Navab M


Full name : Navab Mohamad

First name : Mohamad

Mail : Division of Cardiology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California

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Country : USA

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References (33)

Title : Ambient ultrafine particles alter lipid metabolism and HDL anti-oxidant capacity in LDLR-null mice - Li_2013_J.Lipid.Res_54_1608
Author(s) : Li R , Navab M , Pakbin P , Ning Z , Navab K , Hough G , Morgan TE , Finch CE , Araujo JA , Fogelman AM , Sioutas C , Hsiai T
Ref : J Lipid Res , 54 :1608 , 2013
Abstract : Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The redox-active ultrafine particles (UFPs) promote vascular oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. We hypothesized that UFPs modulated lipid metabolism and anti-oxidant capacity of high density lipoprotein (HDL) with an implication in atherosclerotic lesion size. Fat-fed low density lipoprotein receptor-null (LDLR(-)/(-) mice were exposed to filtered air (FA) or UFPs for 10 weeks with or without administering an apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptide made of D-amino acids, D-4F. LDLR(-)/(-) mice exposed to UFPs developed a reduced plasma HDL level (P < 0.01), paraoxonase activity (P < 0.01), and HDL anti-oxidant capacity (P < 0.05); but increased LDL oxidation, free oxidized fatty acids, triglycerides, serum amyloid A (P < 0.05), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (P < 0.05), accompanied by a 62% increase in the atherosclerotic lesion ratio of the en face aortic staining and a 220% increase in the cross-sectional lesion area of the aortic sinus (P < 0.001). D-4F administration significantly attenuated these changes. UFP exposure promoted pro-atherogenic lipid metabolism and reduced HDL anti-oxidant capacity in fat-fed LDLR(-)/(-) mice, associated with a greater atherosclerotic lesion size compared with FA-exposed animals. D-4F attenuated UFP-mediated pro-atherogenic effects, suggesting the role of lipid oxidation underlying UFP-mediated atherosclerosis.
ESTHER : Li_2013_J.Lipid.Res_54_1608
PubMedSearch : Li_2013_J.Lipid.Res_54_1608
PubMedID: 23564731

Title : Diesel exhaust induces systemic lipid peroxidation and development of dysfunctional pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory high-density lipoprotein - Yin_2013_Arterioscler.Thromb.Vasc.Biol_33_1153
Author(s) : Yin F , Lawal A , Ricks J , Fox JR , Larson T , Navab M , Fogelman AM , Rosenfeld ME , Araujo JA
Ref : Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol , 33 :1153 , 2013
Abstract : OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether exposure to air pollutants induces oxidative modifications of plasma lipoproteins, resulting in alteration of the protective capacities of high-density lipoproteins (HDLs). APPROACH AND
RESULTS: We exposed apolipoprotein E-deficient mice to diesel exhaust (DE) at approximately 250 microg/m(3) for 2 weeks, filtered air (FA) for 2 weeks, or DE for 2 weeks, followed by FA for 1 week (DE+FA). DE led to enhanced lipid peroxidation in the brochoalveolar lavage fluid that was accompanied by effects on HDL functionality. HDL antioxidant capacity was assessed by an assay that evaluated the ability of HDL to inhibit low-density lipoprotein oxidation estimated by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein fluorescence. HDL from DE-exposed mice exhibited 23,053 +/- 2844 relative fluorescence units, higher than FA-exposed mice (10,282 +/- 1135 relative fluorescence units, P<0.001) but similar to the HDL from DE+FA-exposed mice (22,448 +/- 3115 relative fluorescence units). DE effects on HDL antioxidant capacity were negatively correlated with paraoxonase enzymatic activity, but positively correlated with levels of plasma 8-isoprostanes, 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid, liver malondialdehyde, and accompanied by perturbed HDL anti-inflammatory capacity and activation of the 5-lipoxygenase pathway in the liver.
CONCLUSIONS: DE emissions induced systemic pro-oxidant effects that led to the development of dysfunctional HDL. This may be one of the mechanisms by which air pollution contributes to enhanced atherosclerosis.
ESTHER : Yin_2013_Arterioscler.Thromb.Vasc.Biol_33_1153
PubMedSearch : Yin_2013_Arterioscler.Thromb.Vasc.Biol_33_1153
PubMedID: 23559632

Title : Vasculitis, Atherosclerosis, and Altered HDL Composition in Heme-Oxygenase-1-Knockout Mice - Ishikawa_2012_Int.J.Hypertens_2012_948203
Author(s) : Ishikawa K , Navab M , Lusis AJ
Ref : Int J Hypertens , 2012 :948203 , 2012
Abstract : To elucidate roles of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in cardiovascular system, we have analyzed one-year-old HO-1-knockout mice. Homozygous HO-1-knockout mice had severe aortitis and coronary arteritis with mononuclear cellular infiltration and fatty streak formation even on a standard chow diet. Levels of plasma total cholesterol and HDL were similar among the three genotypes. However, homozygous HO-1-knockout mice had lower body weight and plasma triglyceride. HO-1-deficiency resulted in alteration of the composition of HDL. The ratio of apolipoprotein AI to AII in HO-1-knockout mice was reduced about 10-fold as compared to wild-type mice. In addition, paraoxonase, an enzyme against oxidative stress, was reduced less than 50% in HO-1-knockout mice. The knockout mice also exhibited significant elevation of plasma lipid hydroperoxides. This study using aged HO-1-knockout mice strengthened the idea that HO-1 functions to suppress systemic inflammation in artery wall and prevents plasma lipid peroxidation.
ESTHER : Ishikawa_2012_Int.J.Hypertens_2012_948203
PubMedSearch : Ishikawa_2012_Int.J.Hypertens_2012_948203
PubMedID: 22518297

Title : D-4F-mediated reduction in metabolites of arachidonic and linoleic acids in the small intestine is associated with decreased inflammation in low-density lipoprotein receptor-null mice - Navab_2012_J.Lipid.Res_53_437
Author(s) : Navab M , Reddy ST , Anantharamaiah GM , Hough G , Buga GM , Danciger J , Fogelman AM
Ref : J Lipid Res , 53 :437 , 2012
Abstract : To test the hypothesis that intestine is a major site of action for D-4F, LDLR(-/-) mice were fed a Western diet (WD) and administered the peptide subcutaneously (SQ) or orally. Plasma and liver D-4F levels were 298-fold and 96-fold higher, respectively, after SQ administration, whereas peptide levels in small intestine only varied by 1.66 +/- 0.33-fold. Levels of metabolites of arachidonic and linoleic acids known to bind with high affinity to D-4F were significantly reduced in intestine, liver and hepatic bile to a similar degree whether administered SQ or orally. However, levels of 20-HETE, which is known to bind the peptide with low affinity, were unchanged. D-4F treatment reduced plasma serum amyloid A (SAA) and triglyceride levels (P < 0.03) and increased HDL-cholesterol levels (P < 0.04) similarly after SQ or oral administration. Plasma levels of metabolites of arachidonic and linoleic acids significantly correlated with SAA levels (P < 0.0001). Feeding 15-HETE in chow (without WD) significantly increased plasma SAA and triglyceride levels and decreased HDL-cholesterol and paraoxonase activity (P < 0.05), all of which were significantly ameliorated by SQ D-4F (P < 0.05). We conclude that D-4F administration reduces levels of free metabolites of arachidonic and linoleic acids in the small intestine and this is associated with decreased inflammation in LDL receptor deficient mice.
ESTHER : Navab_2012_J.Lipid.Res_53_437
PubMedSearch : Navab_2012_J.Lipid.Res_53_437
PubMedID: 22167743

