Tawfik DS


Full name : Tawfik Dan S

First name : Dan S

Mail : Department of Biological Chemistry Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100

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Country : Israel

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Website : \/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Dan_Tawfik

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References (51)

Title : Utilization of diverse organophosphorus pollutants by marine bacteria - Despotovic_2022_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_119_e2203604119
Author(s) : Despotovic D , Aharon E , Trofimyuk O , Dubovetskyi A , Cherukuri KP , Ashani Y , Eliason O , Sperfeld M , Leader H , Castelli A , Fumagalli L , Savidor A , Levin Y , Longo LM , Segev E , Tawfik DS
Ref : Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A , 119 :e2203604119 , 2022
Abstract : Anthropogenic organophosphorus compounds (AOPCs), such as phosphotriesters, are used extensively as plasticizers, flame retardants, nerve agents, and pesticides. To date, only a handful of soil bacteria bearing a phosphotriesterase (PTE), the key enzyme in the AOPC degradation pathway, have been identified. Therefore, the extent to which bacteria are capable of utilizing AOPCs as a phosphorus source, and how widespread this adaptation may be, remains unclear. Marine environments with phosphorus limitation and increasing levels of pollution by AOPCs may drive the emergence of PTE activity. Here, we report the utilization of diverse AOPCs by four model marine bacteria and 17 bacterial isolates from the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea. To unravel the details of AOPC utilization, two PTEs from marine bacteria were isolated and characterized, with one of the enzymes belonging to a protein family that, to our knowledge, has never before been associated with PTE activity. When expressed in Escherichia coli with a phosphodiesterase, a PTE isolated from a marine bacterium enabled growth on a pesticide analog as the sole phosphorus source. Utilization of AOPCs may provide bacteria a source of phosphorus in depleted environments and offers a prospect for the bioremediation of a pervasive class of anthropogenic pollutants.
ESTHER : Despotovic_2022_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_119_e2203604119
PubMedSearch : Despotovic_2022_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_119_e2203604119
PubMedID: 35917352

Title : Widespread Utilization of Diverse Organophosphate Pollutants by Marine Bacteria - Despotovic_2021_Biorxiv__
Author(s) : Despotovic D , Aharon E , Trofimyuk O , Dubovetskyi A , Cherukuri KP , Ashani Y , Leader H , Castelli A , Fumagalli A , Savidor A , Levin Y , Longo LM , Segev E , Tawfik DS
Ref : Biorxiv , : , 2020
Abstract : Anthropogenic organophosphates (AOPs), such as phosphotriesters, are used extensively as plasticizers, flame retardants, nerve agents and pesticides. Soil bacteria bearing a phosphotriesterase (PTE) can degrade AOPs, but whether bacteria are capable of utilizing AOPs as a phosphorus source, and how widespread PTEs are in nature, remains unclear. Here, we report the utilization of diverse AOPs by four model marine bacteria and seventeen bacterial isolates from seawater samples. To unravel the details of AOP utilization, two novel PTEs from marine bacteria were isolated and characterized. When expressed in E. coli, these PTEs enabled growth on a pesticide analog as the sole phosphorus source. Utilization of AOPs provides bacteria with a source of phosphorus in depleted environments and offers a new prospect for the bioremediation of a pervasive class of anthropogenic pollutants.
ESTHER : Despotovic_2021_Biorxiv__
PubMedSearch : Despotovic_2021_Biorxiv__

Title : Enzyme evolution in natural products biosynthesis: target- or diversity-oriented? - Noda-Garcia_2020_Curr.Opin.Chem.Biol_59_147
Author(s) : Noda-Garcia L , Tawfik DS
Ref : Curr Opin Chemical Biology , 59 :147 , 2020
Abstract : Natural product biosynthesis (NPB) is the Panda's Thumb of evolutionary biochemistry. Arm races between organisms, and ever-changing environments, result in relentless innovation. This review focusses on enzyme evolution in NPB. First, we review cases of de novo emergence, whereby a completely new enzymatic activity arose in a ligand-binding protein, or a new enzyme emerged including a completely new scaffold. Second, we briefly review the current models for enzyme evolution, and how they explain the inherent promiscuity of NPB enzymes and their tendency to produce multiple related products. We thus suggest that NPB enzymes a priori evolved to generate a specific product; they are, however, trapped in a multifunctional, generalist evolutionary state and thereby produce a diversity of products.
ESTHER : Noda-Garcia_2020_Curr.Opin.Chem.Biol_59_147
PubMedSearch : Noda-Garcia_2020_Curr.Opin.Chem.Biol_59_147
PubMedID: 32771972

