Tirry L

References (12)

Title : Molecular analysis of cyenopyrafen resistance in the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae - Khalighi_2016_Pest.Manag.Sci_72_103
Author(s) : Khalighi M , Dermauw W , Wybouw N , Bajda S , Osakabe M , Tirry L , Van Leeuwen T
Ref : Pest Manag Sci , 72 :103 , 2016
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Cyenopyrafen is a recently developed acaricide with a new mode of action as a complex II inhibitor. However, it was recently shown that cross-resistance to cyenopyrafen can occur in resistant field strains of Tetranychus urticae, which might be linked to the previous use of classical METI acaricides. Here, we selected for cyenopyrafen resistance and studied the molecular mechanisms that underlie resistance. RESULTS: Selection for cyenopyrafen resistance confers cross-resistance to the complex II inhibitor cyflumetofen, but also to pyridaben, a frequently used complex I inhibitor. Cyenopyrafen resistance is highly synergised by piperonyl butoxide, and a 15-fold higher P450 activity was detected in the resistant strain. Target-site resistance was not detected. Genome-wide gene expression data, followed by a meta-analysis of previously obtained gene expression data, revealed the overexpression specifically of CYP392A11 and CYP392A12. CONCLUSIONS: Cyenopyrafen resistance is strongly linked to the overexpression of two P450s, which probably explains the observed cross-resistance. This information is highly valuable, as the novel complex II inhibitors cyenopyrafen and cyflumetofen are in the process of worldwide registration. The role of both CYP392A11 and CYP392A12 should be further supported by functional expression, but they are very promising candidates as molecular diagnostic markers for monitoring cyenopyrafen susceptibility in the field.
ESTHER : Khalighi_2016_Pest.Manag.Sci_72_103
PubMedSearch : Khalighi_2016_Pest.Manag.Sci_72_103
PubMedID: 26118668

Title : Transcriptome profiling of a spirodiclofen susceptible and resistant strain of the European red mite Panonychus ulmi using strand-specific RNA-seq - Bajda_2015_BMC.Genomics_16_974
Author(s) : Bajda S , Dermauw W , Greenhalgh R , Nauen R , Tirry L , Clark RM , Van Leeuwen T
Ref : BMC Genomics , 16 :974 , 2015
Abstract : BACKGROUND: The European red mite, Panonychus ulmi, is among the most important mite pests in fruit orchards, where it is controlled primarily by acaricide application. However, the species rapidly develops pesticide resistance, and the elucidation of resistance mechanisms for P. ulmi has not kept pace with insects or with the closely related spider mite Tetranychus urticae. The main reason for this lack of knowledge has been the absence of genomic resources needed to investigate the molecular biology of resistance mechanisms. RESULTS: Here, we provide a comprehensive strand-specific RNA-seq based transcriptome resource for P. ulmi derived from strains susceptible and resistant to the widely used acaricide spirodiclofen. From a de novo assembly of the P. ulmi transcriptome, we manually annotated detoxification enzyme families, target-sites of commonly used acaricides, and horizontally transferred genes implicated in plant-mite interactions and pesticide resistance. In a comparative analysis that incorporated sequences available for Panonychus citri, T. urticae, and insects, we identified radiations for detoxification gene families following the divergence of Panonychus and Tetranychus genera. Finally, we used the replicated RNA-seq data from the spirodiclofen susceptible and resistant strains to describe gene expression changes associated with resistance. A cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, as well as multiple carboxylcholinesterases, were differentially expressed between the susceptible and resistant strains, and provide a molecular entry point for understanding resistance to spirodiclofen, widely used to control P. ulmi populations. CONCLUSIONS: The new genomic resources and data that we present in this study for P. ulmi will substantially facilitate molecular studies of underlying mechanisms involved in acaricide resistance.
ESTHER : Bajda_2015_BMC.Genomics_16_974
PubMedSearch : Bajda_2015_BMC.Genomics_16_974
PubMedID: 26581334

