Weill M


Full name : Weill Mylene

First name : Mylene

Mail : CNRS UMR 5554, Institut des Sciences de l'Evolution, Universites Montpellier 2 et 1, Montpellier

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Country : France

Email : mylene.weill@univ-montp2.fr

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References (50)

Title : Despite structural identity, ace-1 heterogenous duplication resistance alleles are quite diverse in Anopheles mosquitoes - Claret_2024_Heredity.(Edinb)__
Author(s) : Claret JL , Di-Liegro M , Namias A , Assogba B , Makoundou P , Koffi A , Pennetier C , Weill M , Milesi P , Labbe P
Ref : Heredity (Edinb) , : , 2024
Abstract : Anopheles gambiae s.l. has been the target of intense insecticide treatment since the mid-20th century to try and control malaria. A substitution in the ace-1 locus has been rapidly selected for, allowing resistance to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides. Since then, two types of duplication of the ace-1 locus have been found in An. gambiae s.l. populations: homogeneous duplications that are composed of several resistance copies, or heterogeneous duplications that contain both resistance and susceptible copies. The substitution induces a trade-off between resistance in the presence of insecticides and disadvantages in their absence: the heterogeneous duplications allow the fixation of the intermediate heterozygote phenotype. So far, a single heterogeneous duplication has been described in An. gambiae s.l. populations (in contrast with the multiple duplicated alleles found in Culex pipiens mosquitoes). We used a new approach, combining long and short-read sequencing with Sanger sequencing to precisely identify and describe at least nine different heterogeneous duplications, in two populations of An. gambiae s.l. We show that these alleles share the same structure as the previously identified heterogeneous and homogeneous duplications, namely 203-kb tandem amplifications with conserved breakpoints. Our study sheds new light on the origin and maintenance of these alleles in An. gambiae s.l. populations, and their role in mosquito adaptation.
ESTHER : Claret_2024_Heredity.(Edinb)__
PubMedSearch : Claret_2024_Heredity.(Edinb)__
PubMedID: 38280976

Title : Evolutionary trade-offs associated with copy number variations in resistance alleles in Culex pipiens mosquitoes - Milesi_2022_Parasit.Vectors_15_484
Author(s) : Milesi P , Claret JL , Unal S , Weill M , Labbe P
Ref : Parasit Vectors , 15 :484 , 2022
Abstract : Organophosphate and carbamate insecticides have largely been used worldwide to control mosquito populations. As a response, the same amino acid substitution in the ace-1 gene (G119S), conferring resistance to both insecticides, has been selected independently in many mosquito species. In Anopheles gambiae, it has recently been shown that the G119S mutation is actually part of homogeneous duplications that associate multiple resistance copies of the ace-1 gene. In this study, we showed that duplications of resistance copies of the ace-1 gene also exist in the Culex pipiens species complex. The number of copies is variable, and different numbers of copies are associated with different phenotypic trade-offs: we used a combination of bioassays and competition in population cages to show that having more resistance copies conferred higher resistance levels, but was also associated with higher selective disadvantage (or cost) in the absence of insecticide. These results further show the versatility of the genetic architecture of resistance to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides around the ace-1 locus and its role in fine-tuned adaptation to insecticide treatment variations.
ESTHER : Milesi_2022_Parasit.Vectors_15_484
PubMedSearch : Milesi_2022_Parasit.Vectors_15_484
PubMedID: 36550589

Title : Dynamic of resistance alleles of two major insecticide targets in Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) populations from Benin, West Africa - Assogba_2020_Parasit.Vectors_13_134
Author(s) : Assogba BS , Pasteur N , Makoundou P , Unal S , Baba-Moussa L , Labbe P , Weill M
Ref : Parasit Vectors , 13 :134 , 2020
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Insecticide resistance is a growing concern for malaria control and vector control effectiveness relies on assessing it distribution and understanding its evolution. METHODS: We assessed resistance levels and the frequencies of two major target-site mutations, L1014F-VGSC and G119S-ace-1, conferring resistance to pyrethroids (PYRs) and carbamates/organophosphates (CXs/OPs) insecticides. These data were compared to those acquired between 2006 and 2010 to follow resistance evolutionary trends over ten years. RESULTS: We report the results of a 3-year survey (2013-2015) of insecticide resistance in 13 localities across the whole country of Benin. Permethrin (PYR) resistance was found in all populations tested, L1014F-VGSC being almost fixed everywhere, while bendiocarb resistance was limited to a few localities, G119S-ace-1 remaining rare, with very limited variations during surveyed period. Interestingly, we found no effect of the type of insecticide pressure on the dynamics of these mutations. CONCLUSIONS: These results confirm both the high prevalence of PYR resistance and the potential of CXs/OPs as short- to medium-term alternatives in Benin. They also underline the need for regular resistance monitoring and informed management in their usage, as the G119S-ace-1 mutation is already present in Benin and surrounding countries. Their unwise usage would rapidly lead to its spread, which would jeopardize PYR-resistant Anopheles control.
ESTHER : Assogba_2020_Parasit.Vectors_13_134
PubMedSearch : Assogba_2020_Parasit.Vectors_13_134
PubMedID: 32171326

Title : Insecticide resistance genes affect Culex quinquefasciatus vector competence for West Nile virus - Atyame_2019_Proc.Biol.Sci_286_20182273
Author(s) : Atyame CM , Alout H , Mousson L , Vazeille M , Diallo M , Weill M , Failloux AB
Ref : Proc Biol Sci , 286 :20182273 , 2019
Abstract : Insecticide resistance has been reported to impact the interactions between mosquitoes and the pathogens they transmit. However, the effect on vector competence for arboviruses still remained to be investigated. We examined the influence of two insecticide resistance mechanisms on vector competence of the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus for two arboviruses, Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV) and West Nile virus (WNV). Three Cx. quinquefasciatus lines sharing a common genetic background were used: two insecticide-resistant lines, one homozygous for amplification of the Ester(2) locus (SA2), the other homozygous for the acetylcholinesterase ace-1 G119S mutation (SR) and the insecticide-susceptible reference line Slab. Statistical analyses revealed no significant effect of insecticide-resistant mechanisms on vector competence for RVFV. However, both insecticide resistance mechanisms significantly influenced the outcome of WNV infections by increasing the dissemination of WNV in the mosquito body, therefore leading to an increase in transmission efficiency by resistant mosquitoes. These results showed that insecticide resistance mechanisms enhanced vector competence for WNV and may have a significant impact on transmission dynamics of arboviruses. Our findings highlight the importance of understanding the impacts of insecticide resistance on the vectorial capacity parameters to assess the overall consequence on transmission.
ESTHER : Atyame_2019_Proc.Biol.Sci_286_20182273
PubMedSearch : Atyame_2019_Proc.Biol.Sci_286_20182273
PubMedID: 30963855

Title : The evolutionary fate of heterogeneous gene duplications: A precarious overdominant equilibrium between environment, sublethality and complementation - Milesi_2018_Mol.Ecol_27_493
Author(s) : Milesi P , Assogba BS , Atyame CM , Pocquet N , Berthomieu A , Unal S , Makoundou P , Weill M , Labbe P
Ref : Mol Ecol , 27 :493 , 2018
Abstract : Gene duplications occur at a high rate. Although most appear detrimental, some homogeneous duplications (identical gene copies) can be selected for beneficial increase in produced proteins. Heterogeneous duplications, which combine divergent alleles of a single locus, are seldom studied due to the paucity of empirical data. We investigated their role in an ongoing adaptive process at the ace-1 locus in Culex pipiens mosquitoes. We assessed the worldwide diversity of the ace-1 alleles (single-copy, susceptible S and insecticide-resistant R, and duplicated D that pair one S and one R copy), analysed their phylogeography and measured their fitness to understand their early dynamics using population genetics models. It provides a coherent and comprehensive evolutionary scenario. We show that D alleles are present in most resistant populations and display a higher diversity than R alleles (27 vs. 4). Most appear to result from independent unequal crossing-overs between local single-copy alleles, suggesting a recurrent process. Most duplicated alleles have a limited geographic distribution, probably resulting from their homozygous sublethality (HS phenotype). In addition, heterozygotes carrying different HS D alleles showed complementation, indicating different recessive lethal mutations. Due to mosaic insecticide control practices, balancing selection (overdominance) plays a key role in the early dynamics of heterogeneous duplicated alleles; it also favours a high local polymorphism of HS D alleles in natural populations (overdominance reinforced by complementation). Overall, our study shows that the evolutionary fate of heterogeneous duplications (and their long-term role) depends on finely balanced selective pressures due to the environment and to their genomic structure.
ESTHER : Milesi_2018_Mol.Ecol_27_493
PubMedSearch : Milesi_2018_Mol.Ecol_27_493
PubMedID: 29230902
Gene_locus related to this paper: culpi-ACHE1 , culqu-ACHE1

Title : Adaptive deletion in resistance gene duplications in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae - Assogba_2018_Evol.Appl_11_1245
Author(s) : Assogba BS , Alout H , Koffi A , Penetier C , Djogbenou LS , Makoundou P , Weill M , Labbe P
Ref : Evol Appl , 11 :1245 , 2018
Abstract : While gene copy-number variations play major roles in long-term evolution, their early dynamics remains largely unknown. However, examples of their role in short-term adaptation are accumulating: identical repetitions of a locus (homogeneous duplications) can provide a quantitative advantage, while the association of differing alleles (heterogeneous duplications) allows carrying two functions simultaneously. Such duplications often result from rearrangements of sometimes relatively large chromosome fragments, and even when adaptive, they can be associated with deleterious side effects that should, however, be reduced by subsequent evolution. Here, we took advantage of the unique model provided by the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae s.l. to investigate the early evolution of several duplications, heterogeneous and homogeneous, segregating in natural populations from West Africa. These duplications encompass ~200 kb and 11 genes, including the adaptive insecticide resistance ace-1 locus. Through the survey of several populations from three countries over 3-4 years, we showed that an internal deletion of all coamplified genes except ace-1 is currently spreading in West Africa and introgressing from An. gambiae s.s. to An. coluzzii. Both observations provide evidences of its selection, most likely due to reducing the gene-dosage disturbances caused by the excessive copies of the nonadaptive genes. Our study thus provides a unique example of the early adaptive trajectory of duplications and underlines the role of the environmental conditions (insecticide treatment practices and species ecology). It also emphasizes the striking diversity of adaptive responses in these mosquitoes and reveals a worrisome process of resistance/cost trade-off evolution that could impact the control of malaria vectors in Africa.
ESTHER : Assogba_2018_Evol.Appl_11_1245
PubMedSearch : Assogba_2018_Evol.Appl_11_1245
PubMedID: 30151037