Title : A mixture of three engineered phosphotriesterases enables rapid detoxification of the entire spectrum of known threat nerve agents - Despotovic_2019_Protein.Eng.Des.Sel_32_169
Author(s) : Despotovic D , Aharon E , Dubovetskyi A , Leader H , Ashani Y , Tawfik DS
Ref : Protein Engineering Des Sel , 32 :169 , 2019
Abstract : Nerve agents are organophosphates (OPs) that potently inhibit acetylcholinesterase, and their enzymatic detoxification has been a long-standing goal. Nerve agents vary widely in size, charge, hydrophobicity and the cleavable ester bond. A single enzyme is therefore unlikely to efficiently hydrolyze all agents. Here, we describe a mixture of three previously developed variants of the bacterial phosphotriesterase (Bd-PTE) that are highly stable and nearly sequence identical. This mixture enables effective detoxification of a broad spectrum of known threat agents-GA (tabun), GB (sarin), GD (soman), GF (cyclosarin), VX and Russian-VX. The potential for dimer dissociation and exchange that could inactivate Bd-PTE has minimal impact, and the three enzyme variants are as active in a mixture as they are individually. To our knowledge, this engineered enzyme 'cocktail' comprises the first solution for enzymatic detoxification of the entire range of threat nerve agents.
ESTHER : Despotovic_2019_Protein.Eng.Des.Sel_32_169
PubMedSearch : Despotovic_2019_Protein.Eng.Des.Sel_32_169
PubMedID: 31612205

Title : Single treatment of VX poisoned guinea pigs with the phosphotriesterase mutant C23AL: Intraosseous versus intravenous injection - Wille_2016_Toxicol.Lett_258_198
Author(s) : Wille T , Neumaier K , Koller M , Ehinger C , Aggarwal N , Ashani Y , Goldsmith M , Sussman JL , Tawfik DS , Thiermann H , Worek F
Ref : Toxicol Lett , 258 :198 , 2016
Abstract : The recent attacks with the nerve agent sarin in Syria reveal the necessity of effective countermeasures against highly toxic organophosphorus compounds. Multiple studies provide evidence that a rapid onset of antidotal therapy might be life-saving but current standard antidotal protocols comprising reactivators and competitive muscarinic antagonists show a limited efficacy for several nerve agents. We here set out to test the newly developed phosphotriesterase (PTE) mutant C23AL by intravenous (i.v.), intramuscular (i.m.; model for autoinjector) and intraosseous (i.o.; model for intraosseous insertion device) application in an in vivo guinea pig model after VX challenge ( approximately 2LD50). C23AL showed a Cmax of 0.63mumolL(-1) after i.o. and i.v. administration of 2mgkg(-1) providing a stable plasma profile up to 180min experimental duration with 0.41 and 0.37mumolL(-1) respectively. The i.m. application of C23AL did not result in detectable plasma levels. All animals challenged with VX and subsequent i.o. or i.v. C23AL therapy survived although an in part substantial inhibition of erythrocyte, brain and diaphragm AChE was detected. Theoretical calculation of the time required to hydrolyze in vivo 96.75% of the toxic VX enantiomer is consistent with previous studies wherein similar activity of plasma containing catalytic scavengers of OPs resulted in non-lethal protection although accompanied with a variable severity of cholinergic symptoms. The relatively low C23AL plasma level observed immediately after its i.v. or i.o load, point at a possible volume of distribution greater than the guinea pig plasma content, and thus underlines the necessity of in vivo experiments in antidote research. In conclusion the i.o. application of PTE is efficient and resulted in comparable plasma levels to the i.v. application at a given time. Thus, i.o. vascular access systems could improve the post-exposure PTE therapy of nerve agent poisoning.
ESTHER : Wille_2016_Toxicol.Lett_258_198
PubMedSearch : Wille_2016_Toxicol.Lett_258_198
PubMedID: 27397758