Title : Molecular analysis of resistance to acaricidal spirocyclic tetronic acids in Tetranychus urticae: CYP392E10 metabolizes spirodiclofen, but not its corresponding enol - Demaeght_2013_Insect.Biochem.Mol.Biol_43_544
Author(s) : Demaeght P , Dermauw W , Tsakireli D , Khajehali J , Nauen R , Tirry L , Vontas J , Lummen P , Van Leeuwen T
Ref : Insect Biochemistry & Molecular Biology , 43 :544 , 2013
Abstract : Spirodiclofen is one of the most recently developed acaricides and belongs to the new family of spirocyclic tetronic acids (ketoenols). This new acaricidal family is an important chemical tool in resistance management strategies providing sustainable control of spider mites such as Tetranychus urticae. Spirodiclofen targets lipid biosynthesis mediated by direct inhibition of acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase). In this study, we investigated two genetically distant spider mite strains with high resistance to spirodiclofen. Despite the strong resistance levels to spirodiclofen (up to 680-fold), only limited cross-resistance with other members of this group such as spiromesifen and spirotetramat could be detected. Amplification and sequencing of the ACCase gene from resistant and susceptible strains did not reveal common non-synonymous mutations, and expression levels of ACCase were similar in both resistant and susceptible strains, indicating the absence of target-site resistance. Furthermore, we collected genome-wide expression data of susceptible and resistant T. urticae strains using microarray technology. Analysis of differentially expressed genes revealed a broad response, but within the overlap of two resistant strains, several cytochrome P450s were prominent. Quantitative PCR confirmed the constitutive over-expression of CYP392E7 and CYP392E10 in resistant strains, and CYP392E10 expression was highly induced by spirodiclofen. Furthermore, stage specific expression profiling revealed that expression levels were not significantly different between developing stages, but very low in eggs, matching the age-dependent resistance pattern previously observed. Functional expression of CYP392E7 and CYP392E10 confirmed that CYP392E10 (but not CYP392E7) metabolizes spirodiclofen by hydroxylation as identified by LC-MS/MS, and revealed cooperative substrate binding and a Km of 43 muM spirodiclofen. CYP392E10 also metabolizes spiromesifen, but not spirotetramat. Surprisingly, no metabolism of the hydrolyzed spirodiclofen-enol metabolite could be detected. These findings are discussed in the light of a likely resistance mechanism.
ESTHER : Demaeght_2013_Insect.Biochem.Mol.Biol_43_544
PubMedSearch : Demaeght_2013_Insect.Biochem.Mol.Biol_43_544
PubMedID: 23523619

Title : The genome of Tetranychus urticae reveals herbivorous pest adaptations - Grbic_2011_Nature_479_487
Author(s) : Grbic M , Van Leeuwen T , Clark RM , Rombauts S , Rouze P , Grbic V , Osborne EJ , Dermauw W , Ngoc PC , Ortego F , Hernandez-Crespo P , Diaz I , Martinez M , Navajas M , Sucena E , Magalhaes S , Nagy L , Pace RM , Djuranovic S , Smagghe G , Iga M , Christiaens O , Veenstra JA , Ewer J , Villalobos RM , Hutter JL , Hudson SD , Velez M , Yi SV , Zeng J , Pires-daSilva A , Roch F , Cazaux M , Navarro M , Zhurov V , Acevedo G , Bjelica A , Fawcett JA , Bonnet E , Martens C , Baele G , Wissler L , Sanchez-Rodriguez A , Tirry L , Blais C , Demeestere K , Henz SR , Gregory TR , Mathieu J , Verdon L , Farinelli L , Schmutz J , Lindquist E , Feyereisen R , Van de Peer Y
Ref : Nature , 479 :487 , 2011
Abstract : The spider mite Tetranychus urticae is a cosmopolitan agricultural pest with an extensive host plant range and an extreme record of pesticide resistance. Here we present the completely sequenced and annotated spider mite genome, representing the first complete chelicerate genome. At 90 megabases T. urticae has the smallest sequenced arthropod genome. Compared with other arthropods, the spider mite genome shows unique changes in the hormonal environment and organization of the Hox complex, and also reveals evolutionary innovation of silk production. We find strong signatures of polyphagy and detoxification in gene families associated with feeding on different hosts and in new gene families acquired by lateral gene transfer. Deep transcriptome analysis of mites feeding on different plants shows how this pest responds to a changing host environment. The T. urticae genome thus offers new insights into arthropod evolution and plant-herbivore interactions, and provides unique opportunities for developing novel plant protection strategies.
ESTHER : Grbic_2011_Nature_479_487
PubMedSearch : Grbic_2011_Nature_479_487
PubMedID: 22113690
Gene_locus related to this paper: tetur-ACHE