Title : Paraoxonase 2 deficiency alters mitochondrial function and exacerbates the development of atherosclerosis - Devarajan_2011_Antioxid.Redox.Signal_14_341
Author(s) : Devarajan A , Bourquard N , Hama S , Navab M , Grijalva VR , Morvardi S , Clarke CF , Vergnes L , Reue K , Teiber JF , Reddy ST
Ref : Antioxid Redox Signal , 14 :341 , 2011
Abstract : Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a result of decreased activities of mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) complexes plays a role in the development of many inflammatory diseases, including atherosclerosis. Our previous studies established that paraoxonase 2 (PON2) possesses antiatherogenic properties and is associated with lower ROS levels. The aim of the present study was to determine the mechanism by which PON2 modulates ROS production. In this report, we demonstrate that PON2-def mice on the hyperlipidemic apolipoprotein E(-/-) background (PON2-def/apolipoprotein E(-/-)) develop exacerbated atherosclerotic lesions with enhanced mitochondrial oxidative stress. We show that PON2 protein is localized to the inner mitochondrial membrane, where it is found associated with respiratory complex III. Employing surface-plasmon-resonance, we demonstrate that PON2 binds with high affinity to coenzyme Q(10), an important component of the ETC. Enhanced mitochondrial oxidative stress in PON2-def mice was accompanied by significantly reduced ETC complex I + III activities, oxygen consumption, and adenosine triphosphate levels in PON2-def mice. In contrast, overexpression of PON2 effectively protected mitochondria from antimycin- or oligomycin-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction. Our results illustrate that the antiatherogenic effects of PON2 are, in part, mediated by the role of PON2 in mitochondrial function.
ESTHER : Devarajan_2011_Antioxid.Redox.Signal_14_341
PubMedSearch : Devarajan_2011_Antioxid.Redox.Signal_14_341
PubMedID: 20578959

Title : Salutary effects of hemodialysis on low-density lipoprotein proinflammatory and high-density lipoprotein anti-inflammatory properties in patient with end-stage renal disease - Vaziri_2011_J.Natl.Med.Assoc_103_524
Author(s) : Vaziri ND , Navab K , Gollapudi P , Moradi H , Pahl MV , Barton CH , Fogelman AM , Navab M
Ref : J Natl Med Assoc , 103 :524 , 2011
Abstract : End-stage renal disease (ESRD) causes oxidative stress, inflammation, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) deficiency and accelerated atherosclerosis. Uptake of oxidized LDL by macrophages results in foam cell and plaque formation. HDL mitigates atherosclerosis via reverse cholesterol transport and inhibition of LDL oxidation. ESRD heightens LDL inflammatory activity and suppresses HDL anti-inflammatory activity. The effect of hemodialysis on the LDL and HDL inflammatory properties is unknown. By removing the potential pro-oxidant/proinflammatory uremic toxins, dialysis may attenuate LDL inflammatory and HDL anti-inflammatory properties. Conversely, exposure to dialyzer membrane and tubing and influx of impurities from dialysate can intensify LDL and HDL inflammatory activities. This study examined the effect of hemodialysis on LDL and HDL inflammatory activities. Plasma samples were obtained from 12 normal control and 26 ESRD patients before and after hemodialysis with (16 patients) or without (10 patients) heparinization. HDL and LDL were isolated and tested for monocyte chemotactic activity in cultured endothelial cells. ESRD patients had increased LDL chemotactic activity, reduced HDL anti-inflammatory activity, paraoxonase and glutathione peroxidase levels, and elevated plasma IL-6 before dialysis. Hemodialysis partially improved LDL inflammatory and HDL anti-inflammatory activities and enhanced patients' HDL ability to suppress their LDL inflammatory activity. The salutary effect on LDL inflammatory activity was significantly greater in patients dialyzed with than those without heparin. ESRD heightens LDL inflammatory and impairs HDL anti-inflammatory activities. Hemodialysis partially improves LDL and HDL inflammatory activities. The salutary effects of hemodialysis are in part mediated by heparin, which is known to possess lipolytic and antioxidant properties.
ESTHER : Vaziri_2011_J.Natl.Med.Assoc_103_524
PubMedSearch : Vaziri_2011_J.Natl.Med.Assoc_103_524
PubMedID: 21830637

Title : Treatment of patients with cardiovascular disease with L-4F, an apo-A1 mimetic, did not improve select biomarkers of HDL function - Watson_2011_J.Lipid.Res_52_361
Author(s) : Watson CE , Weissbach N , Kjems L , Ayalasomayajula S , Zhang Y , Chang I , Navab M , Hama S , Hough G , Reddy ST , Soffer D , Rader DJ , Fogelman AM , Schecter A
Ref : J Lipid Res , 52 :361 , 2011
Abstract : L-4F, an apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) mimetic peptide (also known as APL180), was administered daily by either intravenous (IV) infusion for 7 days or by subcutaneous (SC) injection for 28 days in patients with coronary heart disease in two distinct clinical studies. L-4F was well tolerated at all doses tested. Despite achieving plasma levels (mean maximal plasma concentration of 2,907 ng/ml and 395 ng/ml, following IV infusion and SC injection, respectively), that were effective in previously published animal models, treatment with L-4F, as assessed by biomarkers of HDL function such as HDL-inflammatory index (HII), and paraoxonase activity, did not improve. Paradoxically, there was a 49% increase in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels after seven IV infusions of 30 mg L-4F (P < 0.05; compared with placebo) and a trend for hs-CRP increase in subjects receiving 30 mg SC injection for 28 days. In a subsequent, ex vivo study, addition of L-4F at concentrations of 150, 375, or 1,000 ng/ml to plasma from subjects prior to L-4F treatment resulted in significant dose-dependent HII improvement. In conclusion, in vivo L-4F treatment, delivered by either SC injection or IV infusion, did not improve HDL functional biomarkers despite achieving plasma levels that improved identical biomarkers ex vivo and in animal models.
ESTHER : Watson_2011_J.Lipid.Res_52_361
PubMedSearch : Watson_2011_J.Lipid.Res_52_361
PubMedID: 21068008

Title : Paraoxonase-1 and clopidogrel efficacy -
Author(s) : Camps J , Joven J , Mackness B , Mackness MI , Tawfik DS , Draganov DI , Costa LG , Paragh G , Seres I , Horke S , James RW , Hernandez AF , Reddy ST , Shih DM , Navab M , Rochu D , Aviram M
Ref : Nat Med , 17 :1041 , 2011
PubMedID: 21900915