Title : Carboxylesterase gene amplifications associated with insecticide resistance in Aedes albopictus: Geographical distribution and evolutionary origin - Grigoraki_2017_PLoS.Negl.Trop.Dis_11_e0005533
Author(s) : Grigoraki L , Pipini D , Labbe P , Chaskopoulou A , Weill M , Vontas J
Ref : PLoS Negl Trop Dis , 11 :e0005533 , 2017
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Aedes albopictus is one of the most invasive human disease vectors. Its control has been largely based on insecticides, such as the larvicide temephos. Temephos resistance has been associated with the up-regulation, through gene amplification, of two carboxylesterase (CCE) genes closely linked on the genome, capable of sequestering and metabolizing temephos oxon, the activated form of temephos. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we investigated the occurrence, geographical distribution and origin of the CCE amplicon in Ae. albopictus populations from several geographical regions worldwide. The haplotypic diversity at the CCEae3a locus revealed high polymorphism, while phylogenetic analysis showed an absence of correlation between haplotype similarity and geographic origin. Two types of esterase amplifications were found, in two locations only (Athens and Florida): one, previously described, results in the amplification of both CCEae3a and CCEae6a; the second is being described for the first time and results in the amplification of CCEae3a only. The two amplification events are independent, as confirmed by sequence analysis. All individuals from Athens and Florida carrying the CCEae3a-CCEae6a co-amplicon share a common haplotype, indicating a single amplification event, which spread between the two countries. SIGNIFICANCE: The importance of passive transportation of disease vectors, including individuals carrying resistance mechanisms, is discussed in the light of efficient and sustainable vector control strategies.
ESTHER : Grigoraki_2017_PLoS.Negl.Trop.Dis_11_e0005533
PubMedSearch : Grigoraki_2017_PLoS.Negl.Trop.Dis_11_e0005533
PubMedID: 28394886
Gene_locus related to this paper: aedae-q17b28 , aedae-q17b31

Title : The ace-1 Locus Is Amplified in All Resistant Anopheles gambiae Mosquitoes: Fitness Consequences of Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Duplications - Assogba_2016_PLoS.Biol_14_e2000618
Author(s) : Assogba BS , Milesi P , Djogbenou LS , Berthomieu A , Makoundou P , Baba-Moussa LS , Fiston-Lavier AS , Belkhir K , Labbe P , Weill M
Ref : PLoS Biol , 14 :e2000618 , 2016
Abstract : Gene copy-number variations are widespread in natural populations, but investigating their phenotypic consequences requires contemporary duplications under selection. Such duplications have been found at the ace-1 locus (encoding the organophosphate and carbamate insecticides' target) in the mosquito Anopheles gambiae (the major malaria vector); recent studies have revealed their intriguing complexity, consistent with the involvement of various numbers and types (susceptible or resistant to insecticide) of copies. We used an integrative approach, from genome to phenotype level, to investigate the influence of duplication architecture and gene-dosage on mosquito fitness. We found that both heterogeneous (i.e., one susceptible and one resistant ace-1 copy) and homogeneous (i.e., identical resistant copies) duplications segregated in field populations. The number of copies in homogeneous duplications was variable and positively correlated with acetylcholinesterase activity and resistance level. Determining the genomic structure of the duplicated region revealed that, in both types of duplication, ace-1 and 11 other genes formed tandem 203kb amplicons. We developed a diagnostic test for duplications, which showed that ace-1 was amplified in all 173 resistant mosquitoes analyzed (field-collected in several African countries), in heterogeneous or homogeneous duplications. Each type was associated with different fitness trade-offs: heterogeneous duplications conferred an intermediate phenotype (lower resistance and fitness costs), whereas homogeneous duplications tended to increase both resistance and fitness cost, in a complex manner. The type of duplication selected seemed thus to depend on the intensity and distribution of selection pressures. This versatility of trade-offs available through gene duplication highlights the importance of large mutation events in adaptation to environmental variation. This impressive adaptability could have a major impact on vector control in Africa.
ESTHER : Assogba_2016_PLoS.Biol_14_e2000618
PubMedSearch : Assogba_2016_PLoS.Biol_14_e2000618
PubMedID: 27918584

Title : High chlorpyrifos resistance in Culex pipiens mosquitoes: strong synergy between resistance genes - Alout_2016_Heredity.(Edinb)_116_224
Author(s) : Alout H , Labbe P , Berthomieu A , Makoundou P , Fort P , Pasteur N , Weill M
Ref : Heredity (Edinb) , 116 :224 , 2016
Abstract : We investigated the genetic determinism of high chlorpyrifos resistance (HCR), a phenotype first described in 1999 in Culex pipiens mosquitoes surviving chlorpyrifos doses 1 mg l(-1) and more recently found in field samples from Tunisia, Israel or Indian Ocean islands. Through chlorpyrifos selection, we selected several HCR strains that displayed over 10 000-fold resistance. All strains were homozygous for resistant alleles at two main loci: the ace-1 gene, with the resistant ace-1(R) allele expressing the insensitive G119S acetylcholinesterase, and a resistant allele of an unknown gene (named T) linked to the sex and ace-2 genes. We constructed a strain carrying only the T-resistant allele and studied its resistance characteristics. By crossing this strain with strains harboring different alleles at the ace-1 locus, we showed that the resistant ace-1(R) and the T alleles act in strong synergy, as they elicited a resistance 100 times higher than expected from a simple multiplicative effect. This effect was specific to chlorpyrifos and parathion and was not affected by synergists. We also examined how HCR was expressed in strains carrying other ace-1-resistant alleles, such as ace-1(V) or the duplicated ace-1(D) allele, currently spreading worldwide. We identified two major parameters that influenced the level of resistance: the number and the nature of the ace-1-resistant alleles and the number of T alleles. Our data fit a model that predicts that the T allele acts by decreasing chlorpyrifos concentration in the compartment targeted in insects.
ESTHER : Alout_2016_Heredity.(Edinb)_116_224
PubMedSearch : Alout_2016_Heredity.(Edinb)_116_224
PubMedID: 26463842

Title : An ace-1 gene duplication resorbs the fitness cost associated with resistance in Anopheles gambiae, the main malaria mosquito - Assogba_2015_Sci.Rep_5_14529
Author(s) : Assogba BS , Djogbenou LS , Milesi P , Berthomieu A , Perez J , Ayala D , Chandre F , Makoutode M , Labbe P , Weill M
Ref : Sci Rep , 5 :14529 , 2015
Abstract : Widespread resistance to pyrethroids threatens malaria control in Africa. Consequently, several countries switched to carbamates and organophophates insecticides for indoor residual spraying. However, a mutation in the ace-1 gene conferring resistance to these compounds (ace-1(R) allele), is already present. Furthermore, a duplicated allele (ace-1(D)) recently appeared; characterizing its selective advantage is mandatory to evaluate the threat. Our data revealed that a unique duplication event, pairing a susceptible and a resistant copy of the ace-1 gene spread through West Africa. Further investigations revealed that, while ace-1(D) confers less resistance than ace-1(R), the high fitness cost associated with ace-1(R) is almost completely suppressed by the duplication for all traits studied. ace-1 duplication thus represents a permanent heterozygote phenotype, selected, and thus spreading, due to the mosaic nature of mosquito control. It provides malaria mosquito with a new evolutionary path that could hamper resistance management.
ESTHER : Assogba_2015_Sci.Rep_5_14529
PubMedSearch : Assogba_2015_Sci.Rep_5_14529
PubMedID: 26434951

Title : Transcriptome Profiling and Genetic Study Reveal Amplified Carboxylesterase Genes Implicated in Temephos Resistance, in the Asian Tiger Mosquito Aedes albopictus - Grigoraki_2015_PLoS.Negl.Trop.Dis_9_e0003771
Author(s) : Grigoraki L , Lagnel J , Kioulos I , Kampouraki A , Morou E , Labbe P , Weill M , Vontas J
Ref : PLoS Negl Trop Dis , 9 :e0003771 , 2015
Abstract : BACKGROUND: The control of Aedes albopictus, a major vector for viral diseases, such as dengue fever and chikungunya, has been largely reliant on the use of the larvicide temephos for many decades. This insecticide remains a primary control tool for several countries and it is a potential reliable reserve, for emergency epidemics or new invasion cases, in regions such as Europe which have banned its use. Resistance to temephos has been detected in some regions, but the mechanism responsible for the trait has not been investigated. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Temephos resistance was identified in an Aedes albopictus population isolated from Greece, and subsequently selected in the laboratory for a few generations. Biochemical assays suggested the association of elevated carboxylesterases (CCE), but not target site resistance (altered AChE), with this phenotype. Illumina transcriptomic analysis revealed the up-regulation of three transcripts encoding CCE genes in the temephos resistant strain. CCEae3a and CCEae6a showed the most striking up-regulation (27- and 12-folds respectively, compared to the reference susceptible strain); these genes have been previously shown to be involved in temephos resistance also in Ae. aegypti. Gene amplification was associated with elevated transcription levels of both CCEae6a and CCEae3a genes. Genetic crosses confirmed the genetic link between CCEae6a and CCEae3a amplification and temephos resistance, by demonstrating a strong association between survival to temephos exposure and gene copy numbers in the F2 generation. Other transcripts, encoding cytochrome P450s, UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs), cuticle and lipid biosynthesis proteins, were upregulated in resistant mosquitoes, indicating that the co-evolution of multiple mechanisms might contribute to resistance. SIGNIFICANCE: The identification of specific genes associated with insecticide resistance in Ae. albopictus for the first time is an important pre-requirement for insecticide resistance management. The genomic resources that were produced will be useful to the community, to study relevant aspects of Ae. albopictus biology.
ESTHER : Grigoraki_2015_PLoS.Negl.Trop.Dis_9_e0003771
PubMedSearch : Grigoraki_2015_PLoS.Negl.Trop.Dis_9_e0003771
PubMedID: 26000638
Gene_locus related to this paper: aedae-q17b28 , aedae-q17b31