Title : Acetylcholinesterase point mutations in European strains of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) resistant to organophosphates - Khajehali_2010_Pest.Manag.Sci_66_220
Author(s) : Khajehali J , Van Leeuwen T , Grispou M , Morou E , Alout H , Weill M , Tirry L , Vontas J , Tsagkarakou A
Ref : Pest Manag Sci , 66 :220 , 2010
Abstract : BACKGROUND: In Tetranychus urticae Koch, acetylcholinesterase insensitivity is often involved in organophosphate (OP) and carbamate (CARB) resistance. By combining toxicological, biochemical and molecular data from three reference laboratory and three OP selected strains (OP strains), the AChE1 mutations associated with resistance in T. urticae were characterised. RESULTS: The resistance ratios of the OP strains varied from 9 to 43 for pirimiphos-methyl, from 78 to 586 for chlorpyrifos, from 8 to 333 for methomyl and from 137 to 4164 for dimethoate. The insecticide concentration needed to inhibit 50% of the AChE1 activity was, in the OP strains, at least 2.7, 55, 58 and 31 times higher for the OP pirimiphos-methyl, chlorpyrifos oxon, paraoxon and omethoate respectively, and 87 times higher for the CARB carbaryl. By comparing the AChE1 sequence, four amino acid substitutions were detected in the OP strains: (1) F331W (Torpedo numbering) in all the three OP strains; (2) T280A found in the three OP strains but not in all clones; (3) G328A, found in two OP strains; (4) A201S found in only one OP strain. CONCLUSIONS: Four AChE1 mutations were found in resistant strains of T. urticae, and three of them, F331W, G328A and A201S, are possibly involved in resistance to OP and CARB insecticides. Among them, F331W is probably the most important and the most common in T. urticae. It can be easily detected by the diagnostic PCR-RLFP assay developed in this study.
ESTHER : Khajehali_2010_Pest.Manag.Sci_66_220
PubMedSearch : Khajehali_2010_Pest.Manag.Sci_66_220
PubMedID: 19894225
Gene_locus related to this paper: tetur-ACHE

Title : Acaricide resistance mechanisms in the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae and other important Acari: a review - Van Leeuwen_2010_Insect.Biochem.Mol.Biol_40_563
Author(s) : Van Leeuwen T , Vontas J , Tsagkarakou A , Dermauw W , Tirry L
Ref : Insect Biochemistry & Molecular Biology , 40 :563 , 2010
Abstract : The two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch is one of the economically most important pests in a wide range of outdoor and protected crops worldwide. Its control has been and still is largely based on the use of insecticides and acaricides. However, due to its short life cycle, abundant progeny and arrhenotokous reproduction, it is able to develop resistance to these compounds very rapidly. As a consequence, it has the dubious reputation to be the"most resistant species" in terms of the total number of pesticides to which populations have become resistant, and its control has become problematic in many areas worldwide. Insecticide and acaricide resistance has also been reported in the ectoparasite Sarcoptes scabiei, the causative organism of scabies, and other economically important Acari, such as the Southern cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus, one of the biggest arthropod threats to livestock, and the parasitic mite Varroa destructor, a major economic burden for beekeepers worldwide. Although resistance research in Acari has not kept pace with that in insects, a number of studies on the molecular mechanisms responsible for the resistant phenotype has been conducted recently. In this review, state-of-the-art information on T. urticae resistance, supplemented with data on other important Acari has been brought together. Considerable attention is given to the underlying resistance mechanisms that have been elucidated at the molecular level. The incidence of bifenazate resistance in T. urticae is expanded as an insecticide resistance evolutionary paradigm in arthropods.
ESTHER : Van Leeuwen_2010_Insect.Biochem.Mol.Biol_40_563
PubMedSearch : Van Leeuwen_2010_Insect.Biochem.Mol.Biol_40_563
PubMedID: 20685616

Title : Susceptibility of an organophosphate resistant strain of the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) to mixtures of bifenazate with organophosphate and carbamate insecticides - Khajehali_2009_Exp.Appl.Acarol_49_185
Author(s) : Khajehali J , Van Leeuwen T , Tirry L
Ref : Exp Appl Acarol , 49 :185 , 2009
Abstract : Bifenazate, a new and frequently used carbazate, is a pro-acaricide which needs to be activated by carboxylesterases. We evaluated the possible antagonism of organophosphate and carbamate insecticides on bifenazate toxicity in Tetranychus urticae applied in mixtures. Two organophosphate resistant strains were used (WI and MR-VL) and several organophosphate (chlorpyrifos, azinphosmethyl and phosmet) and carbamate (carbaryl and methomyl) insecticides were evaluated. Mixing chlorpyrifos with bifenazate decreased bifenazate toxicity in both tested strains. However, in the strain with a higher esterase activity, antagonism decreased after 2 days. Of all other tested chemicals, only methomyl displayed an antagonistic effect 1 day after treatment. These findings indicate that mixing organophosphate and carbamate insecticides with bifenazate may inhibit bifenazate efficacy under field conditions, especially when resistant strains are present.
ESTHER : Khajehali_2009_Exp.Appl.Acarol_49_185
PubMedSearch : Khajehali_2009_Exp.Appl.Acarol_49_185
PubMedID: 19330529