Title : Catalytic efficiencies of directly evolved phosphotriesterase variants with structurally different organophosphorus compounds in vitro - Goldsmith_2016_Arch.Toxicol_90_2711
Author(s) : Goldsmith M , Eckstein S , Ashani Y , Greisen P, Jr. , Leader H , Sussman JL , Aggarwal N , Ovchinnikov S , Tawfik DS , Baker D , Thiermann H , Worek F
Ref : Archives of Toxicology , 90 :2711 , 2016
Abstract : The nearly 200,000 fatalities following exposure to organophosphorus (OP) pesticides each year and the omnipresent danger of a terroristic attack with OP nerve agents emphasize the demand for the development of effective OP antidotes. Standard treatments for intoxicated patients with a combination of atropine and an oxime are limited in their efficacy. Thus, research focuses on developing catalytic bioscavengers as an alternative approach using OP-hydrolyzing enzymes such as Brevundimonas diminuta phosphotriesterase (PTE). Recently, a PTE mutant dubbed C23 was engineered, exhibiting reversed stereoselectivity and high catalytic efficiency (k cat/K M) for the hydrolysis of the toxic enantiomers of VX, CVX, and VR. Additionally, C23's ability to prevent systemic toxicity of VX using a low protein dose has been shown in vivo. In this study, the catalytic efficiencies of V-agent hydrolysis by two newly selected PTE variants were determined. Moreover, in order to establish trends in sequence-activity relationships along the pathway of PTE's laboratory evolution, we examined k cat/K M values of several variants with a number of V-type and G-type nerve agents as well as with different OP pesticides. Although none of the new PTE variants exhibited k cat/K M values >107 M-1 min-1 with V-type nerve agents, which is required for effective prophylaxis, they were improved with VR relative to previously evolved variants. The new variants detoxify a broad spectrum of OPs and provide insight into OP hydrolysis and sequence-activity relationships.
ESTHER : Goldsmith_2016_Arch.Toxicol_90_2711
PubMedSearch : Goldsmith_2016_Arch.Toxicol_90_2711
PubMedID: 26612364

Title : Automated Structure- and Sequence-Based Design of Proteins for High Bacterial Expression and Stability - Goldenzweig_2016_Mol.Cell_63_337
Author(s) : Goldenzweig A , Goldsmith M , Hill SE , Gertman O , Laurino P , Ashani Y , Dym O , Unger T , Albeck S , Prilusky J , Lieberman RL , Aharoni A , Silman I , Sussman JL , Tawfik DS , Fleishman SJ
Ref : Mol Cell , 63 :337 , 2016
Abstract : Upon heterologous overexpression, many proteins misfold or aggregate, thus resulting in low functional yields. Human acetylcholinesterase (hAChE), an enzyme mediating synaptic transmission, is a typical case of a human protein that necessitates mammalian systems to obtain functional expression. We developed a computational strategy and designed an AChE variant bearing 51 mutations that improved core packing, surface polarity, and backbone rigidity. This variant expressed at approximately 2,000-fold higher levels in E. coli compared to wild-type hAChE and exhibited 20 degrees C higher thermostability with no change in enzymatic properties or in the active-site configuration as determined by crystallography. To demonstrate broad utility, we similarly designed four other human and bacterial proteins. Testing at most three designs per protein, we obtained enhanced stability and/or higher yields of soluble and active protein in E. coli. Our algorithm requires only a 3D structure and several dozen sequences of naturally occurring homologs, and is available at http://pross.weizmann.ac.il.
ESTHER : Goldenzweig_2016_Mol.Cell_63_337
PubMedSearch : Goldenzweig_2016_Mol.Cell_63_337
PubMedID: 27425410
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-ACHE