Title : Phenotypic effects of concomitant insensitive acetylcholinesterase ( ace-1 R ) and knockdown resistance ( kdr R ) in Anopheles gambiae : a hindrance for insecticide resistance management for malaria vector control - Assogba_2014_Parasit.Vectors_7_548
Author(s) : Assogba BS , Djogbenou LS , Saizonou J , Milesi P , Djossou L , Djegbe I , Oumbouke WA , Chandre F , Baba-Moussa L , Weill M , Makoutode M
Ref : Parasit Vectors , 7 :548 , 2014
Abstract : BackgroundMalaria is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa with considerable burden for human health. Major insecticide resistance mechanisms such as kdr R and ace-1 R alleles constitute a hindrance to malaria vector control programs. Anopheles gambiae bearing both kdr and ace-1 resistant alleles are increasingly recorded in wild populations. In order to maintain the efficacy of vector control strategies, the characterization of concomitant kdr and ace-1 resistance, and their pleiotropic effects on malaria vector phenotype on insecticide efficacy are important.MethodsLarval and adult bioassays were performed with different insecticide classes used in public health following WHO standard guidelines on four laboratory Anopheles gambiae strains, sharing the same genetic background but harboring distinct resistance status: KISUMU with no resistance allele; ACERKIS with ace-1 R allele; KISKDR with kdr R allele and ACERKDRKIS with both resistance alleles inverted question mark ace-1 R and kdr R .ResultsLarval bioassays indicate that the homozygote resistant strain harboring both alleles (ACERKDRKIS) displayed slightly but significantly higher resistance level to various insecticides like carbamates (bendiocarb, p inverted question mark< inverted question mark0.001; propoxur, p inverted question mark= inverted question mark0.02) and organophosphates (chlorpyriphos-methyl, p inverted question mark= inverted question mark0.002; fenitrothion, p inverted question mark< inverted question mark0.001) when compared to ACERKIS strain. However, no differences were recorded between ACERKDRKIS and KISKDR resistance level against permethrin (Pyrethroid, p inverted question mark= inverted question mark0.7) and DDT (Organochlorine, p inverted question mark= inverted question mark0.24). For adult bioassays, the percentages of mosquitoes knocked down were significantly lower for ACERKDRKIS than for KISKDR with permethrin (p inverted question mark= inverted question mark0.003) but not with deltamethrin. The percentage of mortality from adult bioassays was similar between ACERKDRKIS and ACERKIS with carbamates and organophosphates, or between ACERKDRKIS and KISKDR with pyrethroid and DDT. Concerning acetylcholinesterase enzyme, ACERKDRKIS strain showed similarAChE1 activity than that of ACERKIS.ConclusionThe presence of both kdr R and ace-1 R alleles seems to increase the resistance levels to both carbamate and organophosphate insecticides and at operational level, may represent an important threat to malaria vector control programs in West Africa.
ESTHER : Assogba_2014_Parasit.Vectors_7_548
PubMedSearch : Assogba_2014_Parasit.Vectors_7_548
PubMedID: 25471264

Title : GENE-dosage effects on fitness in recent adaptive duplications: ace-1 in the mosquito Culex pipiens - Labbe_2014_Evolution_68_2092
Author(s) : Labbe P , Milesi P , Yebakima A , Pasteur N , Weill M , Lenormand T
Ref : Evolution , 68 :2092 , 2014
Abstract : Gene duplications have long been advocated to contribute to the evolution of new functions. The role of selection in their early spread is more controversial. Unless duplications are favored for a direct benefit of increased expression, they are likely detrimental. In this article, we investigated the case of duplications favored because they combine already functionally divergent alleles. Their gene-dosage/fitness relations are poorly known because selection may operate on both overall expression and duplicates relative dosage. Using the well-documented case of Culex pipiens resistance to insecticides, we compared strains with various ace-1 allele combinations, including two duplicated alleles carrying both susceptible and resistant copies. The overall protein activity was nearly additive, but, surprisingly, fitness correlated better with the relative proportion of susceptible and resistant copies rather than any absolute measure of activity. Gene dosage is thus crucial, duplications stabilizing a "heterozygote" phenotype. It corroborates the view that these were favored because they fix a permanent heterosis, thereby solving the irreducible trade-off between resistance and synaptic transmission. Moreover, we showed that the contrasted successes of the two duplicated alleles in natural populations depend on genetic changes unrelated to ace-1, confirming the probable implication of recessive sublethal mutations linked to structural rearrangements in some duplications.
ESTHER : Labbe_2014_Evolution_68_2092
PubMedSearch : Labbe_2014_Evolution_68_2092
PubMedID: 24494966

Title : Multiple Insecticide Resistances in the Disease Vector Culex p. Quinquefasciatus from Western Indian Ocean - Pocquet_2013_PLoS.One_8_e77855
Author(s) : Pocquet N , Milesi P , Makoundou P , Unal S , Zumbo B , Atyame C , Darriet F , Dehecq JS , Thiria J , Bheecarry A , Iyaloo DP , Weill M , Chandre F , Labbe P
Ref : PLoS ONE , 8 :e77855 , 2013
Abstract : Several mosquito-borne diseases affect the Western Indian Ocean islands. Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus is one of these vectors and transmits filariasis, Rift Valley and West Nile viruses and the Japanese encephalitis. To limit the impact of these diseases on public health, considerable vector control efforts have been implemented since the 50s, mainly through the use of neurotoxic insecticides belonging to Organochlorines (OC), Organophosphates (OP) and pyrethroids (PYR) families. However, mosquito control failures have been reported on site, and they were probably due to the selection of resistant individuals in response to insecticide exposure. In this study, we used different approaches to establish a first regional assessment of the levels and mechanisms of resistance to various insecticides. Bioassays were used to evaluate resistance to various insecticides, enzyme activity was measured to assess the presence of metabolic resistances through elevated detoxification, and molecular identification of known resistance alleles was investigated to determine the frequency of target-site mutations. These complementary approaches showed that resistance to the most used insecticides families (OC, OP and PYR) is widespread at a regional scale. However, the distribution of the different resistance genes is quite heterogeneous among the islands, some being found at high frequencies everywhere, others being frequent in some islands and absent in others. Moreover, two resistance alleles displayed clinal distributions in Mayotte and La Reunion, probably as a result of a heterogeneous selection due to local treatment practices. These widespread and diverse resistance mechanisms reduce the capacity of resistance management through classical strategies (e.g. insecticide rotation). In case of a disease outbreak, it could undermine the efforts of the vector control services, as only few compounds could be used. It thus becomes urgent to find alternatives to control populations of Cx. p. quinquefasciatus in the Indian Ocean.
ESTHER : Pocquet_2013_PLoS.One_8_e77855
PubMedSearch : Pocquet_2013_PLoS.One_8_e77855
PubMedID: 24204997

Title : Novel AChE inhibitors for sustainable insecticide resistance management - Alout_2012_PLoS.One_7_e47125
Author(s) : Alout H , Labbe P , Berthomieu A , Djogbenou L , Leonetti JP , Fort P , Weill M
Ref : PLoS ONE , 7 :e47125 , 2012
Abstract : Resistance to insecticides has become a critical issue in pest management and it is particularly chronic in the control of human disease vectors. The gravity of this situation is being exacerbated since there has not been a new insecticide class produced for over twenty years. Reasoned strategies have been developed to limit resistance spread but have proven difficult to implement in the field. Here we propose a new conceptual strategy based on inhibitors that preferentially target mosquitoes already resistant to a currently used insecticide. Application of such inhibitors in rotation with the insecticide against which resistance has been selected initially is expected to restore vector control efficacy and reduce the odds of neo-resistance. We validated this strategy by screening for inhibitors of the G119S mutated acetylcholinesterase-1 (AChE1), which mediates insensitivity to the widely used organophosphates (OP) and carbamates (CX) insecticides. PyrimidineTrione Furan-substituted (PTF) compounds came out as best hits, acting biochemically as reversible and competitive inhibitors of mosquito AChE1 and preferentially inhibiting the mutated form, insensitive to OP and CX. PTF application in bioassays preferentially killed OP-resistant Culex pipiens and Anopheles gambiae larvae as a consequence of AChE1 inhibition. Modeling the evolution of frequencies of wild type and OP-insensitive AChE1 alleles in PTF-treated populations using the selectivity parameters estimated from bioassays predicts a rapid rise in the wild type allele frequency. This study identifies the first compound class that preferentially targets OP-resistant mosquitoes, thus restoring OP-susceptibility, which validates a new prospect of sustainable insecticide resistance management.
ESTHER : Alout_2012_PLoS.One_7_e47125
PubMedSearch : Alout_2012_PLoS.One_7_e47125
PubMedID: 23056599
Gene_locus related to this paper: anoga-ACHE1

Title : Insecticide resistance to organophosphates in Culex pipiens complex from Lebanon - Osta_2012_Parasit.Vectors_5_132
Author(s) : Osta MA , Rizk ZJ , Labbe P , Weill M , Knio K
Ref : Parasit Vectors , 5 :132 , 2012
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Analysis of Culex pipiens mosquitoes collected from a single site in Lebanon in 2005, revealed an alarming frequency of ace-1 alleles conferring resistance to organophosphate insecticides. Following this, in 2006 the majority of municipalities switched to pyrethroids after a long history of organophosphate usage in the country; however, since then no studies have assessed the impact of changing insecticide class on the frequency of resistant ace-1 alleles in C. pipiens. METHODS: C. pipiens mosquitoes were captured indoors from 25 villages across the country and subjected to established methods for the analysis of gene amplification at the Ester locus and target site mutations in ace-1 gene that confer resistance to organophosphates. RESULTS: We conducted the first large-scale screen for resistance to organosphosphates in C. pipiens mosquitoes collected from Lebanon. The frequency of carboxylesterase (Ester) and ace-1 alleles conferring resistance to organophosphates were assessed among C. pipiens mosquitoes collected from 25 different villages across the country between December 2008 and December 2009. Established enzymatic assay and PCR-based molecular tests, both diagnostic of the major target site mutations in ace-1 revealed the absence of the F290V mutation among sampled mosquitoes and significant reduction in the frequency of G119S mutation compared to that previously reported for mosquitoes collected from Beirut in 2005. We also identified a new duplicated ace-1 allele, named ace-1D13, exhibiting a resistant phenotype by associating a susceptible and a resistant copy of ace-1 in a mosquito line sampled from Beirut in 2005. Fisher's exact test on ace-1 frequencies in the new sample sites, showed that some populations exhibited a significant excess of heterozygotes, suggesting that the duplicated allele is still present. Starch gel electrophoresis indicated that resistance at the Ester locus was mainly attributed to the Ester2 allele, which exhibits a broad geographical distribution. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis suggests that the frequency of resistant ace-1 alleles in mosquito populations can be downshifted, and in certain cases (F290V mutation) even eliminated, by switching to a different class of insecticides, possibly because of the fitness cost associated with these alleles.
ESTHER : Osta_2012_Parasit.Vectors_5_132
PubMedSearch : Osta_2012_Parasit.Vectors_5_132
PubMedID: 22759898
Gene_locus related to this paper: culpi-ACHE1