Title : The effect of HDL mimetic peptide 4F on PON1 - Vakili_2010_Adv.Exp.Med.Biol_660_167
Author(s) : Vakili L , Hama S , Kim JB , Tien D , Safarpoor S , Ly N , Vakili G , Hough G , Navab M
Ref : Advances in Experimental Medicine & Biology , 660 :167 , 2010
Abstract : Several lines of evidence indicate that serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1) acts as an important guardian against cellular damage from oxidized lipids in plasma membrane, in low-density lipoprotein (LDL), against bacterial endotoxin and against toxic agents such as pesticide residues including organophosphates. In circulation, the high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-associated PON1 has the ability to prevent the formation of proinflammatory oxidized phospholipids. These oxidized phospholipids negatively regulate the activities of the HDL-associated PON1 and several other anti-inflammatory factors in HDL. During the acute phase response in rabbits, mice, and humans, there appears to be an increase in the formation of these oxidized lipids that results in the inhibition of the HDL-associated PON1 and an association of acute phase proteins with HDL that renders HDL proinflammatory. Low serum HDL is a risk factor for atherosclerosis and attempts are directed toward therapies to improve the quality and the relative concentrations of LDL and HDL. Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) has been shown to reduce atherosclerotic lesions in laboratory animals. ApoA-I, however, is a large protein and needs to be administered parenterally, and it is costly. We have developed apoA-I mimetic peptides that are much smaller than apoA-I, and much more effective in removing the oxidized phospholipids and other oxidized lipids. These mimetic peptides improve LDL and HDL composition and function and reduce lesion formation in animal models of atherogenesis. Following is a brief description of some of the HDL mimetic peptides that can improve HDL and the effect of the peptide on PON1 activity.
ESTHER : Vakili_2010_Adv.Exp.Med.Biol_660_167
PubMedSearch : Vakili_2010_Adv.Exp.Med.Biol_660_167
PubMedID: 20221879

Title : A novel anti-atherogenic role for COX-2--potential mechanism for the cardiovascular side effects of COX-2 inhibitors - Narasimha_2007_Prostaglandins.Other.Lipid.Mediat_84_24
Author(s) : Narasimha A , Watanabe J , Lin JA , Hama S , Langenbach R , Navab M , Fogelman AM , Reddy ST
Ref : Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat , 84 :24 , 2007
Abstract : Atherosclerosis, the underlying cause of cardiovascular disease, is characterized by lipid accumulation, lipoprotein oxidation, and inflammation. Products of the cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway participate in acute and chronic inflammation. The inducible form of COX, COX-2, generates lipid mediators of inflammation that are pro-inflammatory and COX-2-selective inhibitors are potent anti-inflammatory agents. However, clinical data suggest an increased risk of cardiovascular side effects in patients using COX-2-selective inhibitors. In this paper, we sought to determine the effect of COX-2 deficiency on atherosclerosis-related lipoprotein metabolism in mice. We demonstrate that COX-2 deficiency resulted in (i) accumulation of lipids in circulation and liver, (ii) pro-inflammatory properties of HDL as measured by HDL's increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, decreased paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity, decreased serum apoA-1, reduced ability to efflux cholesterol and to prevent LDL oxidizability, and (iii) increased TXB(2) in circulation. Moreover, when placed on an atherogenic diet, COX-2 deficiency resulted in (i) increased lipid deposition in the aorta, (ii) a further dramatic imbalance in circulating eicosanoids, i.e. decreased serum PGI(2) coupled with increased PGE(2) and TXB(2), and (iii) a marked elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF and IL-6. Our results suggest, for the first time, that COX-2 deficiency contributes to the pro-atherogenic properties of HDL in mice.
ESTHER : Narasimha_2007_Prostaglandins.Other.Lipid.Mediat_84_24
PubMedSearch : Narasimha_2007_Prostaglandins.Other.Lipid.Mediat_84_24
PubMedID: 17643885

Title : Adenovirus-mediated expression of human paraoxonase 3 protects against the progression of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice - Ng_2007_Arterioscler.Thromb.Vasc.Biol_27_1368
Author(s) : Ng CJ , Bourquard N , Hama SY , Shih DM , Grijalva VR , Navab M , Fogelman AM , Reddy ST
Ref : Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol , 27 :1368 , 2007
Abstract : OBJECTIVE: We have previously reported that human paraoxonase 3 (PON3) is an HDL-associated protein capable of preventing LDL oxidation in vitro. The objective of the present study was to determine whether elevated levels of human PON3 in mice could protect against the progression of atherosclerosis in vivo. METHODS AND
RESULTS: Twenty-six week-old apolipoprotein E-deficient mice were injected with 3x10(11) particles of adenovirus expressing either GFP alone (AdGFP) or together with human PON3 (AdPON3). Three weeks after injection, lesion area was significantly lower in AdPON3-treated mice compared with AdGFP controls. Serum from AdPON3 mice contained significantly lower levels of lipid hydroperoxides and exhibited an enhanced potential to efflux cholesterol from cholesterol-loaded macrophages. In addition, LDL was less susceptible to oxidation, whereas HDL was more capable of protecting against LDL oxidation. Exogenous human PON3 was not detected in the serum or HDL and more surprisingly we demonstrate that endogenous mouse PON3 is not associated with HDL, suggesting that the antioxidant function of PON3 is at the cellular level in mice.
CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates for the first time that PON3 enhances the antiatherogenic capacity of serum and protects against the progression of atherosclerosis in vivo.
ESTHER : Ng_2007_Arterioscler.Thromb.Vasc.Biol_27_1368
PubMedSearch : Ng_2007_Arterioscler.Thromb.Vasc.Biol_27_1368
PubMedID: 17446441

Title : Mechanisms of disease: proatherogenic HDL--an evolving field - Navab_2006_Nat.Clin.Pract.Endocrinol.Metab_2_504
Author(s) : Navab M , Anantharamaiah GM , Reddy ST , Van Lenten BJ , Ansell BJ , Fogelman AM
Ref : Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab , 2 :504 , 2006
Abstract : It is well known that, in large populations, HDL-cholesterol levels are inversely related to the risk of atherosclerotic clinical events; however, in an individual, the predictive value of an HDL-cholesterol level is far from perfect. As a result, other HDL-associated factors have been investigated, including the quality and function of HDL in contradistinction to the level of HDL-cholesterol. Regarding their quality, HDL particles are highly heterogeneous and contain varying levels of antioxidants or pro-oxidants, which results in variation in HDL function. It has been postulated that HDL functions to promote reverse cholesterol transport. Recent studies support this role for HDL but also indicate that HDL is a modulator of systemic inflammation. In the absence of inflammation, HDL has a complement of antioxidant enzymes that work to maintain an anti-inflammatory state. In the presence of systemic inflammation, these antioxidant enzymes can be inactivated and HDL can accumulate oxidized lipids and proteins that make it proinflammatory. Under these conditions the main protein of HDL, apolipoprotein A-I, can be modified by reactive oxygen species. This modification impairs the ability of HDL to promote cholesterol efflux by the ATP-binding cassette transporter A-1 pathway. Animal studies and small-scale human studies suggest that measures of the quality and novel functions of HDL might provide an improved means of identifying subjects at increased risk for atherosclerotic events, compared with the current practice of only measuring HDL-cholesterol levels. The quality and function of HDL are also attractive targets for emerging therapies.
ESTHER : Navab_2006_Nat.Clin.Pract.Endocrinol.Metab_2_504
PubMedSearch : Navab_2006_Nat.Clin.Pract.Endocrinol.Metab_2_504
PubMedID: 16957764

