetylcholinesterase - Du_2023_Curr.Genomics_24_155
Author(s) : Du X , McManus DP , French JD , Sivakumaran H , Johnston RL , Kondrashova O , Fogarty CE , Jones MK , You H
Ref : Curr Genomics , 24 :155 , 2023
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Recent studies on CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing in Schistosoma mansoni have shed new light on the study and control of this parasitic helminth. However, the gene editing efficiency in this parasite is modest. METHODS: To improve the efficiency of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing in schistosomes, we used lentivirus, which has been effectively used for gene editing in mammalian cells, to deliver plasmid DNA encoding Cas9 nuclease, a sgRNA targeting acetylcholinesterase (SmAChE) and a mCherry fluorescence marker into schistosomes. RESULTS: MCherry fluorescence was observed in transduced eggs, schistosomula, and adult worms, indicating that the CRISPR components had been delivered into these parasite stages by lentivirus. In addition, clearly changed phenotypes were observed in SmAChE-edited parasites, including decreased SmAChE activity, reduced hatching ability of edited eggs, and altered behavior of miracidia hatched from edited eggs. Next-generation sequencing analysis demonstrated that the lentiviral transduction-based CRISPR/Cas9 gene modifications in SmAChE-edited schistosomes were homology-directed repair predominant but with much lower efficiency than that obtained using electroporation (data previously published by our laboratory) for the delivery of CRISPR components. CONCLUSION: Taken together, electroporation is more efficient than lentiviral transduction in the delivery of CRISPR/Cas9 into schistosomes for programmed genome editing. The exploration of tactics for enhancing CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing provides the basis for the future improvement of programmed genome editing in S. mansoni.
ESTHER : Du_2023_Curr.Genomics_24_155
PubMedSearch : Du_2023_Curr.Genomics_24_155
PubMedID: 38178986

Title : CRISPR\/Cas9-mediated genome editing of Schistosoma mansoni acetylcholinesterase - You_2021_FASEB.J_35_e21205
Author(s) : You H , Mayer JU , Johnston RL , Sivakumaran H , Ranasinghe S , Rivera V , Kondrashova O , Koufariotis LT , Du X , Driguez P , French JD , Waddell N , Duke MG , Ittiprasert W , Mann VH , Brindley PJ , Jones MK , McManus DP
Ref : FASEB Journal , 35 :e21205 , 2021
Abstract : CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing shows cogent potential for the genetic modification of helminth parasites. We report successful gene knock-in (KI) into the genome of the egg of Schistosoma mansoni by combining CRISPR/Cas9 with single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides (ssODNs). We edited the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) gene of S. mansoni targeting two guide RNAs (gRNAs), X5 and X7, located on exon 5 and exon 7 of Smp_154600, respectively. Eggs recovered from livers of experimentally infected mice were transfected by electroporation with a CRISPR/Cas9-vector encoding gRNA X5 or X7 combining with/ without a ssODN donor. Next generation sequencing analysis of reads of amplicon libraries spanning targeted regions revealed that the major modifications induced by CRISPR/Cas9 in the eggs were generated by homology directed repair (HDR). Furthermore, soluble egg antigen from AChE-edited eggs exhibited markedly reduced AChE activity, indicative that programed Cas9 cleavage mutated the AChE gene. Following injection of AChE-edited schistosome eggs into the tail veins of mice, an significantly enhanced Th2 response involving IL-4, -5, -10, and-13 was detected in lung cells and splenocytes in mice injected with X5-KI eggs in comparison to control mice injected with unmutated eggs. A Th2-predominant response, with increased levels of IL-4, -13, and GATA3, also was induced by X5 KI eggs in small intestine-draining mesenteric lymph node cells when the gene-edited eggs were introduced into the subserosa of the ileum of the mice. These findings confirmed the potential and the utility of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing for functional genomics in schistosomes.
ESTHER : You_2021_FASEB.J_35_e21205
PubMedSearch : You_2021_FASEB.J_35_e21205
PubMedID: 33337558