Title : A new post-intoxication treatment of paraoxon and parathion poisonings using an evolved PON1 variant and recombinant GOT1 - Goldsmith_2016_Chem.Biol.Interact_259_242
Author(s) : Goldsmith M , Ashani Y , Margalit R , Nyska A , Mirelman D , Tawfik DS
Ref : Chemico-Biological Interactions , 259 :242 , 2016
Abstract : Organophosphate (OP) based pesticides are highly toxic compounds that are still widely used in agriculture around the world. According to World Health Organization (WHO) data, it is estimated that between 250,000 and 370,000 deaths occur yearly around the globe as a result of acute intoxications by pesticides. Currently available antidotal drug treatments of severe OP intoxications are symptomatic, do not reduce the level of intoxicating OP in the body and have limited ability to prevent long-term brain damage. Pesticide poisonings present a special therapeutic challenge since in many cases, such as with parathion, their toxicity stems from their metabolites that inhibit the essential enzyme acetylcholinesterase. Our goal is to develop a new treatment strategy for parathion intoxication by combining a catalytic bioscavenger that rapidly degrades the intoxicating parathion-metabolite (paraoxon) in the blood, with a glutamate bioscavenger that reduces the elevated concentration of extracellular glutamate in the brain following OP intoxication. We report on the development of a novel catalytic bioscavenger by directed evolution of serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1) that effectively detoxifies paraoxon in-vivo. We also report preliminary results regarding the utilization of this PON1 variant together with a recombinant human enzyme glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase 1 (rGOT1), suggesting that a dual PON-GOT treatment may increase survival and recovery from parathion and paraoxon intoxications.
ESTHER : Goldsmith_2016_Chem.Biol.Interact_259_242
PubMedSearch : Goldsmith_2016_Chem.Biol.Interact_259_242
PubMedID: 27256520

Title : Catalytic stimulation by restrained active-site floppiness--the case of high density lipoprotein-bound serum paraoxonase-1 - Ben-David_2015_J.Mol.Biol_427_1359
Author(s) : Ben-David M , Sussman JL , Maxwell CI , Szeler K , Kamerlin SC , Tawfik DS
Ref : Journal of Molecular Biology , 427 :1359 , 2015
Abstract : Despite the abundance of membrane-associated enzymes, the mechanism by which membrane binding stabilizes these enzymes and stimulates their catalysis remains largely unknown. Serum paraoxonase-1 (PON1) is a lipophilic lactonase whose stability and enzymatic activity are dramatically stimulated when associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles. Our mutational and structural analyses, combined with empirical valence bond simulations, reveal a network of hydrogen bonds that connect HDL binding residues with Asn168--a key catalytic residue residing >15A from the HDL contacting interface. This network ensures precise alignment of N168, which, in turn, ligates PON1's catalytic calcium and aligns the lactone substrate for catalysis. HDL binding restrains the overall motion of the active site and particularly of N168, thus reducing the catalytic activation energy barrier. We demonstrate herein that disturbance of this network, even at its most far-reaching periphery, undermines PON1's activity. Membrane binding thus immobilizes long-range interactions via second- and third-shell residues that reduce the active site's floppiness and pre-organize the catalytic residues. Although this network is critical for efficient catalysis, as demonstrated here, unraveling these long-rage interaction networks is challenging, let alone their implementation in artificial enzyme design.
ESTHER : Ben-David_2015_J.Mol.Biol_427_1359
PubMedSearch : Ben-David_2015_J.Mol.Biol_427_1359
PubMedID: 25644661