Title : Potential clinical utility of high-density lipoprotein-mimetic peptides - Navab_2006_Curr.Opin.Lipidol_17_440
Author(s) : Navab M , Anantharamaiah GM , Reddy ST , Van Lenten BJ , Datta G , Garber D , Fogelman AM
Ref : Curr Opin Lipidol , 17 :440 , 2006
Abstract : PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To determine the potential clinical utility of high-density lipoprotein-mimetic peptides. RECENT FINDINGS: Oral administration of D-4F together with pravastatin caused lesion regression in old apoE null mice. Administration of D-4F to low-density lipoprotein receptor null mice fed a Western diet reduced the association of myeloperoxidase with apoA-I and reduced the 3-nitrotyrosine content of apoA-I. Oral D-4F improved arterial vasoreactivity independent of apoA-I. Mice genetically lacking apoA-I showed significant improvement in vasoreactivity but, in contrast to mice with apoA-I, did not demonstrate reduced arterial wall thickness after D-4F treatment. In a rat model of diabetes, D-4F administration induced heme oxygenase-1 and extracellular superoxide dismutase, prevented endothelial sloughing, and dramatically improved arterial vasoreactivity. A peptide with 10 D-amino acid residues taken from the sequence of apoJ rendered high-density lipoprotein anti-inflammatory in mice and monkeys, and dramatically reduced atherosclerosis in apoE null mice. Oral administration of tetrapeptides synthesized from either L-amino acids or D-amino acids rendered high-density lipoprotein anti-inflammatory in mice and monkeys, and reduced atherosclerosis in apoE null mice. SUMMARY: Peptides that sequester lipoprotein lipid hydroperoxides release a series of high-density lipoprotein-associated antioxidant enzymes such as paraoxonase from inhibition and protect apoA-I from oxidative damage that would impair cholesterol efflux.
ESTHER : Navab_2006_Curr.Opin.Lipidol_17_440
PubMedSearch : Navab_2006_Curr.Opin.Lipidol_17_440
PubMedID: 16832169

Title : Paraoxonase-2 deficiency aggravates atherosclerosis in mice despite lower apolipoprotein-B-containing lipoproteins: anti-atherogenic role for paraoxonase-2 - Ng_2006_J.Biol.Chem_281_29491
Author(s) : Ng CJ , Bourquard N , Grijalva V , Hama S , Shih DM , Navab M , Fogelman AM , Lusis AJ , Young S , Reddy ST
Ref : Journal of Biological Chemistry , 281 :29491 , 2006
Abstract : Paraoxonases (PONs) are a family of proteins that may play a significant role in providing relief from both toxic environmental chemicals as well as physiological oxidative stress. Although the physiological roles of the PON family of proteins, PON1, PON2, and PON3, remain unknown, epidemiological, biochemical, and mouse genetic studies of PON1 suggest an anti-atherogenic function for paraoxonases. To determine whether PON2 plays a role in the development of atherosclerosis in vivo, we generated PON2-deficient mice. When challenged with a high fat, high cholesterol diet for 15 weeks, serum levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose were not significantly different between wild-type and PON2-deficient mice. In contrast, serum levels of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)/low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were significantly lower (-32%) in PON2-deficient mice compared with wild-type mice. However, despite lower levels of VLDL/LDL cholesterol, mice deficient in PON2 developed significantly larger (2.7-fold) atherosclerotic lesions compared with their wild-type counterparts. Enhanced inflammatory properties of LDL, attenuated anti-atherogenic capacity of high density lipoprotein, and a heightened state of oxidative stress coupled with an exacerbated inflammatory response from PON2-deficient macrophages appear to be the main mechanisms behind the larger atherosclerotic lesions in PON2-deficient mice. These results demonstrate that PON2 plays a protective role in atherosclerosis.
ESTHER : Ng_2006_J.Biol.Chem_281_29491
PubMedSearch : Ng_2006_J.Biol.Chem_281_29491
PubMedID: 16891303

Title : Adenovirus mediated expression of human paraoxonase 2 protects against the development of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice - Ng_2006_Mol.Genet.Metab_89_368
Author(s) : Ng CJ , Hama SY , Bourquard N , Navab M , Reddy ST
Ref : Mol Genet Metab , 89 :368 , 2006
Abstract : Accumulating evidence suggests that the oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) plays an integral role in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. We have previously reported that human paraoxonase (PON)2 possesses antioxidant properties and is capable of preventing LDL oxidation in vitro. The objective of this study was to determine whether elevated levels of PON2 could protect against the development of atherosclerosis in vivo. Six-month-old apolipoprotein E-deficient mice (apoE(-/-)) were injected intravenously with either PBS or 3 x 10(11) particles of adenovirus expressing GFP (AdGFP) or human PON2 (AdPON2). Three weeks post-injection, lesion area was significantly lower in mice treated with AdPON2 compared to their control counterparts. Serum from AdPON2 treated mice contained significantly lower levels of lipid hydroperoxides and exhibited an enhanced potential to efflux cholesterol from cholesterol-loaded macrophages. In addition, LDL from AdPON2 treated mice was less susceptible to oxidation, while HDL from these same mice was significantly more capable of protecting LDL against oxidation. These results demonstrate for the first time that elevated levels of PON2 can enhance the efflux potential and antioxidant capacity of serum, increase the anti-inflammatory properties of HDL, and protect against the development of atherosclerosis in vivo.
ESTHER : Ng_2006_Mol.Genet.Metab_89_368
PubMedSearch : Ng_2006_Mol.Genet.Metab_89_368
PubMedID: 16935014

Title : Oral amphipathic peptides as therapeutic agents - Reddy_2006_Expert.Opin.Investig.Drugs_15_13
Author(s) : Reddy ST , Anantharamaiah GM , Navab M , Hama S , Hough G , Grijalva V , Garber DW , Datta G , Fogelman AM
Ref : Expert Opin Investig Drugs , 15 :13 , 2006
Abstract : Cholesterol can promote inflammation by its ability to stimulate the production of reactive oxygen species that result in the formation of pro-inflammatory oxidised phospholipids. High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) are part of the innate immune response and can be either pro- or anti-inflammatory independently of plasma HDL-cholesterol levels. During systemic inflammation as occurs with atherosclerosis, Apolipoprotein A-I can be altered, reducing its ability to promote reverse cholesterol transport and HDL can become pro-inflammatory. Amphipathic peptides with either a class A amphipathic helix (D-4F) or a class G* amphipathic helix (D-[113-122]apoJ), or even those that are too small to form a helix (KRES and FREL) have some similar characteristics. Their interaction with lipids leads to a reduction in lipoprotein-lipid hydroperoxides that releases HDL-associated antioxidant enzymes, such as paraoxonase, therefore providing antiatherosclerosis and anti-inflammatory activity. In addition, the peptide D-4F stimulates the formation and cycling of pre-beta HDL. These amphipathic peptides appear to have therapeutic potential as oral agents.
ESTHER : Reddy_2006_Expert.Opin.Investig.Drugs_15_13
PubMedSearch : Reddy_2006_Expert.Opin.Investig.Drugs_15_13
PubMedID: 16370930