Title : Insecticide resistance in the Anopheles gambiae complex in Benin: a nationwide survey - Djogbenou_2011_Med.Vet.Entomol_25_256
Author(s) : Djogbenou L , Pasteur N , Akogbeto M , Weill M , Chandre F
Ref : Med Vet Entomol , 25 :256 , 2011
Abstract : Benin has embraced World Health Organization-recommended preventive strategies to control malaria. Its National Malaria Control Programme is implementing and/or coordinating various actions and conducting evaluation trials of mosquito control strategies. Mosquito control is based on the use of insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying, but the efficacy of these strategies to control malaria vectors is endangered by insecticide resistance. Here, we present the results of a nationwide survey on the status of insecticide susceptibility and resistance in Anopheles gambiae s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae) carried out in Benin in 2006-2007 (i.e. before extensive vector control was undertaken). Overall, our study showed that the S molecular form of An. gambiae s.s. predominates and is widely distributed across the country, whereas the frequency of the M form shows a strong decline with increasing latitude. Susceptibility to DDT, permethrin, carbosulfan and chlorpyrifos-methyl was assessed; individual mosquitoes were identified for species and molecular forms, and genotyped for the kdr and ace-1 loci. Full susceptibility to chlorpyrifos-methyl was recorded and very few samples displayed resistance to carbosulfan. High resistance levels to permethrin were detected in most samples and almost all samples displayed resistance to DDT. The kdr-Leu-Phe mutation was present in all localities and in both molecular forms of An. gambiae s.s. Furthermore, the ace-1(R) mutation was predominant in the S form, but absent from the M form. By contrast, no target modification was observed in Anopheles arabiensis. Resistance in the An. gambiae S molecular form in this study seemed to be associated with agricultural practices. Our study showed important geographic variations which must be taken into account in the vector control strategies that will be applied in different regions of Benin. It also emphasizes the need to regularly monitor insecticide resistance across the country and to adapt measures to manage resistance.
ESTHER : Djogbenou_2011_Med.Vet.Entomol_25_256
PubMedSearch : Djogbenou_2011_Med.Vet.Entomol_25_256
PubMedID: 21155858

Title : High incidence of ace-1 duplicated haplotypes in resistant Culex pipiens mosquitoes from Algeria - Alout_2011_Insect.Biochem.Mol.Biol_41_29
Author(s) : Alout H , Labbe P , Pasteur N , Weill M
Ref : Insect Biochemistry & Molecular Biology , 41 :29 , 2011
Abstract : The status of genes conferring resistance to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides has been examined in Culex pipiens pipiens mosquitoes sampled in Algeria. Presence of overproduced esterases was sporadic, but acetylcholinesterase-1 resistant alleles were observed in almost all samples. We focused our study on the AChE1 G119S substitution characterized in almost all samples, mostly at the heterozygous state. A genetic test revealed the presence of ace-1 duplication associating a susceptible and a resistant ace-1 copy. Molecular characterization showed a high occurrence of ace-1 duplication with six distinct duplicated alleles out of four samples. The inferred frequency of duplicated allele suggests that it is replacing the single resistant G119S allele. Finally, we discuss the mechanism at the origin of these duplicated haplotypes and their consequences on the management of insecticide resistance.
ESTHER : Alout_2011_Insect.Biochem.Mol.Biol_41_29
PubMedSearch : Alout_2011_Insect.Biochem.Mol.Biol_41_29
PubMedID: 20887788

Title : Insecticide resistance in Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes from La Reunion Island - Tantely_2010_Insect.Biochem.Mol.Biol_40_317
Author(s) : Tantely ML , Tortosa P , Alout H , Berticat C , Berthomieu A , Rutee A , Dehecq JS , Makoundou P , Labbe P , Pasteur N , Weill M
Ref : Insect Biochemistry & Molecular Biology , 40 :317 , 2010
Abstract : Resistance to insecticides was monitored on Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus mosquitoes collected in twelve localities of La Reunion, a geographically isolated island of the Indian Ocean. This mosquito is of medical concern in the region as a known vector for filariasis and a potential vector for West Nile and Rift Valley Fever viruses. Our bioassays indicated the presence of resistance to all tested insecticides, i.e. organochlorides, organophosphates and pyrethroids. A molecular investigation revealed a higher frequency of resistance genes in the coastal areas compared to elevated rural sites, probably reflecting the different nature of insecticide pressures together with the genetic cost of resistance alleles. A simple molecular test was developed to detect Rdl allele, encoding a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor resistant to dieldrin. Unexpectedly high Rdl frequencies were recorded over the whole island, despite this insecticide having been banned for over 15 years. This resistant allele was also detected for the first time in two samples of Aedes albopictus, a species recently involved in severe Chikungunya epidemics on the island. Rdl selection in these two mosquito species discloses current insecticide pressures in urban areas, from unknown origins, that should be taken into account to develop vector control strategies.
ESTHER : Tantely_2010_Insect.Biochem.Mol.Biol_40_317
PubMedSearch : Tantely_2010_Insect.Biochem.Mol.Biol_40_317
PubMedID: 20188834

Title : Malaria vectors in the Republic of Benin: distribution of species and molecular forms of the Anopheles gambiae complex - Djogbenou_2010_Acta.Trop_114_116
Author(s) : Djogbenou L , Pasteur N , Bio-Bangana S , Baldet T , Irish SR , Akogbeto M , Weill M , Chandre F
Ref : Acta Trop , 114 :116 , 2010
Abstract : Members of the Anopheles gambiae complex are among the best malaria vectors in the world, but their vectorial capacities vary between species and populations. A large-scale sampling of An. gambiae sensu lato was carried out in 2006 and 2007 in various bioclimatic areas of Benin (West Africa). The objective of this study was to collate data on the relative frequencies of species and forms within the An. gambiae complex and to produce a map of their spatial distribution. Sampling took place at 30 sites and 2122 females were analyzed. Two species were identified through molecular methods. The overall collection showed a preponderance of An. gambiae s.s., but unexpectedly, An. arabiensis was reported in the coastal-Guinean bioclimatic area characterized by a mean annual rainfall of >1500 mm where only An. gambiae s.s. was reported previously. Our study of Benin indicates that An. arabiensis would be adapted not only to the urban areas but also to the rural humid regions. Among 1717 An. gambiae s.s., 26.5% were of the M form and 73.3% were S form. Few hybrid specimens between the M and S forms were observed (0.2%). Only the spatial distribution of the M form appears to be mainly a function of bioclimatic area. Factors that influence the distribution of these malaria vectors are discussed. This study underlines the need of further investigations of biological, ecological, and behavioral traits of these species and forms to better appreciate their vectorial capacities. Acquisition of entomological field data appears essential to better estimate the stratification of malaria risk and help improve malaria vector control interventions.
ESTHER : Djogbenou_2010_Acta.Trop_114_116
PubMedSearch : Djogbenou_2010_Acta.Trop_114_116
PubMedID: 20138819

Title : Acetylcholinesterase point mutations in European strains of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) resistant to organophosphates - Khajehali_2010_Pest.Manag.Sci_66_220
Author(s) : Khajehali J , Van Leeuwen T , Grispou M , Morou E , Alout H , Weill M , Tirry L , Vontas J , Tsagkarakou A
Ref : Pest Manag Sci , 66 :220 , 2010
Abstract : BACKGROUND: In Tetranychus urticae Koch, acetylcholinesterase insensitivity is often involved in organophosphate (OP) and carbamate (CARB) resistance. By combining toxicological, biochemical and molecular data from three reference laboratory and three OP selected strains (OP strains), the AChE1 mutations associated with resistance in T. urticae were characterised. RESULTS: The resistance ratios of the OP strains varied from 9 to 43 for pirimiphos-methyl, from 78 to 586 for chlorpyrifos, from 8 to 333 for methomyl and from 137 to 4164 for dimethoate. The insecticide concentration needed to inhibit 50% of the AChE1 activity was, in the OP strains, at least 2.7, 55, 58 and 31 times higher for the OP pirimiphos-methyl, chlorpyrifos oxon, paraoxon and omethoate respectively, and 87 times higher for the CARB carbaryl. By comparing the AChE1 sequence, four amino acid substitutions were detected in the OP strains: (1) F331W (Torpedo numbering) in all the three OP strains; (2) T280A found in the three OP strains but not in all clones; (3) G328A, found in two OP strains; (4) A201S found in only one OP strain. CONCLUSIONS: Four AChE1 mutations were found in resistant strains of T. urticae, and three of them, F331W, G328A and A201S, are possibly involved in resistance to OP and CARB insecticides. Among them, F331W is probably the most important and the most common in T. urticae. It can be easily detected by the diagnostic PCR-RLFP assay developed in this study.
ESTHER : Khajehali_2010_Pest.Manag.Sci_66_220
PubMedSearch : Khajehali_2010_Pest.Manag.Sci_66_220
PubMedID: 19894225
Gene_locus related to this paper: tetur-ACHE

Title : Insecticide control of vector-borne diseases: when is insecticide resistance a problem? - Rivero_2010_PLoS.Pathog_6_e1001000
Author(s) : Rivero A , Vezilier J , Weill M , Read AF , Gandon S
Ref : PLoS Pathog , 6 :e1001000 , 2010
Abstract : Many of the most dangerous human diseases are transmitted by insect vectors. After decades of repeated insecticide use, all of these vector species have demonstrated the capacity to evolve resistance to insecticides. Insecticide resistance is generally considered to undermine control of vector-transmitted diseases because it increases the number of vectors that survive the insecticide treatment. Disease control failure, however, need not follow from vector control failure. Here, we review evidence that insecticide resistance may have an impact on the quality of vectors and, specifically, on three key determinants of parasite transmission: vector longevity, competence, and behaviour. We argue that, in some instances, insecticide resistance is likely to result in a decrease in vector longevity, a decrease in infectiousness, or in a change in behaviour, all of which will reduce the vectorial capacity of the insect. If this effect is sufficiently large, the impact of insecticide resistance on disease management may not be as detrimental as previously thought. In other instances, however, insecticide resistance may have the opposite effect, increasing the insect's vectorial capacity, which may lead to a dramatic increase in the transmission of the disease and even to a higher prevalence than in the absence of insecticides. Either way-and there may be no simple generality-the consequence of the evolution of insecticide resistance for disease ecology deserves additional attention.
ESTHER : Rivero_2010_PLoS.Pathog_6_e1001000
PubMedSearch : Rivero_2010_PLoS.Pathog_6_e1001000
PubMedID: 20700451

