Morou E

References (8)

Title : Species composition, infection rate and detection of resistant alleles in Anopheles funestus (Diptera: Culicidae) from Lare, a malaria hotspot district of Ethiopia - Woyessa_2023_Malar.J_22_233
Author(s) : Woyessa D , Morou E , Wipf N , Dada N , Mavridis K , Vontas J , Yewhalaw D
Ref : Malar J , 22 :233 , 2023
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Anopheles funestus, which is considered as secondary vector of malaria in Ethiopia, is known to have several morphologically indistinguishable (sibling) species. Accurate identification of sibling species is crucial to understand their biology, behaviour and vector competence. In this study, molecular identification was conducted on the Ethiopian An. funestus populations. Moreover, insecticide resistance mechanism markers were detected, including ace N485I, kdr L1014F, L1014S, and CYP6P9a TaqMan qPCR was used to detect the infective stage of the parasite from field collected adult female An. funestus populations. METHODS: Adult female mosquito collection was conducted from Lare, Gambella Regional State of Ethiopia between June 2018 to July 2020 using CDC light traps and HLC. Sub-samples of the morphologically identified An. funestus mosquitoes were molecularly identified using species-specific PCR, and the possible presence of insecticide resistance alleles was investigated using TaqMan qPCR (N485I-Ace-1), PCR-Sanger sequencing (L1014F-kdr), and PCR-RFLP (CYP6P9a resistance allele). Following head/thorax dissection, the TaqMan qPCR assay was used to investigate the presence of the infective stage Plasmodium parasite species. RESULTS: A total of 1086 adult female An. funestus mosquitoes were collected during the study period. All sub-samples (N = 20) that were morphologically identified as An. funestus sensu lato (s.l.) were identified as An. funestus sensu stricto (s.s.) using species- specific PCR assay. The PCR-RFLP assay that detects the CYP6P9a resistance allele that confers pyrethroid resistance in An. funestus was applied in N = 30 randomly selected An. funestus s.l. SPECIMENS: None of the specimens showed a digestion pattern consistent with the presence of the CYP6P9a resistance allele in contrast to what was observed in the positive control. Consequently, all samples were characterized as wild type. The qPCR TaqMan assay that detects the N485I acetylcholinesterase-1 mutation conferring resistance to organophosphates/carbamates in An. funestus was used in (N = 144) samples. All samples were characterized as wild type. The kdr L1014F and L1014S mutations in the VGSC gene that confer resistance to pyrethroids and DDT were analysed with direct Sanger sequencing after PCR and clean-up of the PCR products were also characterized as wild type. None of the samples (N = 169) were found positive for Plasmodium (P. falciparum/ovale/malariae/vivax) detection. CONCLUSION: All An. funestus s.l. samples from Lare were molecularly identified as An. funestus s.s. No CYP6P9, N485I acetylcholinesterase 1, kdr L1014F or L1014S mutations were detected in the An. funestus samples. None of the An. funestus samples were positive for Plasmodium. Although the current study did not detect any insecticide resistant mechanism, it provides a reference for future vector monitoring programmes. Regular monitoring of resistance mechanisms covering wider geographical areas of Ethiopia where this vector is distributed is important for improving the efficacy of vector control programs.
ESTHER : Woyessa_2023_Malar.J_22_233
PubMedSearch : Woyessa_2023_Malar.J_22_233
PubMedID: 37573300