Title : Efficacy of the rePON1 mutant IIG1 to prevent cyclosarin toxicity in vivo and to detoxify structurally different nerve agents in vitro - Worek_2014_Arch.Toxicol_88_1257
Author(s) : Worek F , Seeger T , Goldsmith M , Ashani Y , Leader H , Sussman JL , Tawfik DS , Thiermann H , Wille T
Ref : Archives of Toxicology , 88 :1257 , 2014
Abstract : The potent human toxicity of organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents calls for the development of effective antidotes. Standard treatment for nerve agent poisoning with atropine and an oxime has a limited efficacy. An alternative approach is the development of catalytic bioscavengers using OP-hydrolyzing enzymes such as paraoxonases (PON1). Recently, a chimeric PON1 mutant, IIG1, was engineered toward the hydrolysis of the toxic isomers of soman and cyclosarin with high in vitro catalytic efficiency. In order to investigate the suitability of IIG1 as a catalytic bioscavenger, an in vivo guinea pig model was established to determine the protective effect of IIG1 against the highly toxic nerve agent cyclosarin. Prophylactic i.v. injection of IIG1 (1 mg/kg) prevented systemic toxicity in cyclosarin (~2LD50)-poisoned guinea pigs, preserved brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, and protected erythrocyte AChE activity partially. A lower IIG1 dose (0.2 mg/kg) already prevented mortality and reduced systemic toxicity. IIG1 exhibited a high catalytic efficiency with a homologous series of alkylmethylfluorophosphonates but had low efficiency with the phosphoramidate tabun and was virtually ineffective with the nerve agent VX. This quantitative analysis validated the model for predicting in vivo protection by catalytic bioscavengers based on their catalytic efficiency, the level of circulating enzyme, and the dose of the intoxicating nerve agent. The in vitro and in vivo results indicate that IIG1 may be considered as a promising candidate bioscavenger to protect against the toxic effects of a range of highly toxic nerve agents.
ESTHER : Worek_2014_Arch.Toxicol_88_1257
PubMedSearch : Worek_2014_Arch.Toxicol_88_1257
PubMedID: 24477626

Title : Post-exposure treatment of VX poisoned guinea pigs with the engineered phosphotriesterase mutant C23: A proof-of-concept study - Worek_2014_Toxicol.Lett_231_45
Author(s) : Worek F , Seeger T , Reiter G , Goldsmith M , Ashani Y , Leader H , Sussman JL , Aggarwal N , Thiermann H , Tawfik DS
Ref : Toxicol Lett , 231 :45 , 2014
Abstract : The highly toxic organophosphorus (OP) nerve agent VX is characterized by a remarkable biological persistence which limits the effectiveness of standard treatment with atropine and oximes. Existing OP hydrolyzing enzymes show low activity against VX and hydrolyze preferentially the less toxic P(+)-VX enantiomer. Recently, a phosphotriesterase (PTE) mutant, C23, was engineered towards the hydrolysis of the toxic P(-) isomers of VX and other V-type agents with relatively high in vitro catalytic efficiency (kcat/KM=5x106M-1min-1). To investigate the suitability of the PTE mutant C23 as a catalytic scavenger, an in vivo guinea pig model was established to determine the efficacy of post-exposure treatment with C23 alone against VX intoxication. Injection of C23 (5mgkg-1 i.v.) 5min after s.c. challenge with VX ( approximately 2LD50) prevented systemic toxicity. A lower C23 dose (2mgkg-1) reduced systemic toxicity and prevented mortality. Delayed treatment (i.e., 15min post VX) with 5mgkg-1 C23 resulted in survival of all animals and only in moderate systemic toxicity. Although C23 did not prevent inhibition of erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, it partially preserved brain AChE activity. C23 therapy resulted in a rapid decrease of racemic VX blood concentration which was mainly due to the rate of degradation of the toxic P(-)-VX enantiomer that correlates with the C23 blood levels and its kcat/KM value. Although performed under anesthesia, this proof-of-concept study demonstrated for the first time the ability of a catalytic bioscavenger to prevent systemic VX toxicity when given alone as a single post-exposure treatment, and enables an initial assessment of a time window for this approach. In conclusion, the PTE mutant C23 may be considered as a promising starting point for the development of highly effective catalytic bioscavengers for post-exposure treatment of V-agents intoxication.
ESTHER : Worek_2014_Toxicol.Lett_231_45
PubMedSearch : Worek_2014_Toxicol.Lett_231_45
PubMedID: 25195526