Title : Understanding changes in high density lipoproteins during the acute phase response -
Author(s) : Van Lenten BJ , Reddy ST , Navab M , Fogelman AM
Ref : Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol , 26 :1687 , 2006
PubMedID: 16857958

Title : Increased atherosclerosis in mice lacking apolipoprotein A-I attributable to both impaired reverse cholesterol transport and increased inflammation - Moore_2005_Circ.Res_97_763
Author(s) : Moore RE , Navab M , Millar JS , Zimetti F , Hama S , Rothblat GH , Rader DJ
Ref : Circulation Research , 97 :763 , 2005
Abstract : To test the hypothesis that apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) functions specifically to inhibit atherosclerosis independent of the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) by promoting both reverse cholesterol transport and HDL antiinflammatory function in vivo, we established a murine atherosclerosis model of apoA-I deficiency in which the level of HDL-C is well maintained. ApoA-I-/- mice were crossed with atherosclerosis susceptible low-density lipoprotein receptor-/-/apobec-/- (LA) mice to generate LA mice with apoA-I+/+, apoA-I+/-, and apoA-I-/- genotypes. There were no major differences in the amounts of non-HDL-C and HDL-C in the plasma between different apoA-I genotypes. A significant inverse relationship was observed, however, between apoA-I gene dose and atherosclerosis in both female and male mice. Compared with LA-apoA-I+/+ mice, serum from LA-apoA-I-/- mice had a significantly reduced capacity to function as an acceptor of ABCA1- and SR-BI-mediated cellular cholesterol efflux, and also had markedly reduced lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase activity. In addition, LA-apoA-I-/- mice had significantly reduced macrophage-derived cholesterol esterification and reverse cholesterol transport in vivo. There was significantly reduced plasma paraoxonase (PON-1) activity, impaired HDL vascular antiinflammatory function, and increased basal levels of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 in the plasma of LA-apoA-I-/- mice compared with LA-apoA-I+/+ mice. In LA-apoA-I-/- mice, there was also greater induction of some, but not all, inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in response to intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide than in LA-apoA-I+/+ mice. We conclude that apoA-I inhibits atherosclerosis by promoting both macrophage reverse cholesterol transport and HDL antiinflammatory function, and that these anti-atherogenic functions of apoA-I are largely independent of the plasma level of HDL-C in this mouse model.
ESTHER : Moore_2005_Circ.Res_97_763
PubMedSearch : Moore_2005_Circ.Res_97_763
PubMedID: 16151025

Title : D-4F and statins synergize to render HDL antiinflammatory in mice and monkeys and cause lesion regression in old apolipoprotein E-null mice - Navab_2005_Arterioscler.Thromb.Vasc.Biol_25_1426
Author(s) : Navab M , Anantharamaiah GM , Hama S , Hough G , Reddy ST , Frank JS , Garber DW , Handattu S , Fogelman AM
Ref : Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol , 25 :1426 , 2005
Abstract : OBJECTIVE: We tested for synergy between pravastatin and D-4F by administering oral doses of each in combination that were predetermined to be ineffective when given as single agents. METHODS AND
RESULTS: The combination significantly increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels, apolipoprotein (apo)A-I levels, paraoxonase activity, rendered HDL antiinflammatory, prevented lesion formation in young (79% reduction in en face lesion area; P<0.0001) and caused regression of established lesions in old apoE null mice (ie, mice receiving the combination for 6 months had lesion areas that were smaller than those before the start of treatment (P=0.019 for en face lesion area; P=0.004 for aortic root sinus lesion area). After 6 months of treatment with the combination, en face lesion area was 38% of that in mice maintained on chow alone; P<0.00004) with a 22% reduction in macrophage content in the remaining lesions (P=0.001), indicating an overall reduction in macrophages of 79%. The combination increased intestinal apoA-I synthesis by 60% (P=0.011). In monkeys, the combination also rendered HDL antiinflammatory.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the combination of a statin and an HDL-based therapy may be a particularly potent treatment strategy.
ESTHER : Navab_2005_Arterioscler.Thromb.Vasc.Biol_25_1426
PubMedSearch : Navab_2005_Arterioscler.Thromb.Vasc.Biol_25_1426
PubMedID: 15845909

Title : Oral small peptides render HDL antiinflammatory in mice and monkeys and reduce atherosclerosis in ApoE null mice - Navab_2005_Circ.Res_97_524
Author(s) : Navab M , Anantharamaiah GM , Reddy ST , Hama S , Hough G , Frank JS , Grijalva VR , Ganesh VK , Mishra VK , Palgunachari MN , Fogelman AM
Ref : Circulation Research , 97 :524 , 2005
Abstract : A peptide containing only 4 amino acid residues (KRES) that is too small to form an amphipathic helix, reduced lipoprotein lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH), increased paraoxonase activity, increased plasma HDL-cholesterol levels, rendered HDL antiinflammatory, and reduced atherosclerosis in apoE null mice. KRES was orally effective when synthesized from either L or D-amino acids suggesting that peptide-protein interactions were not required. Remarkably, changing the order of 2 amino acids (from KRES to KERS) resulted in the loss of all biologic activity. Solubility in ethyl acetate and interaction with lipids, as determined by differential scanning calorimetry, indicated significant differences between KRES and KERS. Negative stain electron microscopy showed that KRES formed organized peptide-lipid structures whereas KERS did not. Another tetrapeptide FREL shared many of the physical-chemical properties of KRES and was biologically active in mice and monkeys when synthesized from either L- or D-amino acids. After oral administration KRES and FREL were found associated with HDL whereas KERS was not. We conclude that the ability of peptides to interact with lipids, remove LOOH and activate antioxidant enzymes associated with HDL determines their antiinflammatory and antiatherogenic properties regardless of their ability to form amphipathic helixes.
ESTHER : Navab_2005_Circ.Res_97_524
PubMedSearch : Navab_2005_Circ.Res_97_524
PubMedID: 16100046

Title : Apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptides - Navab_2005_Arterioscler.Thromb.Vasc.Biol_25_1325
Author(s) : Navab M , Anantharamaiah GM , Reddy ST , Hama S , Hough G , Grijalva VR , Yu N , Ansell BJ , Datta G , Garber DW , Fogelman AM
Ref : Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol , 25 :1325 , 2005
Abstract : Despite identical amino acid composition, differences in class A amphipathic helical peptides caused by differences in the order of amino acids on the hydrophobic face results in substantial differences in antiinflammatory properties. One of these peptides is an apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) mimetic, D-4F. When given orally to mice and monkeys, D-4F caused the formation of pre-beta high-density lipoprotein (HDL), improved HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux, reduced lipoprotein lipid hydroperoxides, increased paraoxonase activity, and converted HDL from pro-inflammatory to antiinflammatory. In apolipoprotein E (apoE)-null mice, D-4F increased reverse cholesterol transport from macrophages. Oral D-4F reduced atherosclerosis in apoE-null and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-null mice. In vitro when added to human plasma at nanomolar concentrations, D-4F caused the formation of pre-beta HDL, reduced lipoprotein lipid hydroperoxides, increased paraoxonase activity, and converted HDL from pro-inflammatory to antiinflammatory. Physical-chemical properties and the ability of various class A amphipathic helical peptides to activate lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) in vitro did not predict biologic activity in vivo. In contrast, the use of cultured human artery wall cells in evaluating these peptides was more predictive of their efficacy in vivo. We conclude that the antiinflammatory properties of different class A amphipathic helical peptides depends on subtle differences in the configuration of the hydrophobic face of the peptides, which determines the ability of the peptides to sequester inflammatory lipids. These differences appear to be too subtle to predict efficacy based on physical-chemical properties alone. However, understanding these physical-chemical properties provides an explanation for the mechanism of action of the active peptides.
ESTHER : Navab_2005_Arterioscler.Thromb.Vasc.Biol_25_1325
PubMedSearch : Navab_2005_Arterioscler.Thromb.Vasc.Biol_25_1325
PubMedID: 15831812