Title : Ace-1 duplication in Anopheles gambiae: a challenge for malaria control - Djogbenou_2009_Malar.J_8_70
Author(s) : Djogbenou L , Labbe P , Chandre F , Pasteur N , Weill M
Ref : Malar J , 8 :70 , 2009
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Insecticide resistance is a rapid and recent evolutionary phenomenon with serious economic and public health implications. In the mosquito Anopheles gambiae s.s., main vector of malaria, resistance to organophosphates and carbamates is mainly due to a single amino-acid substitution in acetylcholinesterase 1 (AChE1). This mutation entails a large fitness cost. However, a resistant duplicated allele of the gene encoding AChE1 (ace-1), potentially associated to a lower fitness cost, recently appeared in An. gambiae. METHODS: Using molecular phenotype data collected from natural populations from West Africa, the frequency of this duplicated allele was investigated by statistical inference. This method is based on the departure from Hardy-Weinberg phenotypic frequency equilibrium caused by the presence of this new allele. RESULTS: The duplicated allele, Ag-ace-1(D), reaches a frequency up to 0.65 in Ivory Coast and Burkina Faso, and is potentially present in Benin. A previous study showed that Ag-ace-1(D), present in both M and S molecular forms in different West Africa countries, was generated by a single genetic event. This single origin and its present distribution suggest that this new allele is currently spreading. CONCLUSION: The spread of this less costly resistance allele could represent a major threat to public health, as it may impede An. gambiae control strategies, and thus increases the risk of malaria outbreaks.
ESTHER : Djogbenou_2009_Malar.J_8_70
PubMedSearch : Djogbenou_2009_Malar.J_8_70
PubMedID: 19374767
Gene_locus related to this paper: anoga-ACHE1

Title : Genes conferring resistance to organophosphorus insecticides in Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) from Tunisia - Ben Cheikh_2009_J.Med.Entomol_46_523
Author(s) : Ben Cheikh R , Berticat C , Berthomieu A , Pasteur N , Ben Cheikh H , Weill M
Ref : Journal of Medical Entomology , 46 :523 , 2009
Abstract : In Tunisia, the mosquito Culex pipiens shows various organophosphate resistance alleles at Ester and ace-1 loci. The characterization and the distribution pattern of these alleles were studied among 20 populations sampled from north to center of Tunisia. At the Ester locus, Ester4, Ester5, and Ester(B12) were present. A new esterase characterized by the same electrophoretic migration as esterase A1 was identified: A13, encoded by Ester(A13) allele. At the ace-1 locus, the presence of the ace-1(R), ace-1(D), and F290V mutated alleles was also detected. A large heterogeneity in allelic frequencies at Ester and ace-1 loci was observed among samples, with a high significant genotypic differentiation considering both loci (F, = 0.077, P < 10(-5)), depicting variations of insecticide treatment intensity between areas. A comparison between populations collected in 1996 and 2005 showed an absence of significant resistance evolution. However, the high frequencies of resistance alleles in 2005 populations suggested that the selection pressures are still important in Tunisia. Strategies for resistance management are discussed in the context of the current knowledge of the Tunisian situation.
ESTHER : Ben Cheikh_2009_J.Med.Entomol_46_523
PubMedSearch : Ben Cheikh_2009_J.Med.Entomol_46_523
PubMedID: 19496423

Title : Multiple duplications of the rare ace-1 mutation F290V in Culex pipiens natural populations - Alout_2009_Insect.Biochem.Mol.Biol_39_884
Author(s) : Alout H , Labbe P , Berthomieu A , Pasteur N , Weill M
Ref : Insect Biochemistry & Molecular Biology , 39 :884 , 2009
Abstract : Two amino acid substitutions in acetylcholinesterase 1 (AChE1), G119S and F290V, are responsible for resistance to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides in Culex pipiens mosquitoes. These mutations generate very different levels of insensitivity to insecticide inhibitors. We described here a biochemical method that rapidly identifies AChE1 variants (susceptible, G119S and F290V, named S, R and V, respectively) present in individual mosquitoes. We investigated the frequency of AChE1 phenotypes in 41 field samples collected around the Mediterranean Sea. F290V substitution was found only in 15 samples and at low frequency, whereas G119S was highly spread in all samples. However, seven V distinct alleles were identified whereas only one R allele was present. The [V] enzymatic phenotype was never observed alone, and the V allele was always found associated with the susceptible and/or G119S AChE1 ([VS], [VR] or [VRS] phenotypes). Furthermore, we showed the presence of duplicated alleles, associating a susceptible and a V copy of the ace-1 gene, in most individuals analyzed for its presence. Evolutionary forces driving the large number of F290V ace-1 alleles and their low frequency in Mediterranean countries are discussed.
ESTHER : Alout_2009_Insect.Biochem.Mol.Biol_39_884
PubMedSearch : Alout_2009_Insect.Biochem.Mol.Biol_39_884
PubMedID: 19874892

Title : Comparison of Anopheles gambiae and Culex pipiens acetycholinesterase 1 biochemical properties - Alout_2008_Comp.Biochem.Physiol.B.Biochem.Mol.Biol_150_271
Author(s) : Alout H , Djogbenou L , Berticat C , Chandre F , Weill M
Ref : Comparative Biochemistry & Physiology B Biochem Mol Biol , 150 :271 , 2008
Abstract : Selection of insensitive acetycholinesterase 1 (AChE1) has occurred in several mosquito species controlled with carbamate (CX) and organophosphate (OP) insecticides. In case of pyrethroid resistance, these insecticides represent an alternative for disease vector control program. Their heavy use in agriculture has selected resistant populations of Anopheles gambiae in West Africa. The evolution of resistance has to be studied to prevent, or at least slow down, the spread of resistant mosquito in wild populations. An. gambiae shares the same resistance mechanism to CX and OP insecticides as Culex pipiens, which was attributed to the G119S substitution in the AChE1 enzyme. By comparing resistant AChE1 from both species, we show here that similar resistance levels are obtained toward 10 insecticides of both classes. Moreover, similar AChE1 activity levels are recorded between either susceptible or resistant mosquitoes of both species. Enzymes belonging to both species seem thus to share identical properties. Consequently, we hypothesize that fitness cost associated with AChE1 insensitivity in C. pipiens mosquitoes should be similar in An. gambiae and thus be used in strategies to control resistant populations where malaria is prevalent.
ESTHER : Alout_2008_Comp.Biochem.Physiol.B.Biochem.Mol.Biol_150_271
PubMedSearch : Alout_2008_Comp.Biochem.Physiol.B.Biochem.Mol.Biol_150_271
PubMedID: 18455457

Title : Evidence of introgression of the ace-1(R) mutation and of the ace-1 duplication in West African Anopheles gambiae s. s - Djogbenou_2008_PLoS.One_3_e2172
Author(s) : Djogbenou L , Chandre F , Berthomieu A , Dabire R , Koffi A , Alout H , Weill M
Ref : PLoS ONE , 3 :e2172 , 2008
Abstract : BACKGROUND: The role of inter-specific hybridisation is of particular importance in mosquito disease vectors for predicting the evolution of insecticide resistance. Two molecular forms of Anopheles gambiae s.s., currently recognized as S and M taxa, are considered to be incipient sibling species. Hybrid scarcity in the field was suggested that differentiation of M and S taxa is maintained by limited or absent gene flow. However, recent studies have revealed shared polymorphisms within the M and S forms, and a better understanding of the occurrence of gene flow is needed. One such shared polymorphism is the G119S mutation in the ace-1 gene (which is responsible for insecticide resistance); this mutation has been described in both the M and S forms of A. gambiae s.s. METHODS AND
RESULTS: To establish whether the G119S mutation has arisen independently in each form or by genetic introgression, we analysed coding and non-coding sequences of ace-1 alleles in M and S mosquitoes from representative field populations. Our data revealed many polymorphic sites shared by S and M forms, but no diversity was associated with the G119S mutation. These results indicate that the G119S mutation was a unique event and that genetic introgression explains the observed distribution of the G119S mutation within the two forms. However, it was impossible to determine from our data whether the mutation occurred first in the S form or in the M form. Unexpectedly, sequence analysis of some resistant individuals revealed a duplication of the ace-1 gene that was observed in both A. gambiae s.s. M and S forms. Again, the distribution of this duplication in the two forms most likely occurred through introgression.
CONCLUSIONS: These results highlight the need for more research to understand the forces driving the evolution of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors and to regularly monitor resistance in mosquito populations of Africa.
ESTHER : Djogbenou_2008_PLoS.One_3_e2172
PubMedSearch : Djogbenou_2008_PLoS.One_3_e2172
PubMedID: 18478097

Title : Characterization of a novel high-activity esterase in Tunisian populations of the mosquito Culex pipiens - Ben_2008_J.Econ.Entomol_101_484
Author(s) : Ben Cheikh R , Berticat C , Berthomieu A , Pasteur N , Ben Cheikh H , Weill M
Ref : J Econ Entomol , 101 :484 , 2008
Abstract : AIn the mosquito Culex pipiens (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) esterases contribute to insecticide resistance by their increased activity. These esterases display a heterogeneous geographical distribution, particularly in Tunisia, where they are very diverse. In this study, we extended the characterization of a highly active esterase first detected in 1996: B12. Esterase B12 displayed the fastest electrophoretic mobility of all the previously described highly active esterases. We showed that it was encoded by the Ester(B12) allele at the Ester locus, and we isolated a strain, TunB12, homozygous for this allele. TunB12 displayed a low (approximately two- to three-fold) but significant resistance to the organophosphates temephos and chlorpyrifos, and to the pyrethroid permethrin. Only temephos resistance was synergized by S,S,S-tributyl-phosphorotrithioate. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that the Ester(B12) allele was not amplified in TunB12 strain, indicating that B12 high activity could be due to a gene up-regulation mechanism. Ester(B12) allele frequencies also were estimated in 20 Tunisian populations collected in 2005. Analyses revealed a large distribution of this allele all over the country. Finally, sequences of Ester(B12) were acquired and genetic distance trees were constructed with the resistance Ester alleles already published, providing indications about allele's origins. The diverse array of highly active esterases in C. pipiens from Tunisia and the possible scenario of the origin of their coding alleles are discussed in the context of their possible evolution.
ESTHER : Ben_2008_J.Econ.Entomol_101_484
PubMedSearch : Ben_2008_J.Econ.Entomol_101_484
PubMedID: 18459415