Title : Organophosphate insecticides and acaricides antagonise bifenazate toxicity through esterase inhibition in Tetranychus urticae - Van Leeuwen_2007_Pest.Manag.Sci_63_1172
Author(s) : Van Leeuwen T , Van Pottelberge S , Nauen R , Tirry L
Ref : Pest Manag Sci , 63 :1172 , 2007
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Bifenazate is a carbazate acaricide known for its potency, particularly against tetranychid mite species such as the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae). It was recently shown that the compound needs to be activated by an S,S,S-tributyl-phosphorotrithioate (DEF)-sensitive mechanism in spider mites to display full acaricidal efficacy. The ability of well-known organophosphates and carbamates to inhibit the activation of bifenazate and thus compromise its acaricidal potential was tested. RESULTS: Esterase activity determined in vivo after pre-exposure of mites with organophosphates and carbamates revealed--depending on the compound--varying esterase inhibition nicely correlated with the ability of the individual compound to antagonise bifenazate action on mites. CONCLUSIONS: The findings illustrate that organophosphates and carbamates interfere with bifenazate efficacy, most probably by inhibiting carboxylesterases responsible for the activation of the pro-drug. As a result of the strong antagonism, mixtures of bifenazate with carbamates or organophosphates should not be used under field conditions. Moreover, there exists a real threat in repeatedly applying organophosphates and bifenazate. The present study again illustrates how important mode of action information is for the proper planning of resistance management strategies.
ESTHER : Van Leeuwen_2007_Pest.Manag.Sci_63_1172
PubMedSearch : Van Leeuwen_2007_Pest.Manag.Sci_63_1172
PubMedID: 17880043

Title : Biochemical analysis of a chlorfenapyr-selected resistant strain of Tetranychus urticae Koch - Van Leeuwen_2006_Pest.Manag.Sci_62_425
Author(s) : Van Leeuwen T , Van Pottelberge S , Tirry L
Ref : Pest Manag Sci , 62 :425 , 2006
Abstract : Tetranychus urticae Koch has recently developed resistance to chlorfenapyr in Australia and Japan, but no attempt has yet been made to describe the biochemical mechanisms involved in chlorfenapyr resistance. In this study a laboratory-selected chlorfenapyr-resistant strain was investigated. Resistance to chlorfenapyr was associated with a strong increase in esterase activity and P450 mono-oxygenase (MO) activity but a decrease in 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMBZ) peroxidation activity. Differences in esterase activities between susceptible and resistant strains increased with increasing carbon number of the aliphatic side-chain of the nitrophenol substrate. A 4.4-fold increase in the O-deethylation of 7-ethoxy-4-trifluoromethyl coumarin (7-EFC) mediated by P450 MOs was detected. Remarkably, the resistant strain showed only half of the total TMBZ peroxidation activity found in the susceptible strain. The activity of these enzymes was further determined on different crosses and back-crosses of both strains. Results indicated that activities correlated with chlorfenapyr susceptibility and could be considered as biochemical markers. Esterase isozymes of both strains and their crosses were separated with isoelectric focusing (IEF) and visualised after activity staining. It was clear that two distinct zones of enhanced esterase activity were present in the chlorfenapyr-resistant strain (EST 11, pI = 4.88 and EST 16, pI = 4.71). EST 11 was identified with inhibitors as a carboxylesterase. The relative presence and intensity of these esterase zones changed in the different crosses and could be seen as a marker for chlorfenapyr resistance. Glutathione-S-transferase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities were not significantly different between strains. A twofold decrease in TMBZ peroxidase activity in the resistant strain could reflect decreased activation of chlorfenapyr. On the basis of these results the involvement of P450 MOs and esterases in the activation and detoxification of chlorfenapyr in T. urticae is challenged and discussed.
ESTHER : Van Leeuwen_2006_Pest.Manag.Sci_62_425
PubMedSearch : Van Leeuwen_2006_Pest.Manag.Sci_62_425
PubMedID: 16550506