Title : An oral apoJ peptide renders HDL antiinflammatory in mice and monkeys and dramatically reduces atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-null mice - Navab_2005_Arterioscler.Thromb.Vasc.Biol_25_1932
Author(s) : Navab M , Anantharamaiah GM , Reddy ST , Van Lenten BJ , Wagner AC , Hama S , Hough G , Bachini E , Garber DW , Mishra VK , Palgunachari MN , Fogelman AM
Ref : Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol , 25 :1932 , 2005
Abstract : OBJECTIVE: To determine the properties of a peptide synthesized from D-amino acids corresponding to residues 113 to 122 in apolipoprotein (apo) J. METHODS AND
RESULTS: In contrast to D-4F, D- [113-122]apoJ showed minimal self-association and helicity in the absence of lipids. D-4F increased the concentration of apoA-I with pre-beta mobility in apoE-null mice whereas D- [113-122]apoJ did not. After an oral dose D- [113-122]apoJ more slowly associated with lipoproteins and was cleared from plasma much more slowly than D-4F. D- [113-122]apoJ significantly improved the ability of plasma to promote cholesterol efflux and improved high-density lipoprotein (HDL) inflammatory properties for up to 48 hours after a single oral dose in apoE-null mice, whereas scrambled D- [113-122]apoJ did not. Oral administration of 125 microg/mouse/d of D- [113-122]apoJ reduced atherosclerosis in apoE-null mice (70.2% reduction in aortic root sinus lesion area, P=4.3 x 10(-13); 70.5% reduction by en face analysis, P=1.5 x 10(-6)). In monkeys, oral D- [113-122]apoJ rapidly reduced lipoprotein lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH) and improved HDL inflammatory properties. Adding 250 ng/mL of D-[113-122]apoJ (but not scrambled D- [113-122]apoJ) to plasma in vitro reduced LOOH and increased paraoxonase activity.
CONCLUSIONS: Oral D- [113-122]apoJ significantly improves HDL inflammatory properties in mice and monkeys and inhibits lesion formation in apoE-null mice.
ESTHER : Navab_2005_Arterioscler.Thromb.Vasc.Biol_25_1932
PubMedSearch : Navab_2005_Arterioscler.Thromb.Vasc.Biol_25_1932
PubMedID: 15961700

Title : The paraoxonase gene family and atherosclerosis - Ng_2005_Free.Radic.Biol.Med_38_153
Author(s) : Ng CJ , Shih DM , Hama SY , Villa N , Navab M , Reddy ST
Ref : Free Radic Biol Med , 38 :153 , 2005
Abstract : Epidemiologic, genetic, and biochemical studies support an antiatherogenic role for paraoxonase (PON) 1. While the precise mechanism by which PON1 protects against the development of atherosclerosis is unclear, in vitro studies and the results from PON1 knockout and transgenic mice suggest that this protective effect may be attributed to PON1's ability to attenuate the oxidative modification of lipoprotein particles. The two other members of the PON gene family, namely, PON2 and PON3, have also been reported to possess antioxidant properties and may exhibit antiatherogenic capacities as well. Previous studies have demonstrated that PON1 expression is downregulated by oxidative stress. In contrast, more recent studies have shown that PON2 expression is upregulated in response to oxidative stress-inducing agents, while PON3 expression remains unchanged. While the physiological function of these proteins is unknown, studies currently underway using PON2 and PON3 knockout and transgenic mice should enable us to tease out the apparently redundant functions of these three proteins and yield clues as to their physiological function as well as their role in atherogenesis.
ESTHER : Ng_2005_Free.Radic.Biol.Med_38_153
PubMedSearch : Ng_2005_Free.Radic.Biol.Med_38_153
PubMedID: 15607899

Title : Oral D-4F causes formation of pre-beta high-density lipoprotein and improves high-density lipoprotein-mediated cholesterol efflux and reverse cholesterol transport from macrophages in apolipoprotein E-null mice - Navab_2004_Circulation_109_3215
Author(s) : Navab M , Anantharamaiah GM , Reddy ST , Hama S , Hough G , Grijalva VR , Wagner AC , Frank JS , Datta G , Garber D , Fogelman AM
Ref : Circulation , 109 :3215 , 2004
Abstract : BACKGROUND: These studies were designed to determine the mechanism of action of an oral apolipoprotein (apo) A-I mimetic peptide, D-4F, which previously was shown to dramatically reduce atherosclerosis in mice. METHODS AND
RESULTS: Twenty minutes after 500 microg of D-4F was given orally to apoE-null mice, small cholesterol-containing particles (CCPs) of 7 to 8 nm with pre-beta mobility and enriched in apoA-I and paraoxonase activity were found in plasma. Before D-4F, both mature HDL and the fast protein liquid chromatography fractions containing the CCPs were proinflammatory. Twenty minutes after oral D-4F, HDL and CCPs became antiinflammatory, and there was an increase in HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux from macrophages in vitro. Oral D-4F also promoted reverse cholesterol transport from intraperitoneally injected cholesterol-loaded macrophages in vivo. In addition, oral D-4F significantly reduced lipoprotein lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH), except for pre-beta HDL fractions, in which LOOH increased.
CONCLUSIONS: The mechanism of action of oral D-4F in apoE-null mice involves rapid formation of CCPs, with pre-beta mobility enriched in apoA-I and paraoxonase activity. As a result, lipoprotein LOOH are reduced, HDL becomes antiinflammatory, and HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux and reverse cholesterol transport from macrophages are stimulated.
ESTHER : Navab_2004_Circulation_109_3215
PubMedSearch : Navab_2004_Circulation_109_3215
PubMedID: 15197147