Title : Ryanodine receptor point mutations confer diamide insecticide resistance in tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) - Roditakis_2017_Insect.Biochem.Mol.Biol_80_11
Author(s) : Roditakis E , Steinbach D , Moritz G , Vasakis E , Stavrakaki M , Ilias A , Garcia-Vidal L , Martinez-Aguirre MD , Bielza P , Morou E , Silva JE , Silva WM , Siqueira Eta A , Iqbal S , Troczka BJ , Williamson MS , Bass C , Tsagkarakou A , Vontas J , Nauen R
Ref : Insect Biochemistry & Molecular Biology , 80 :11 , 2017
Abstract : Insect ryanodine receptors (RyR) are the molecular target-site for the recently introduced diamide insecticides. Diamides are particularly active on Lepidoptera pests, including tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). High levels of diamide resistance were recently described in some European populations of T. absoluta, however, the mechanisms of resistance remained unknown. In this study the molecular basis of diamide resistance was investigated in a diamide resistant strain from Italy (IT-GELA-SD4), and additional resistant field populations collected in Greece, Spain and Brazil. The genetics of resistance was investigated by reciprocally crossing strain IT-GELA-SD4 with a susceptible strain and revealed an autosomal incompletely recessive mode of inheritance. To investigate the possible role of target-site mutations as known from diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella), we sequenced respective domains of the RyR gene of T. absoluta. Genotyping of individuals of IT-GELA-SD4 and field-collected strains showing different levels of diamide resistance revealed the presence of G4903E and I4746M RyR target-site mutations. These amino acid substitutions correspond to those recently described for diamide resistant diamondback moth, i.e. G4946E and I4790M. We also detected two novel mutations, G4903V and I4746T, in some of the resistant T. absoluta strains. Radioligand binding studies with thoracic membrane preparations of the IT-GELA-SD4 strain provided functional evidence that these mutations alter the affinity of the RyR to diamides. In combination with previous work on P. xylostella our study highlights the importance of position G4903 (G4946 in P. xylostella) of the insect RyR in defining sensitivity to diamides. The discovery of diamide resistance mutations in T. absoluta populations of diverse geographic origin has serious implications for the efficacy of diamides under applied conditions. The implementation of appropriate resistance management strategies is strongly advised to delay the further spread of resistance.
ESTHER : Roditakis_2017_Insect.Biochem.Mol.Biol_80_11
PubMedSearch : Roditakis_2017_Insect.Biochem.Mol.Biol_80_11
PubMedID: 27845250

Title : Identification and detection of indoxacarb resistance mutations in the para sodium channel of the tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta - Roditakis_2017_Pest.Manag.Sci_73_1679
Author(s) : Roditakis E , Mavridis K , Riga M , Vasakis E , Morou E , Rison JL , Vontas J
Ref : Pest Manag Sci , 73 :1679 , 2017
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Indoxacarb is an important active ingredient extensively used for the control of Tuta absoluta, a major tomato pest, playing a particular role in insecticide resistance management schemes.
RESULTS: Reduced susceptibility to indoxacarb was identified (1794-fold resistance) through toxicological bioassays in a field population from Greece and evolved rapidly to resistance after short laboratory selection. Combined bioassays with synergists and biochemical analysis suggested only a partial involvement of detoxification enzymes in the resistant phenotype. To investigate the role of target-site resistance, segment 6 of domain IV of the sodium channel in T. absoluta was cloned and the sequences compared between susceptible and indoxacarb-resistant T. absoluta insects. The presence of the F1845Y and the V1848I indoxacarb resistance mutations was detected and was strongly associated with the phenotype. These amino acid substitutions correspond to recently characterised indoxacarb resistance mutations in diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella). Robust and accurate PCR-RFLP assays were subsequently developed and successfully validated for detecting both indoxacarb resistance mutations in field T. absoluta populations. CONCLUSION: The identification of indoxacarb resistance mutations and the development of diagnostic tools will allow early detection of indoxacarb resistance, facilitating implementation of appropriate resistance management strategies, thus delaying the spread of resistance. (c) 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.
ESTHER : Roditakis_2017_Pest.Manag.Sci_73_1679
PubMedSearch : Roditakis_2017_Pest.Manag.Sci_73_1679
PubMedID: 28019074