Title : Functional characterisation of Schistosoma japonicum acetylcholinesterase - You_2016_Parasit.Vectors_9_328
Author(s) : You H , Gobert GN , Du X , Pali G , Cai P , Jones MK , McManus DP
Ref : Parasit Vectors , 9 :328 , 2016
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is an important metabolic enzyme of schistosomes present in the musculature and on the surface of the blood stage where it has been implicated in the modulation of glucose scavenging from mammalian host blood. As both a target for the antischistosomal drug metrifonate and as a potential vaccine candidate, AChE has been characterised in the schistosome species Schistosoma mansoni, S. haematobium and S. bovis, but not in S. japonicum. Recently, using a schistosome protein microarray, a predicted S. japonicum acetylcholinesterase precursor was significantly targeted by protective IgG1 immune responses in S. haematobium-exposed individuals that had acquired drug-induced resistance to schistosomiasis after praziquantel treatment.
RESULTS: We report the full-length cDNA sequence and describe phylogenetic and molecular structural analysis to facilitate understanding of the biological function of AChE (SjAChE) in S. japonicum. The protein has high sequence identity (88 %) with the AChEs in S. mansoni, S. haematobium and S. bovis and has 25 % sequence similarity with human AChE, suggestive of a highly specialised role for the enzyme in both parasite and host. We immunolocalized SjAChE and demonstrated its presence on the surface of adult worms and schistosomula, as well as its lower expression in parenchymal regions. The relatively abundance of AChE activity (90 %) present on the surface of adult S. japonicum when compared with that reported in other schistosomes suggests SjAChE may be a more effective drug or immunological target against this species. We also demonstrate that the classical inhibitor of AChE, BW285c51, inhibited AChE activity in tegumental extracts of paired worms, single males and single females by 59, 22 and 50 %, respectively, after 24 h incubation with 200 muM BW284c51.
CONCLUSIONS: These results build on previous studies in other schistosome species indicating major differences in the enzyme between parasite and mammalian host, and provide further support for the design of an anti-schistosome intervention targeting AChE.
ESTHER : You_2016_Parasit.Vectors_9_328
PubMedSearch : You_2016_Parasit.Vectors_9_328
PubMedID: 27283196
Gene_locus related to this paper: schja-a0a191sw41

Title : A robust all-atom model for LCAT generated by homology modeling - Segrest_2015_J.Lipid.Res_56_620
Author(s) : Segrest JP , Jones MK , Catte A , Thirumuruganandham SP
Ref : J Lipid Res , 56 :620 , 2015
Abstract : LCAT is activated by apoA-I to form cholesteryl ester. We combined two structures, phospholipase A2 (PLA2) that hydrolyzes the ester bond at the sn-2 position of oxidized (short) acyl chains of phospholipid, and bacteriophage tubulin PhuZ, as C- and N-terminal templates, respectively, to create a novel homology model for human LCAT. The juxtaposition of multiple structural motifs matching experimental data is compelling evidence for the general correctness of many features of the model: i) The N-terminal 10 residues of the model, required for LCAT activity, extend the hydrophobic binding trough for the sn-2 chain 15-20 A relative to PLA2. ii) The topography of the trough places the ester bond of the sn-2 chain less than 5 A from the hydroxyl of the catalytic nucleophile, S181. iii) A beta-hairpin resembling a lipase lid separates S181 from solvent. iv) S181 interacts with three functionally critical residues: E149, that regulates sn-2 chain specificity, and K128 and R147, whose mutations cause LCAT deficiency. Because the model provides a novel explanation for the complicated thermodynamic problem of the transfer of hydrophobic substrates from HDL to the catalytic triad of LCAT, it is an important step toward understanding the antiatherogenic role of HDL in reverse cholesterol transport.
ESTHER : Segrest_2015_J.Lipid.Res_56_620
PubMedSearch : Segrest_2015_J.Lipid.Res_56_620
PubMedID: 25589508

Title : The genome of the hydatid tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus - Zheng_2013_Nat.Genet_45_1168
Author(s) : Zheng H , Zhang W , Zhang L , Zhang Z , Li J , Lu G , Zhu Y , Wang Y , Huang Y , Liu J , Kang H , Chen J , Wang L , Chen A , Yu S , Gao Z , Jin L , Gu W , Wang Z , Zhao L , Shi B , Wen H , Lin R , Jones MK , Brejova B , Vinar T , Zhao G , McManus DP , Chen Z , Zhou Y , Wang S
Ref : Nat Genet , 45 :1168 , 2013
Abstract : Cystic echinococcosis (hydatid disease), caused by the tapeworm E. granulosus, is responsible for considerable human morbidity and mortality. This cosmopolitan disease is difficult to diagnose, treat and control. We present a draft genomic sequence for the worm comprising 151.6 Mb encoding 11,325 genes. Comparisons with the genome sequences from other taxa show that E. granulosus has acquired a spectrum of genes, including the EgAgB family, whose products are secreted by the parasite to interact and redirect host immune responses. We also find that genes in bile salt pathways may control the bidirectional development of E. granulosus, and sequence differences in the calcium channel subunit EgCavbeta1 may be associated with praziquantel sensitivity. Our study offers insights into host interaction, nutrient acquisition, strobilization, reproduction, immune evasion and maturation in the parasite and provides a platform to facilitate the development of new, effective treatments and interventions for echinococcosis control.
ESTHER : Zheng_2013_Nat.Genet_45_1168
PubMedSearch : Zheng_2013_Nat.Genet_45_1168
PubMedID: 24013640
Gene_locus related to this paper: echgr-k4epc5 , echmu-u6hbw4 , echgr-w6ugl0 , echgr-w6u7y4 , echgr-w6vaq5 , echgr-a0a068wxj3 , echgr-a0a068wgw1 , echgr-a0a068wl60