Title : Human apolipoprotein A-I and A-I mimetic peptides: potential for atherosclerosis reversal - Navab_2004_Curr.Opin.Lipidol_15_645
Author(s) : Navab M , Anantharamaiah GM , Reddy ST , Van Lenten BJ , Datta G , Garber D , Fogelman AM
Ref : Curr Opin Lipidol , 15 :645 , 2004
Abstract : PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent publications related to the potential use of apolipoprotein (apo)A-I and apoA-I mimetic peptides in the treatment of atherosclerosis are reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS: A preliminary report indicating that infusion of apoA-IMilano into humans once weekly for 5 weeks caused a significant decrease in coronary artery atheroma volume has sparked great interest in the potential therapeutic use of apoA-I. Recent studies have revealed that HDL quality (e.g. HDL apolipoprotein and lipid content, including oxidized lipids, particle size and electrophoretic mobility, associated enzymatic activities, inflammatory/anti-inflammatory properties, and ability to promote cholesterol efflux) may be more important than HDL-cholesterol levels. Therefore, when developing new strategies to raise HDL-cholesterol concentrations by interfering with HDL metabolism, one must consider the quality of the resulting HDL. In animal models, raising HDL-cholesterol levels by administering oral phospholipids improved both the quantity and quality of HDL and was associated with lesion regression. An apoA-I mimetic peptide, namely 4F synthesized from D-amino acids (D-4F), administered orally to mice did not raise HDL-cholesterol concentrations but promoted the formation of pre-beta HDL containing increased paraoxonase activity, resulting in significant improvements in HDL's anti-inflammatory properties and ability to promote cholesterol efflux from macrophages in vitro. Oral D-4F also promoted reverse cholesterol efflux from macrophages in vivo. SUMMARY: The quality of HDL may be more important than HDL-cholesterol levels. ApoA-I and apoA-I mimetic peptides appear to have significant therapeutic potential in atherosclerosis.
ESTHER : Navab_2004_Curr.Opin.Lipidol_15_645
PubMedSearch : Navab_2004_Curr.Opin.Lipidol_15_645
PubMedID: 15529023

Title : Apparent paradox of low-fat healthy diets increasing plasma levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein and lipoprotein(a) -
Author(s) : Navab M , Reddy ST , Van Lenten BJ , Fogelman AM
Ref : Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol , 24 :392 , 2004
PubMedID: 15003971

Title : Human apolipoprotein AI mimetic peptides for the treatment of atherosclerosis - Navab_2003_Curr.Opin.Investig.Drugs_4_1100
Author(s) : Navab M , Anantharamaiah GM , Reddy ST , Van Lenten BJ , Hough G , Wagner A , Nakamura K , Garber DW , Datta G , Segrest JP , Hama S , Fogelman AM
Ref : Curr Opin Investig Drugs , 4 :1100 , 2003
Abstract : The effects of apolipoprotein (Apo) AI mimetic peptide synthesized from D- and L-amino acids on atherosclerotic lesion formation were investigated in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-deficient mice on a Western diet and in apoE null mice. In addition, their effects on the inflammatory changes induced in LDL-receptor mice fed a Western diet following influenza A infection were studied. When apolipoprotein AI mimetic peptides synthesized from either D- or L-amino acids were administered to LDL-receptor null mice, only peptides synthesized from D-amino acids were stable in the circulation and enhanced the ability of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) to protect LDL against oxidation. Administration of the peptide D-4F to LDL-receptor null mice and apoE null mice decreased lesion size. Additionally, in LDL receptor null mice after influenza infection, D-4F treatment increased plasma HDL levels and paraoxonase activity, and inhibited increased in LDL-cholesterol and peak levels of interleukin-6 post-infection. Injection of female mice with male macrophages, and subsequent measurement of the male 'sry' gene, revealed a marked increase in macrophage traffic into the aortic arch after infection that was prevented by administration of D-4F. This indicates that: (i) oral D-4F has powerful anti-atherosclerotic properties, and (ii) the loss of the anti-inflammatory properties of HDL after influenza infection in mice is associated with increased arterial macrophage traffic that can be prevented by administration of D-4F.
ESTHER : Navab_2003_Curr.Opin.Investig.Drugs_4_1100
PubMedSearch : Navab_2003_Curr.Opin.Investig.Drugs_4_1100
PubMedID: 14582455

Title : Paraoxonase-2 is a ubiquitously expressed protein with antioxidant properties and is capable of preventing cell-mediated oxidative modification of low density lipoprotein - Ng_2001_J.Biol.Chem_276_44444
Author(s) : Ng CJ , Wadleigh DJ , Gangopadhyay A , Hama S , Grijalva VR , Navab M , Fogelman AM , Reddy ST
Ref : Journal of Biological Chemistry , 276 :44444 , 2001
Abstract : The oxidation of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins and cell membrane lipids is believed to play an integral role in the development of fatty streak lesions, an initial step in atherogenesis. We have previously shown that two antioxidant-like enzymes, paraoxonase (PON)-1 and PON3, are high density lipoprotein-associated proteins capable of preventing the oxidative modification of low density lipoprotein (LDL) (Reddy, S. T., Wadleigh, D. J., Grijalva, V., Ng, C., Hama, S., Gangopadhyay, A., Shih, D. M., Lusis, A. J., Navab, M., and Fogelman, A. M. (2001) Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 21, 542-547). In the present study, we demonstrate that PON2 (i) is not associated with high density lipoprotein; (ii) has antioxidant properties; and (iii) prevents LDL lipid peroxidation, reverses the oxidation of mildly oxidized LDL (MM-LDL), and inhibits the ability of MM-LDL to induce monocyte chemotaxis. The PON2 protein was overexpressed in HeLa cells using the tetracycline-inducible ("Tet-On") system, and its antioxidant capacity was measured in a fluorometric assay. Cells that overexpressed PON2 showed significantly less intracellular oxidative stress following treatment with hydrogen peroxide or oxidized phospholipid. Moreover, cells that overexpressed PON2 were also less effective in oxidizing and modifying LDL and, in fact, were able to reverse the effects of preformed MM-LDL. Our results suggest that PON2 possesses antioxidant properties similar to those of PON1 and PON3. However, in contrast to PON1 and PON3, PON2 may exert its antioxidant functions at the cellular level, joining the host of intracellular antioxidant enzymes that protect cells from oxidative stress.
ESTHER : Ng_2001_J.Biol.Chem_276_44444
PubMedSearch : Ng_2001_J.Biol.Chem_276_44444
PubMedID: 11579088

Title : Human paraoxonase-3 is an HDL-associated enzyme with biological activity similar to paraoxonase-1 protein but is not regulated by oxidized lipids - Reddy_2001_Arterioscler.Thromb.Vasc.Biol_21_542
Author(s) : Reddy ST , Wadleigh DJ , Grijalva V , Ng C , Hama S , Gangopadhyay A , Shih DM , Lusis AJ , Navab M , Fogelman AM
Ref : Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol , 21 :542 , 2001
Abstract : Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) is a secreted protein associated primarily with high density lipoprotein (HDL) and participates in the prevention of low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation. Two other paraoxonase (PON) family members, namely, PON2 and PON3, have been identified. In this study, we report the cloning and characterization of the human PON3 gene from HepG2 cells. Tissue Northern analysis identifies an approximately 1.3-kb transcript for PON3 primarily in the liver. PON3-specific peptide antibodies detect an approximately 40-kDa protein associated with HDL and absent from LDL. Pretreatment of cultured human aortic endothelial cells with supernatants from HeLa Tet On cell lines overexpressing PON3 prevents the formation of mildly oxidized LDL and inactivates preformed mildly oxidized LDL. In contrast to PON1, PON3 is not active against the synthetic substrates paraoxon and phenylacetate. Furthermore, PON3 expression is not regulated in HepG2 cells by oxidized phospholipids and is not regulated in the livers of mice fed a high-fat atherogenic diet.
ESTHER : Reddy_2001_Arterioscler.Thromb.Vasc.Biol_21_542
PubMedSearch : Reddy_2001_Arterioscler.Thromb.Vasc.Biol_21_542
PubMedID: 11304470