Title : Transcriptome Profiling and Genetic Study Reveal Amplified Carboxylesterase Genes Implicated in Temephos Resistance, in the Asian Tiger Mosquito Aedes albopictus - Grigoraki_2015_PLoS.Negl.Trop.Dis_9_e0003771
Author(s) : Grigoraki L , Lagnel J , Kioulos I , Kampouraki A , Morou E , Labbe P , Weill M , Vontas J
Ref : PLoS Negl Trop Dis , 9 :e0003771 , 2015
Abstract : BACKGROUND: The control of Aedes albopictus, a major vector for viral diseases, such as dengue fever and chikungunya, has been largely reliant on the use of the larvicide temephos for many decades. This insecticide remains a primary control tool for several countries and it is a potential reliable reserve, for emergency epidemics or new invasion cases, in regions such as Europe which have banned its use. Resistance to temephos has been detected in some regions, but the mechanism responsible for the trait has not been investigated. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Temephos resistance was identified in an Aedes albopictus population isolated from Greece, and subsequently selected in the laboratory for a few generations. Biochemical assays suggested the association of elevated carboxylesterases (CCE), but not target site resistance (altered AChE), with this phenotype. Illumina transcriptomic analysis revealed the up-regulation of three transcripts encoding CCE genes in the temephos resistant strain. CCEae3a and CCEae6a showed the most striking up-regulation (27- and 12-folds respectively, compared to the reference susceptible strain); these genes have been previously shown to be involved in temephos resistance also in Ae. aegypti. Gene amplification was associated with elevated transcription levels of both CCEae6a and CCEae3a genes. Genetic crosses confirmed the genetic link between CCEae6a and CCEae3a amplification and temephos resistance, by demonstrating a strong association between survival to temephos exposure and gene copy numbers in the F2 generation. Other transcripts, encoding cytochrome P450s, UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs), cuticle and lipid biosynthesis proteins, were upregulated in resistant mosquitoes, indicating that the co-evolution of multiple mechanisms might contribute to resistance. SIGNIFICANCE: The identification of specific genes associated with insecticide resistance in Ae. albopictus for the first time is an important pre-requirement for insecticide resistance management. The genomic resources that were produced will be useful to the community, to study relevant aspects of Ae. albopictus biology.
ESTHER : Grigoraki_2015_PLoS.Negl.Trop.Dis_9_e0003771
PubMedSearch : Grigoraki_2015_PLoS.Negl.Trop.Dis_9_e0003771
PubMedID: 26000638
Gene_locus related to this paper: aedae-q17b28 , aedae-q17b31

Title : Insecticide resistance in the major dengue vectors Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti - Vontas_2012_Pestic.Biochem.Physiol_104_126
Author(s) : Vontas J , Kioulos E , Pavlidi N , Morou E , della Torre A , Ranson H
Ref : , 104 :126 , 2012
Abstract : Aedes mosquitoes are major vectors of human diseases, such as the dengue fever, chikungunya and yellow fever. Their control largely relies on insecticides applied to mosquito larvae habitats, or indoors against adult mosquitoes. However, insecticide resistance has evolved in many Aedes aegypti mosquito populations worldwide and there is evidence that it has compromised the success of control interventions. The levels of resistance in Aedes albopictus is relatively low at present compared to Ae. aegypti, possibly due to the reduced exposure of this more exophilic species to insecticides, particularly those targeting the adult stage. This paper reviews Ae. albopictus susceptibility/resistance status, as well as reports some new bioassay data from European populations (Greece and Italy). The most recent molecular research into Ae. aegypti insecticide resistance mechanisms is also reviewed, with emphasis on neurotoxic insecticides.
ESTHER : Vontas_2012_Pestic.Biochem.Physiol_104_126
PubMedSearch : Vontas_2012_Pestic.Biochem.Physiol_104_126

Title : Acetylcholinesterase point mutations in European strains of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) resistant to organophosphates - Khajehali_2010_Pest.Manag.Sci_66_220
Author(s) : Khajehali J , Van Leeuwen T , Grispou M , Morou E , Alout H , Weill M , Tirry L , Vontas J , Tsagkarakou A
Ref : Pest Manag Sci , 66 :220 , 2010
Abstract : BACKGROUND: In Tetranychus urticae Koch, acetylcholinesterase insensitivity is often involved in organophosphate (OP) and carbamate (CARB) resistance. By combining toxicological, biochemical and molecular data from three reference laboratory and three OP selected strains (OP strains), the AChE1 mutations associated with resistance in T. urticae were characterised. RESULTS: The resistance ratios of the OP strains varied from 9 to 43 for pirimiphos-methyl, from 78 to 586 for chlorpyrifos, from 8 to 333 for methomyl and from 137 to 4164 for dimethoate. The insecticide concentration needed to inhibit 50% of the AChE1 activity was, in the OP strains, at least 2.7, 55, 58 and 31 times higher for the OP pirimiphos-methyl, chlorpyrifos oxon, paraoxon and omethoate respectively, and 87 times higher for the CARB carbaryl. By comparing the AChE1 sequence, four amino acid substitutions were detected in the OP strains: (1) F331W (Torpedo numbering) in all the three OP strains; (2) T280A found in the three OP strains but not in all clones; (3) G328A, found in two OP strains; (4) A201S found in only one OP strain. CONCLUSIONS: Four AChE1 mutations were found in resistant strains of T. urticae, and three of them, F331W, G328A and A201S, are possibly involved in resistance to OP and CARB insecticides. Among them, F331W is probably the most important and the most common in T. urticae. It can be easily detected by the diagnostic PCR-RLFP assay developed in this study.
ESTHER : Khajehali_2010_Pest.Manag.Sci_66_220
PubMedSearch : Khajehali_2010_Pest.Manag.Sci_66_220
PubMedID: 19894225
Gene_locus related to this paper: tetur-ACHE