Title : Costs and benefits of multiple resistance to insecticides for Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes - Berticat_2008_BMC.Evol.Biol_8_104
Author(s) : Berticat C , Bonnet J , Duchon S , Agnew P , Weill M , Corbel V
Ref : BMC Evol Biol , 8 :104 , 2008
Abstract : BACKGROUND: The evolutionary dynamics of xenobiotic resistance depends on how resistance mutations influence the fitness of their bearers, both in the presence and absence of xenobiotic selection pressure. In cases of multiple resistance, these dynamics will also depend on how individual resistance mutations interact with one another, and on the xenobiotics applied against them. We compared Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes harbouring two resistance alleles ace-1R and KdrR (conferring resistance to carbamate and pyrethroid insecticides, respectively) to mosquitoes bearing only one of the alleles, or neither allele. Comparisons were made in environments where both, only one, or neither type of insecticide was present.
RESULTS: Each resistance allele was associated with fitness costs (survival to adulthood) in an insecticide-free environment, with the costs of ace-1R being greater than for KdrR. However, there was a notable interaction in that the costs of harbouring both alleles were significantly less than for harbouring ace-1R alone. The two insecticides combined in an additive, synergistic and antagonistic manner depending on a mosquito's resistance status, but were not predictable based on the presence/absence of either, or both mutations. CONCLUSION: Insecticide resistance mutations interacted to positively or negatively influence a mosquito's fitness, both in the presence or absence of insecticides. In particular, the presence of the KdrR mutation compensated for the costs of the ace-1R mutation in an insecticide-free environment, suggesting the strength of selection in untreated areas would be less against mosquitoes resistant to both insecticides than for those resistant to carbamates alone. Additional interactions suggest the dynamics of resistance will be difficult to predict in populations where multiple resistance mutations are present or that are subject to treatment by different xenobiotics.
ESTHER : Berticat_2008_BMC.Evol.Biol_8_104
PubMedSearch : Berticat_2008_BMC.Evol.Biol_8_104
PubMedID: 18397515

Title : Amino-acid substitutions in acetylcholinesterase 1 involved in insecticide resistance in mosquitoes - Alout_2008_Chem.Biol.Interact_175_138
Author(s) : Alout H , Weill M
Ref : Chemico-Biological Interactions , 175 :138 , 2008
Abstract : In natural populations of mosquitoes, high level of resistance to carbamates (CX) and organophosphates (OP) is provided by insensitive acetylcholinesterase (AChE1). Different alleles conferring resistance have been identified at the ace1 locus. They differ from the wild-type by only one amino-acid substitution. The comparison of the biochemical characteristics of mutated recombinant proteins and AChE1 in resistant mosquito extracts confirmed the role of each substitution in insensitivity. Selection of these different resistant alleles in field populations depends likely on the insecticides used locally. Theoretical modelling studies are initiated to develop novel strategies of mosquito control.
ESTHER : Alout_2008_Chem.Biol.Interact_175_138
PubMedSearch : Alout_2008_Chem.Biol.Interact_175_138
PubMedID: 18468592

Title : Genetic differentiation of Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) in China - Cui_2007_Bull.Entomol.Res_97_291
Author(s) : Cui F , Qiao CL , Shen BC , Marquine M , Weill M , Raymond M
Ref : Bull Entomol Res , 97 :291 , 2007
Abstract : The population genetic structures of Culex pipiens Linnaeus were evaluated in China over a 2000 km transect that encompasses the two subspecies, C. p. pallens and C. p. quinquefasciatus. Four polymorphic allozyme loci were investigated in 1376 mosquitoes sampled from 20 populations across four provinces. These loci were not statistically dependent with no apparent heterozygote deficit or excess. On a regional scale (intra-province), a low (Fst=0.007-0.016) and significant genetic differentiation was found, with no clear geographical pattern. On a wider scale (inter-province), the genetic differentiation was higher (Fst=0.059), and an isolation by distance emerged. The results are compared with previous population genetic surveys of this mosquito species in different geographic areas over the world. The overall pattern suggests that Culex pipiens requires considerable distance (500-1000 km) to show isolation by distance, irrespective of the subspecies (C. p. pipiens, C. p. quinquefasciatus and C. p. pallens) or the geographic location.
ESTHER : Cui_2007_Bull.Entomol.Res_97_291
PubMedSearch : Cui_2007_Bull.Entomol.Res_97_291
PubMedID: 17524160

Title : Characterization of insensitive acetylcholinesterase (ace-1R) in Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae): resistance levels and dominance - Djogbenou_2007_J.Med.Entomol_44_805
Author(s) : Djogbenou L , Weill M , Hougard JM , Raymond M , Akogbeto M , Chandre F
Ref : Journal of Medical Entomology , 44 :805 , 2007
Abstract : Characterization of insecticide resistance provides data on the evolutionary processes involved in the adaptation of insects to environmental changes. Studying the dominance status and resistance level represents a great interest, in terms of understanding resistance evolution in the field to eventually adapt vector control. Resistance and dominance levels conferred by the G119S mutation of acetylcholinesterase (ace-1R) of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae s.s. (Diptera: Culicidae) were studied for various insecticides belonging to different classes, using strains sharing the same genetic background. Our survey shows that the homozygote resistant strain AcerKis displayed a very high resistance level to various carbamates (range 3,000- to 5,000-fold) compared with that of various organophosphates (range 12- to 30-fold). Furthermore, the dominance status varied between semi-recessivity with fenitrothion and chlorpyrifos methyl insecticides to semidominance with temephos, carbosulfan, and propoxur. These results indicate that this resistance mechanism could spread rapidly in the field and then compromise the use of organophosphate and carbamate compounds in public health. This study underlines the necessity to monitor the ace-1R mutation in natural populations before planning and implementing malaria control programs based on the use of these insecticides.
ESTHER : Djogbenou_2007_J.Med.Entomol_44_805
PubMedSearch : Djogbenou_2007_J.Med.Entomol_44_805
PubMedID: 17915512
Gene_locus related to this paper: anoga-ACHE1

Title : Independent duplications of the acetylcholinesterase gene conferring insecticide resistance in the mosquito Culex pipiens - Labbe_2007_Mol.Biol.Evol_24_1056
Author(s) : Labbe P , Berthomieu A , Berticat C , Alout H , Raymond M , Lenormand T , Weill M
Ref : Molecular Biology Evolution , 24 :1056 , 2007
Abstract : Gene duplication is thought to be the main potential source of material for the evolution of new gene functions. Several models have been proposed for the evolution of new functions through duplication, most based on ancient events (Myr). We provide molecular evidence for the occurrence of several (at least 3) independent duplications of the ace-1 locus in the mosquito Culex pipiens, selected in response to insecticide pressure that probably occurred very recently (<40 years ago). This locus encodes the main target of several insecticides, the acetylcholinesterase. The duplications described consist of 2 alleles of ace-1, 1 susceptible and 1 resistant to insecticide, located on the same chromosome. These events were detected in different parts of the world and probably resulted from distinct mechanisms. We propose that duplications were selected because they reduce the fitness cost associated with the resistant ace-1 allele through the generation of persistent, advantageous heterozygosis. The rate of duplication of ace-1 in C. pipiens is probably underestimated, but seems to be rather high.
ESTHER : Labbe_2007_Mol.Biol.Evol_24_1056
PubMedSearch : Labbe_2007_Mol.Biol.Evol_24_1056
PubMedID: 17283366
Gene_locus related to this paper: culpi-ACHE1 , culqu-ACHE1

Title : A new amino-acid substitution in acetylcholinesterase 1 confers insecticide resistance to Culex pipiens mosquitoes from Cyprus - Alout_2007_Insect.Biochem.Mol.Biol_37_41
Author(s) : Alout H , Berthomieu A , Hadjivassilis A , Weill M
Ref : Insect Biochemistry & Molecular Biology , 37 :41 , 2007
Abstract : In insects, selection of insecticide-insensitive acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is a very common resistance mechanism. Mosquitoes possess both AChE1 and AChE2 enzymes and insensitivity is conferred by single amino-acid changes located near the active site of the synaptic AChE1. Only two positions have been reported so far to be involved in resistance, suggesting a very high structural constraint of the AChE1 enzyme. In particular, the G119S substitution was selected in several mosquitoes' species and is now largely spread worldwide. Yet, a different type of AChE1 insensitivity was described 10 years ago in a Culex pipiens population collected in Cyprus in 1987 and fixed thereafter as the ACE-R strain. We report here the complete amino-acid sequence of the ACE-R AChE1 and show that resistance is associated with a single Phe-to-Val substitution of residue 290, which also lines the active site. Comparison of AChE1 activities of the recombinant F290V protein and ACE-R mosquito extracts confirmed the causal role of the substitution in insensitivity. Biochemical characteristics of the mutated protein indicated that the resistance level varies with the insecticide used. A molecular diagnosis test was designed to detect this mutation and was used to show that it is still present in Cyprus Island.
ESTHER : Alout_2007_Insect.Biochem.Mol.Biol_37_41
PubMedSearch : Alout_2007_Insect.Biochem.Mol.Biol_37_41
PubMedID: 17175445
Gene_locus related to this paper: culpi-ACHE1