Title : Action of 24-epibrassinolide on a cell line of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua - Decombel_2005_Arch.Insect.Biochem.Physiol_58_145
Author(s) : Decombel L , Tirry L , Smagghe G
Ref : Archives of Insect Biochemistry & Physiology , 58 :145 , 2005
Abstract : The Spodoptera exigua cell line Se4 is sensitive for ecdysteroid activity stimulated by the insect molting hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), showing a cease in cell proliferation (with 50% inhibition around 1 microM) and characteristic cell morphology changes with aggregation and formation of long filamentous cytoplasmic extensions. The bisacylhydrazine tebufenozide also triggered such typical cellular effects in Se4, and in addition, it showed an affinity for binding in competition with 3H-ponasterone A (PoA) that was similar to 20E (with 50% competition around 1 microM), confirming that such non-ecdysteroids display an ecdysteroid agonist activity. In contrast, when Se4 cells were incubated with the native plant hormone 24-epibrassinolide (24BR), none of the effects triggered by 20E were observed. Hence, a competition binding experiment with 3H-PoA demonstrated no affinity of 24BR for binding to the ecdysteroid receptor in the Se4 cell line. In another series of experiments, the Se4 cell line was tested in sensitivity response to increased acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity after treatment with ecdysteroid active compounds. The AchE activity measured in the cell line is discussed in relation to inhibition by eserine. The obtained results suggest that 24BR exerted no ecdysteroid activity.
ESTHER : Decombel_2005_Arch.Insect.Biochem.Physiol_58_145
PubMedSearch : Decombel_2005_Arch.Insect.Biochem.Physiol_58_145
PubMedID: 15717319

Title : Comparative acaricide susceptibility and detoxifying enzyme activities in field-collected resistant and susceptible strains of Tetranychus urticae - Van Leeuwen_2005_Pest.Manag.Sci_61_499
Author(s) : Van Leeuwen T , Van Pottelberge S , Tirry L
Ref : Pest Manag Sci , 61 :499 , 2005
Abstract : A field-collected strain (MR-VL) of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, exhibited strong resistance to bifenthrin, dicofol and fenbutatin oxide in comparison with a susceptible laboratory strain (LS-VL). The MR-VL strain was screened for cross-resistance with several currently used acaricides. Cross-resistance was detected with clofentezine (RR = 2631), dimethoate (RR = 250), chlorfenapyr (RR = 154), bromopropylate (RR = 25), amitraz (RR = 17), flucycloxuron (RR = 15) and azocyclotin (RR = 7). Abamectin, acequinocyl, bifenazate, tebufenpyrad and spirodiclofen did not show any signs of cross-resistance. Enhanced detoxification by increased activity of mono-oxygenases (MO) and esterases is at least partially responsible for the observed resistance and cross-resistance. MO assays with 7-ethoxycoumarin (7-EC) were optimised and 7-ethoxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin (7-EFC), a new MO-substrate, was evaluated for the first time in T urticae and proved to be a good alternative to 7-EC. Approximately 3- and 4-fold higher MO activity was detected with 7-EFC and 7-EC respectively in the MR-VL strain. Kinetic parameters of general esterase assays with 4-nitrophenyl acetate and 1-naphthyl acetate as substrate indicated that more esterases were present in the MR-VL strain. A first attempt was made to classify the esterases present in T urticae. Acetyl-, aryl- and carboxyl-esterases were detected with the use of inhibitors after separation by native PAGE. Glutathione-S-transferases did not seem to play any role in the observed resistance and no differences were detected when the general oxidative capacities of the two strains were compared.
ESTHER : Van Leeuwen_2005_Pest.Manag.Sci_61_499
PubMedSearch : Van Leeuwen_2005_Pest.Manag.Sci_61_499
PubMedID: 15657956

Title : Action of the ecdysteroid agonist tebufenozide in susceptible and artificially selected beet armyworm - Smagghe_1998_Pest.Sci_54_27
Author(s) : Smagghe G , Dhadialla TS , Derycke S , Tirry L , Degheele D
Ref : Pest Sci , 54 :27 , 1998
Abstract : Toxicity assays with tebufenozide, the first commercial non-steroidal ecdysteroid agonist, against a laboratory strain of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hbner), demonstrated the promise of this new compound for the control of this important pest. Experiments to select insects artificially from the laboratory strain by continuous exposure of larval instars to corresponding LC25 doses of tebufenozide for over 12 generations (G0->G12: 14-15 months), revealed no loss in susceptibility to the insecticide for up to five generations. Moreover, retention and fate of 14C-labelled tebufenozide were investigated using G6 larvae from the selection experiments and the results compared with those for the susceptible (G0) larvae. In addition, piperonyl butoxide, an inhibitor of monooxygenases, when ingested by larvae along with tebufenozide, increased the susceptibility of intoxicated larvae to this ecdysteroid agonist, indicating its oxidative metabolism in Spodoptera larvae.
ESTHER : Smagghe_1998_Pest.Sci_54_27
PubMedSearch : Smagghe_1998_Pest.Sci_54_27