Title : Normal high density lipoprotein inhibits three steps in the formation of mildly oxidized low density lipoprotein: steps 2 and 3 - Navab_2000_J.Lipid.Res_41_1495
Author(s) : Navab M , Hama SY , Anantharamaiah GM , Hassan K , Hough GP , Watson AD , Reddy ST , Sevanian A , Fonarow GC , Fogelman AM
Ref : J Lipid Res , 41 :1495 , 2000
Abstract : Treatment of human artery wall cells with apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), but not apoA-II, with an apoA-I peptide mimetic, or with high density lipoprotein (HDL), or paraoxonase, rendered the cells unable to oxidize low density lipoprotein (LDL). Human aortic wall cells were found to contain 12-lipoxygenase (12-LO) protein. Transfection of the cells with antisense to 12-LO (but not sense) eliminated the 12-LO protein and prevented LDL-induced monocyte chemotactic activity. Addition of 13(S)-hydroperoxyoctadecadienoic acid [13(S)-HPODE] and 15(S)-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid [15(S)-HPETE] dramatically enhanced the nonenzymatic oxidation of both 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PAPC) and cholesteryl linoleate. On a molar basis 13(S)-HPODE and 15(S)-HPETE were approximately two orders of magnitude greater in potency than hydrogen peroxide in causing the formation of biologically active oxidized phospholipids (m/z 594, 610, and 828) from PAPC. Purified paraoxonase inhibited the biologic activity of these oxidized phospholipids. HDL from 10 of 10 normolipidemic patients with coronary artery disease, who were neither diabetic nor receiving hypolipidemic medications, failed to inhibit LDL oxidation by artery wall cells and failed to inhibit the biologic activity of oxidized PAPC, whereas HDL from 10 of 10 age- and sex-matched control subjects did. We conclude that a) mildly oxidized LDL is formed in three steps, one of which involves 12-LO and each of which can be inhibited by normal HDL, and b) HDL from at least some coronary artery disease patients with normal blood lipid levels is defective both in its ability to prevent LDL oxidation by artery wall cells and in its ability to inhibit the biologic activity of oxidized PAPC.
ESTHER : Navab_2000_J.Lipid.Res_41_1495
PubMedSearch : Navab_2000_J.Lipid.Res_41_1495
PubMedID: 10974057

Title : On the physiological role(s) of the paraoxonases - La Du_1999_Chem.Biol.Interact_119-120_379
Author(s) : La Du BN , Aviram M , Billecke S , Navab M , Primo-Parmo S , Sorenson RC , Standiford TJ
Ref : Chemico-Biological Interactions , 119-120 :379 , 1999
Abstract : In recent years several lines of evidence have indicated that serum paraoxonase (PON1), and perhaps other mammalian paraoxonases, act as important guardians against cellular damage from toxic agents, such as organophosphates, oxidized lipids in the plasma low density lipoproteins (LDL), and against bacterial endotoxins. For some of these protective activities but not all, PON1 requires calcium ion. The catalyzed chemical reactions generally seem to be hydrolytic, but for some types of protection this may not be so. Several other metals have very high affinity for PON1 and may displace calcium. Replacement or substitution of calcium by other metals could extend the range of catalytic properties and the substrate specificity of the paraoxonases, as it does for the mammalian DFPases. Although this Third International Meeting on Esterases Reacting with Organophosphorus Compounds focuses on the organophosphatase activities of paraoxonase and related enzymes, it is important to also briefly review some of the current directions in several laboratories searching for additional functions of the paraoxonases to extend our understanding of the properties of this family of enzymes which now seem to have both physiological and toxicological importance.
ESTHER : La Du_1999_Chem.Biol.Interact_119-120_379
PubMedSearch : La Du_1999_Chem.Biol.Interact_119-120_379
PubMedID: 10421474

Title : Mice lacking serum paraoxonase are susceptible to organophosphate toxicity and atherosclerosis - Shih_1998_Nature_394_284
Author(s) : Shih DM , Gu L , Xia YR , Navab M , Li WF , Hama S , Castellani LW , Furlong CE , Costa LG , Fogelman AM , Lusis AJ
Ref : Nature , 394 :284 , 1998
Abstract : Serum paraoxonase (PON1) is an esterase that is associated with high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) in the plasma; it is involved in the detoxification of organophosphate insecticides such as parathion and chlorpyrifos. PON1 may also confer protection against coronary artery disease by destroying pro-inflammatory oxidized lipids present in oxidized low-density lipoproteins (LDLs). To study the role of PON1 in vivo, we created PON1-knockout mice by gene targeting. Compared with their wild-type littermates, PON1-deficient mice were extremely sensitive to the toxic effects of chlorpyrifos oxon, the activated form of chlorpyrifos, and were more sensitive to chlorpyrifos itself. HDLs isolated from PON1-deficient mice were unable to prevent LDL oxidation in a co-cultured cell model of the artery wall, and both HDLs and LDLs isolated from PON1-knockout mice were more susceptible to oxidation by co-cultured cells than the lipoproteins from wild-type littermates. When fed on a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet, PON1-null mice were more susceptible to atherosclerosis than their wild-type littermates.
ESTHER : Shih_1998_Nature_394_284
PubMedSearch : Shih_1998_Nature_394_284
PubMedID: 9685159

Title : Paraoxonase and coronary heart disease - Mackness_1998_Curr.Opin.Lipidol_9_319
Author(s) : Mackness MI , Mackness B , Durrington PN , Fogelman AM , Berliner J , Lusis AJ , Navab M , Shih DM , Fonarow GC
Ref : Curr Opin Lipidol , 9 :319 , 1998
Abstract : Paraoxonase (PON1) hydrolyses organophosphate insecticides and nerve gases and is responsible for determining the selective toxicity of these compounds in mammals. Human PON1 has two genetic polymorphisms giving rise to amino-acid substitutions at positions 55 and 192. The 192 polymorphism is the major determinant of the PON1 activity polymorphism towards organophosphates. However, the 55 polymorphism also modulates activity. Ex vivo, the PON1 polymorphisms are important in determining the capacity of HDL to protect LDL against oxidative modification in vitro and this may explain the relationship between the PON1 alleles and coronary heart disease in case-control studies. In recent case-control studies serum PON1 concentration and activity were also found to be decreased in coronary heart disease (CHD) independent of the PON1 polymorphism, and in diabetes serum PON1 specific activity decrease is also independent of the PON1 genetic polymorphism. HDL from transgenic mice lacking PON1 fails to protect LDL against oxidative modification. Thus PON1 may be a determinant of resistance to the development of atherosclerosis by protecting lipoproteins against oxidative modification, perhaps by hydrolysing phospholipid and cholesteryl-ester hydroperoxides.
ESTHER : Mackness_1998_Curr.Opin.Lipidol_9_319
PubMedSearch : Mackness_1998_Curr.Opin.Lipidol_9_319
PubMedID: 9739487