Title : Different amino-acid substitutions confer insecticide resistance through acetylcholinesterase 1 insensitivity in Culex vishnui and Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae) from China - Alout_2007_J.Med.Entomol_44_463
Author(s) : Alout H , Berthomieu A , Cui F , Tan Y , Berticat C , Qiao C , Weill M
Ref : Journal of Medical Entomology , 44 :463 , 2007
Abstract : Insecticide resistance owing to insensitive acetylcholinesterase (AChE)1 has been reported in several mosquito species, and only two mutations in the ace-1 gene have been implicated in resistance: 119S and 331W substitutions. We analyzed the AChE1 resistance status of Culex vishnui (Theobald) and Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles sampled in various regions of China. These two species displayed distinct mutations leading to AChE1 insensitivity; the 119S substitution in resistant C. vishnui mosquitoes and the 331W substitution in resistant C. tritaeniorhynchus. A biochemical test was validated to detect the 331W mutation in field samples. The comparison of the recombinant G119S and 331W mutant proteins produced in vitro with the AChE1 extracted from resistant mosquitoes indicated that the AChE1 insensitivity observed could be specifically attributed to these substitutions. Comparison of their biochemical characteristics indicated that the resistance conferred by these mutations depends on the insecticide used, regardless of its class. This resistance seemed to be fixed in the Cx. tritaeniorhynchus populations sampled in a 2000-km transect, suggesting a very high level of insecticide application or a low fitness cost associated with this 331W mutation.
ESTHER : Alout_2007_J.Med.Entomol_44_463
PubMedSearch : Alout_2007_J.Med.Entomol_44_463
PubMedID: 17547232
Gene_locus related to this paper: culpi-ACHE1

Title : Characterization of novel esterases in insecticide-resistant mosquitoes - Cui_2007_Insect.Biochem.Mol.Biol_37_1131
Author(s) : Cui F , Weill M , Berthomieu A , Raymond M , Qiao CL
Ref : Insect Biochemistry & Molecular Biology , 37 :1131 , 2007
Abstract : In the mosquito Culex pipiens complex (Diptera: Culicidae), the amplification of carboxylesterase genes is an important mechanism providing resistance to organophosphate insecticides. Various amplified alleles at the Ester locus have been identified over the world. In this study, two newly detected Ester alleles, Ester(B10) and Ester(11) (including associated Ester(A11) and Ester(B11)), coding for esterases B10 and A11-B11, respectively, are characterized qualitatively and quantitatively. A high molecular identity is observed both at the nucleotide level and at the deduced amino acid level among the known Ester alleles. Real-time quantitative PCR results suggest 2.5-fold amplification of the Ester(B10) allele, 36.5-fold amplification of the Ester(A11) allele, and 19.1-fold amplification of the Ester(B11) allele. The ca. 2-fold difference in amplification level between Ester(A11) and Ester(B11) may indicate a new model for the esterase amplification. Bioassays show that these two resistant Ester alleles only can confer moderate or low resistance to the tested organophosphate insecticides.
ESTHER : Cui_2007_Insect.Biochem.Mol.Biol_37_1131
PubMedSearch : Cui_2007_Insect.Biochem.Mol.Biol_37_1131
PubMedID: 17916499
Gene_locus related to this paper: culpi-ESTA , culqu-1estb

Title : Forty years of erratic insecticide resistance evolution in the mosquito Culex pipiens - Labbe_2007_PLoS.Genet_3_e205
Author(s) : Labbe P , Berticat C , Berthomieu A , Unal S , Bernard C , Weill M , Lenormand T
Ref : PLoS Genet , 3 :e205 , 2007
Abstract : One view of adaptation is that it proceeds by the slow and steady accumulation of beneficial mutations with small effects. It is difficult to test this model, since in most cases the genetic basis of adaptation can only be studied a posteriori with traits that have evolved for a long period of time through an unknown sequence of steps. In this paper, we show how ace-1, a gene involved in resistance to organophosphorous insecticide in the mosquito Culex pipiens, has evolved during 40 years of an insecticide control program. Initially, a major resistance allele with strong deleterious side effects spread through the population. Later, a duplication combining a susceptible and a resistance ace-1 allele began to spread but did not replace the original resistance allele, as it is sublethal when homozygous. Last, a second duplication, (also sublethal when homozygous) began to spread because heterozygotes for the two duplications do not exhibit deleterious pleiotropic effects. Double overdominance now maintains these four alleles across treated and nontreated areas. Thus, ace-1 evolution does not proceed via the steady accumulation of beneficial mutations. Instead, resistance evolution has been an erratic combination of mutation, positive selection, and the rearrangement of existing variation leading to complex genetic architecture.
ESTHER : Labbe_2007_PLoS.Genet_3_e205
PubMedSearch : Labbe_2007_PLoS.Genet_3_e205
PubMedID: 18020711
Gene_locus related to this paper: culqu-ACHE1

Title : Recent emergence of insensitive acetylcholinesterase in Chinese populations of the mosquito Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) - Cui_2006_J.Med.Entomol_43_878
Author(s) : Cui F , Raymond M , Berthomieu A , Alout H , Weill M , Qiao CL
Ref : Journal of Medical Entomology , 43 :878 , 2006
Abstract : Organophosphate/carbamate target resistance has emerged in Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae), the vector of Wuchereria bancrofti and West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus) in China. The insensitive acetylcholinesterase was detected in only one of 20 samples collected on a north-to-south transect. According to previous findings, a unique mutation, G119S in the ace-1 gene, explained this high insensitivity. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the mutation G119S recently detected in China results from an independent mutation event. The G119S mutation thus occurred at least three times independently within the Cx. pipiens complex, once in the temperate (Cx. p. pipiens) and twice in the tropical form (Cx. p. quinquefasciatus). Bioassays performed with a purified G119S strain indicated that this substitution was associated with high levels of resistance to chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion, malathion, and parathion, but low levels of resistance to dichlorvos, trichlorfon, and fenthion. Hence, it is possible that in China, dichlorvos, trichlorfon, and fenthion will still achieve effective control even in the presence of the G119S mutation.
ESTHER : Cui_2006_J.Med.Entomol_43_878
PubMedSearch : Cui_2006_J.Med.Entomol_43_878
PubMedID: 17017223
Gene_locus related to this paper: culpi-ACHE1

Title : High Wolbachia density correlates with cost of infection for insecticide resistant Culex pipiens mosquitoes - Duron_2006_Evolution_60_303
Author(s) : Duron O , Labbe P , Berticat C , Rousset F , Guillot S , Raymond M , Weill M
Ref : Evolution , 60 :303 , 2006
Abstract : In the mosquito Culex pipiens, insecticide resistance genes alter many life-history traits and incur a fitness cost. Resistance to organophosphate insecticides involves two loci, with each locus coding for a different mechanism of resistance (degradation vs. insensitivity to insecticides). The density of intracellular Wolbachia bacteria has been found to be higher in resistant mosquitoes, regardless of the mechanism involved. To discriminate between costs of resistance due to resistance genes from those associated with elevated Wolbachia densities, we compared strains of mosquito sharing the same genetic background but differing in their resistance alleles and Wolbachia infection status. Life-history traits measured included strength of insecticide resistance, larval mortality, adult female size, fecundity, predation avoidance, mating competition, and strength of cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI). We found that: (1) when Wolbachia are removed, insecticide resistance genes still affect some life-history traits; (2) Wolbachia are capable of modifying the cost of resistance; (3) the cost of Wolbachia infections increases with their density; (4) different interactions occurred depending on the resistance alleles involved; and (5) high densities of Wolbachia do not increase the strength of CI or maternal transmission efficiency relative to low Wolbachia densities. Insecticide resistance genes generated variation in the costs of Wolbachia infections and provided an interesting opportunity to study how these costs evolve, a process generally operating when Wolbachia colonizes a new host.
ESTHER : Duron_2006_Evolution_60_303
PubMedSearch : Duron_2006_Evolution_60_303
PubMedID: 16610322

Title : Acetylcholinesterase genes within the Diptera: takeover and loss in true flies - Huchard_2006_Proc.Biol.Sci_273_2595
Author(s) : Huchard E , Martinez M , Alout H , Douzery EJ , Lutfalla G , Berthomieu A , Berticat C , Raymond M , Weill M
Ref : Proc Biol Sci , 273 :2595 , 2006
Abstract : It has recently been reported that the synaptic acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in mosquitoes is encoded by the ace-1 gene, distinct and divergent from the ace-2 gene, which performs this function in Drosophila. This is an unprecedented situation within the Diptera order because both ace genes derive from an old duplication and are present in most insects and arthropods. Nevertheless, Drosophila possesses only the ace-2 gene. Thus, a secondary loss occurred during the evolution of Diptera, implying a vital function switch from one gene (ace-1) to the other (ace-2). We sampled 78 species, representing 50 families (27% of the Dipteran families) spread over all major subdivisions of the Diptera, and looked for ace-1 and ace-2 by systematic PCR screening to determine which taxonomic groups within the Diptera have this gene change. We show that this loss probably extends to all true flies (or Cyclorrhapha), a large monophyletic group of the Diptera. We also show that ace-2 plays a non-detectable role in the synaptic AChE in a lower Diptera species, suggesting that it has non-synaptic functions. A relative molecular evolution rate test showed that the intensity of purifying selection on ace-2 sequences is constant across the Diptera, irrespective of the presence or absence of ace-1, confirming the evolutionary importance of non-synaptic functions for this gene. We discuss the evolutionary scenarios for the takeover of ace-2 and the loss of ace-1, taking into account our limited knowledge of non-synaptic functions of ace genes and some specific adaptations of true flies.
ESTHER : Huchard_2006_Proc.Biol.Sci_273_2595
PubMedSearch : Huchard_2006_Proc.Biol.Sci_273_2595
PubMedID: 17002944
Gene_locus related to this paper: culpi-ACHE1 , culpi-ACHE2 , drobs-ACHE2 , drosi-ACHE , drowi-ACHE , gloff-ACHE2

Title : Insecticide resistance: a silent base prediction -
Author(s) : Weill M , Berthomieu A , Berticat C , Lutfalla G , Negre V , Pasteur N , Philips A , Leonetti JP , Fort P , Raymond M
Ref : Current Biology , 14 :R552 , 2004
PubMedID: 15268871