Title : Current status of insecticide resistance in Q biotype Bemisia tabaci populations from Crete - Roditakis_2009_Pest.Manag.Sci_65_313
Author(s) : Roditakis E , Grispou M , Morou E , Kristoffersen JB , Roditakis N , Nauen R , Vontas J , Tsagkarakou A
Ref : Pest Manag Sci , 65 :313 , 2009
Abstract : BACKGROUND: A major problem of crop protection in Crete, Greece, is the control of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) with chemical insecticides owing to the rapid development of resistance. The aim of this study was to investigate the establishment of resistance and the underlying mechanisms to major insecticide classes with classical bioassays and known biochemical resistance markers. RESULTS: During a 2005-2007 survey, 53 Q biotype populations were collected. Application history records showed extensive use of neonicotinoids, organophosphates, carbamates and pyrethroids. High resistance levels were identified in the majority of populations (>80%) for imidacloprid (RF: 38-1958x) and alpha-cypermethrin (RF: 30-600x). Low resistance levels (RF < 12) were observed for pirimiphos-methyl. A strong correlation between resistance to imidacloprid and the number of applications with neonicotinoids was observed. Significant correlations were observed between COE and P450-dependent monoxygenase activity with resistance to alpha-cypermethrin and imidacloprid respectively. A propoxur-based AChE diagnostic test indicated that iAChE was widespread in most populations. Resistance levels for alpha-cypermethrin were increased when compared with a previous survey (2002-2003). Differentiation of LC(50) values between localities was observed for imidacloprid only. CONCLUSION: Bemisia tabaci resistance evolved differently in each of the three insecticides studied. Imidacloprid resistance seems less established and less persistent than alpha-cypermethrin resistance. The low resistance levels for pirimiphos-methyl suggest absence of cross-resistance with other organophosphates or carbamates used.
ESTHER : Roditakis_2009_Pest.Manag.Sci_65_313
PubMedSearch : Roditakis_2009_Pest.Manag.Sci_65_313
PubMedID: 19115232

Title : Efficacy of the pyrethroid alpha-cypermethrin against Bactrocera oleae populations from Greece, and improved diagnostic for an iAChE mutation - Margaritopoulos_2008_Pest.Manag.Sci_64_900
Author(s) : Margaritopoulos JT , Skavdis G , Kalogiannis N , Nikou D , Morou E , Skouras PJ , Tsitsipis JA , Vontas J
Ref : Pest Manag Sci , 64 :900 , 2008
Abstract : BACKGROUND: The most important pest of olive orchards worldwide is the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin). Its control in Greece has been based on organophosphates (OPs), but their intense use has led to the development of resistance. A test previously developed to monitor the trait may not be as robust as originally thought. The pyrethroid alpha-cypermethrin has recently been registered for bait sprays, as an alternative to OPs. RESULTS: The susceptibility of 20 B. oleae populations to alpha-cypermethrin was examined. Variation was observed in their response, with LD(50) ranging from 0.14 to 3.28 ng insect(-1) and resistance factors from 2.3 to 54.7. Resistance mechanisms were investigated. Cytochrome P450 monoxygenase activities showed an association with resistance. Sequences in the domain IIS4-IIS6 of the B. oleae para-type sodium channel were also analysed, but no resistance-associated mutations were identified. Finally, a novel diagnostic assay able to reliably monitor the frequency of the iAChE G488S resistance mutation was developed. CONCLUSION: This is the first attempt to evaluate the efficacy of alpha-cypermethrin against B. oleae from Greece. Data showed that it can be used effectively, but also highlighted the importance of continuous monitoring. The IIS4-IIS6 sodium channel region is the default area in which to look for resistance mutations if target-site resistance to pyrethroids arises. The application of the novel iAChE molecular diagnostic may facilitate the introduction of pyrethroids alongside OPs currently in use.
ESTHER : Margaritopoulos_2008_Pest.Manag.Sci_64_900
PubMedSearch : Margaritopoulos_2008_Pest.Manag.Sci_64_900
PubMedID: 18381673