Title : The unique mutation in ace-1 giving high insecticide resistance is easily detectable in mosquito vectors - Weill_2004_Insect.Mol.Biol_13_1
Author(s) : Weill M , Malcolm C , Chandre F , Mogensen K , Berthomieu A , Marquine M , Raymond M
Ref : Insect Molecular Biology , 13 :1 , 2004
Abstract : High insecticide resistance resulting from insensitive acetylcholinesterase (AChE) has emerged in mosquitoes. A single mutation (G119S of the ace-1 gene) explains this high resistance in Culex pipiens and in Anopheles gambiae. In order to provide better documentation of the ace-1 gene and the effect of the G119S mutation, we present a three-dimension structure model of AChE, showing that this unique substitution is localized in the oxyanion hole, explaining the insecticide insensitivity and its interference with the enzyme catalytic functions. As the G119S creates a restriction site, a simple PCR test was devised to detect its presence in both A. gambiae and C. pipiens, two mosquito species belonging to different subfamilies (Culicinae and Anophelinae). It is possibile that this mutation also explains the high resistance found in other mosquitoes, and the present results indicate that the PCR test detects the G119S mutation in the malaria vector A. albimanus. The G119S has thus occurred independently at least four times in mosquitoes and this PCR test is probably of broad applicability within the Culicidae family.
ESTHER : Weill_2004_Insect.Mol.Biol_13_1
PubMedSearch : Weill_2004_Insect.Mol.Biol_13_1
PubMedID: 14728661
Gene_locus related to this paper: anoga-ACHE1 , culpi-ACHE1

Title : [Insecticide resistance in the mosquito Culex pipiens] -
Author(s) : Weill M , Duron O , Labbe P , Berthomieu A , Raymond M
Ref : Med Sci (Paris) , 19 :1190 , 2003
PubMedID: 14691742

Title : Comparative genomics: Insecticide resistance in mosquito vectors - Weill_2003_Nature_423_136
Author(s) : Weill M , Lutfalla G , Mogensen K , Chandre F , Berthomieu A , Berticat C , Pasteur N , Philips A , Fort P , Raymond M
Ref : Nature , 423 :136 , 2003
Abstract : Resistance to insecticides among mosquitoes that act as vectors for malaria (Anopheles gambiae) and West Nile virus (Culex pipiens) emerged more than 25 years ago in Africa, America and Europe; this resistance is frequently due to a loss of sensitivity of the insect's acetylcholinesterase enzyme to organophosphates and carbamates1. Here we show that this insensitivity results from a single amino-acid substitution in the enzyme, which we found in ten highly resistant strains of C. pipiens from tropical (Africa and Caribbean) and temperate (Europe) areas, as well as in one resistant African strain of A. gambiae. Our identification of this mutation may pave the way for designing new insecticides.
ESTHER : Weill_2003_Nature_423_136
PubMedSearch : Weill_2003_Nature_423_136
PubMedID: 12736674
Gene_locus related to this paper: anoga-ACHE1 , culpi-ACHE1

Title : High Wolbachia density in insecticide-resistant mosquitoes - Berticat_2002_Proc.Biol.Sci_269_1413
Author(s) : Berticat C , Rousset F , Raymond M , Berthomieu A , Weill M
Ref : Proc Biol Sci , 269 :1413 , 2002
Abstract : Wolbachia symbionts are responsible for various alterations in host reproduction. The effects of the host genome on endosymbiont levels have often been suggested, but rarely described. Here, we show that Wolbachia density is strongly modified by the presence of insecticide-resistant genes in the common house mosquito, Culex pipiens. The Wolbachia density was estimated using a real-time quantitative PCR assay. Strains harbouring different genes conferring resistance were more infected than a susceptible strain with the same genetic background. We show that this interaction also operates in natural populations. We propose that mosquitoes may control Wolbachia density less efficiently when they carry an insecticide-resistant gene, i.e. when they suffer from a physiological resistance cost.
ESTHER : Berticat_2002_Proc.Biol.Sci_269_1413
PubMedSearch : Berticat_2002_Proc.Biol.Sci_269_1413
PubMedID: 12079666

Title : A novel acetylcholinesterase gene in mosquitoes codes for the insecticide target and is non-homologous to the ace gene Drosophila - Weill_2002_Proc.R.Soc.Lond.B.Biol.Sci_269_2007
Author(s) : Weill M , Fort P , Berthomieu A , Dubois MP , Pasteur N , Raymond M
Ref : Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci , 269 :2007 , 2002
Abstract : Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is the target of two major insecticide families, organophosphates (OPs) and carbamates. AChE insensitivity is a frequent resistance mechanism in insects and responsible mutations in the ace gene were identified in two Diptera, Drosophila melanogaster and Musca domestica. However, for other insects, the ace gene cloned by homology with Drosophila does not code for the insensitive AChE in resistant individuals, indicating the existence of a second ace locus. We identified two AChE loci in the genome of Anopheles gambiae, one (ace-1) being a new locus and the other (ace-2) being homologous to the gene previously described in Drosophila. The gene ace-1 has no obvious homologue in the Drosophila genome and was found in 15 mosquito species investigated. In An. gambiae, ace-1 and ace-2 display 53% similarity at the amino acid level and an overall phylogeny indicates that they probably diverged before the differentiation of insects. Thus, both genes are likely to be present in the majority of insects and the absence of ace-1 in Drosophila is probably due to a secondary loss. In one mosquito (Culex pipiens), ace-1 was found to be tightly linked with insecticide resistance and probably encodes the AChE OP target. These results have important implications for the design of new insecticides, as the target AChE is thus encoded by distinct genes in different insect groups, even within the Diptera: ace-2 in at least the Drosophilidae and Muscidae and ace-1 in at least the Culicidae. Evolutionary scenarios leading to such a peculiar situation are discussed.
ESTHER : Weill_2002_Proc.R.Soc.Lond.B.Biol.Sci_269_2007
PubMedSearch : Weill_2002_Proc.R.Soc.Lond.B.Biol.Sci_269_2007
PubMedID: 12396499
Gene_locus related to this paper: aedae-ACHE1 , anoga-ACHE1 , anoga-ACHE2 , cioin-ACHE1 , ciosa-ACHE , culpi-ACHE1

Title : Identification and characterization of novel organophosphate detoxifying esterase alleles in the Guangzhou area of China - Weill_2001_J.Am.Mosq.Control.Assoc_17_238
Author(s) : Weill M , Marquine M , Berthomieu A , Dubois MP , Bernard C , Qiao CL , Raymond M
Ref : J Am Mosq Control Assoc , 17 :238 , 2001
Abstract : In the mosquito Culex pipiens various alleles at the Ester locus provide insecticide resistance These resistance alleles display a heterogeneous geographical distribution particularly in China where they are highly diverse A new resistance allele Ester9 coding for the overproduced esterases A9 and B9 is characterized and compared to the known resistant allele Ester8 isolated from the same southern China sample from Guangzhou Both alleles provide low but significant resistance to chlorpyrifos relative synergism ratio RSR 3 and temephos RSR 1.4 which is consistent with the low level of gene amplification they display 15 copies for Ester9 and 4 copies for Ester8 The full genomic sequence of the allele coding A8 and A9 is presented which allowed us to set up a polymerase chain reaction assay to specifically identify these alleles The peculiar situation in southern China where numerous resistance alleles coexist is discussed in comparison with the Mediterranean situation the only one with a similar diversity of overproduced esterases
ESTHER : Weill_2001_J.Am.Mosq.Control.Assoc_17_238
PubMedSearch : Weill_2001_J.Am.Mosq.Control.Assoc_17_238
PubMedID: 11804460
Gene_locus related to this paper: culqu-2estb

Title : Insecticide resistance in the mosquito culex pipiens: what have we learned about adaptation? - Raymond_2001_Genetica_112-113_287
Author(s) : Raymond M , Berticat C , Weill M , Pasteur N , Chevillon C
Ref : Genetica , 112-113 :287 , 2001
Abstract : Resistance to organophosphate (OP) insecticide in the mosquito Culex pipiens has been studied for ca. 30 years. This example of micro-evolution has been thoroughly investigated as an opportunity to assess precisely both the new adapted phenotypes and the associated genetic changes. A notable feature is that OP resistance is achieved with few genes, and these genes have generally large effects. The molecular events generating such resistance genes are complex (e.g., gene amplification, gene regulation) potentially explaining their low frequency of de novo occurrence. In contrast, migration is a frequent event, including passive transportation between distant populations. This generates a complex interaction between mutations and migration, and promotes competition among resistance alleles. When the precise physiological action of each gene product is rather well known, it is possible to understand the dominance level or the type of epistasis observed. It is however difficult to predict a priori how resistance genes will interact, and it is too early to state whether or not this will be ever possible. These resistance genes are costly, and the cost is variable among them. It is usually believed that the initial fitness cost would gradually decrease due to subsequent mutations with a modifier effect. In the present example, a particular modifier occurred (a gene duplication) at one resistance locus, whereas at the other one reduction of cost is driven by allele replacement and apparently not by selection of modifiers.
ESTHER : Raymond_2001_Genetica_112-113_287
PubMedSearch : Raymond_2001_Genetica_112-113_287
PubMedID: 11838771

Title : Quantitative polymerase chain reaction to estimate the number of amplified esterase genes in insecticide-resistant mosquitoes -
Author(s) : Weill M , Berticat C , Raymond M , Chevillon C
Ref : Analytical Biochemistry , 285 :267 , 2000
PubMedID: 11017713

Title : The kdr mutation occurs in the Mopti form of Anopheles gambiae s.s. through introgression - Weill_2000_Insect.Mol.Biol_9_451
Author(s) : Weill M , Chandre F , Brengues C , Manguin S , Akogbeto M , Pasteur N , Guillet P , Raymond M
Ref : Insect Molecular Biology , 9 :451 , 2000
Abstract : Anopheles gambiae s.s. is a complex of sibling taxa characterized by various paracentric inversions. In west and central Africa, where several taxa are sympatric, a kdr mutation responsible for pyrethroid resistance has been described in only one (the S taxon), suggesting an absence of gene flow between them. Following a thorough sampling, we have found a kdr mutation in another taxon (M). To establish whether this mutation is the same event or not, the large intron upstream of the kdr mutation was sequenced to find polymorphic sites in susceptible/resistant and M/S mosquitoes. The low genetic diversity found in this DNA region indicates that a local genetic sweep has recently occurred. However, some polymorphic sites were found, and it is therefore concluded that the kdr mutation in the M taxon is not an independent mutation event, and is best explained by an introgression from the S taxon. These results are discussed within the context of possible gene flow between members of An. gambiae s.s. taxa, and with the possible spread of the kdr mutation in other closely related malaria vectors of the An. gambiae complex.
ESTHER : Weill_2000_Insect.Mol.Biol_9_451
PubMedSearch : Weill_2000_Insect.Mol.Biol_9_451
PubMedID: 11029663