Title : Catalytic metal ion rearrangements underline promiscuity and evolvability of a metalloenzyme - Ben-David_2013_J.Mol.Biol_425_1028
Author(s) : Ben-David M , Wieczorek G , Elias M , Silman I , Sussman JL , Tawfik DS
Ref : Journal of Molecular Biology , 425 :1028 , 2013
Abstract : Although largely deemed as structurally conserved, catalytic metal ion sites can rearrange, thereby contributing to enzyme evolvability. Here, we show that in paraoxonase-1, a lipo-lactonase, catalytic promiscuity and divergence into an organophosphate hydrolase are correlated with an alternative mode of the catalytic Ca(2+). We describe the crystal structures of active-site mutants bearing mutations at position 115. The histidine at this position acts as a base to activate the lactone-hydrolyzing water molecule. Mutations to Trp or Gln indeed diminish paraoxonase-1's lactonase activity; however, the promiscuous organophosphate hydrolase activity is enhanced. The structures reveal a 1.8-A upward displacement towards the enzyme's surface of the catalytic Ca(2+) in the His115 mutants and configurational changes in the ligating side chains and water molecules, relative to the wild-type enzyme. Biochemical analysis and molecular dynamics simulations suggest that this alternative, upward metal mode mediates the promiscuous hydrolysis of organophosphates. The upward Ca(2+) mode observed in the His115 mutants also appears to mediate the wild type's paraoxonase activity. However, whereas the upward mode dominates in the Trp115 mutant, it is scarcely populated in wild type. Thus, the plasticity of active-site metal ions may permit alternative, latent, promiscuous activities and also provide the basis for the divergence of new enzymatic functions.
ESTHER : Ben-David_2013_J.Mol.Biol_425_1028
PubMedSearch : Ben-David_2013_J.Mol.Biol_425_1028
PubMedID: 23318950

Title : Engineering v-type nerve agents detoxifying enzymes using computationally focused libraries - Cherny_2013_ACS.Chem.Biol_8_2394
Author(s) : Cherny I , Greisen P, Jr. , Ashani Y , Khare SD , Oberdorfer G , Leader H , Baker D , Tawfik DS
Ref : ACS Chemical Biology , 8 :2394 , 2013
Abstract : VX and its Russian (RVX) and Chinese (CVX) analogues rapidly inactivate acetylcholinesterase and are the most toxic stockpile nerve agents. These organophosphates have a thiol leaving group with a choline-like moiety and are hydrolyzed very slowly by natural enzymes. We used an integrated computational and experimental approach to increase Brevundimonas diminuta phosphotriesterase's (PTE) detoxification rate of V-agents by 5000-fold. Computational models were built of the complex between PTE and V-agents. On the basis of these models, the active site was redesigned to be complementary in shape to VX and RVX and to include favorable electrostatic interactions with their choline-like leaving group. Small libraries based on designed sequences were constructed. The libraries were screened by a direct assay for V-agent detoxification, as our initial studies showed that colorimetric surrogates fail to report the detoxification rates of the actual agents. The experimental results were fed back to improve the computational models. Overall, five rounds of iterating between experiment and model refinement led to variants that hydrolyze the toxic SP isomers of all three V-agents with kcat/KM values of up to 5 x 10(6) M(-1) min(-1) and also efficiently detoxify G-agents. These new catalysts provide the basis for broad spectrum nerve agent detoxification.
ESTHER : Cherny_2013_ACS.Chem.Biol_8_2394
PubMedSearch : Cherny_2013_ACS.Chem.Biol_8_2394
PubMedID: 24041203

Title : Enzyme engineering by targeted libraries - Goldsmith_2013_Methods.Enzymol_523_257
Author(s) : Goldsmith M , Tawfik DS
Ref : Methods Enzymol , 523 :257 , 2013
Abstract : This review outlines the strategies we apply for directed enzyme evolution using targeted libraries, namely, libraries that diversify specific residues with predefined mutational compositions. The theoretical grounds underlining the design of such libraries are described, including the mutational load, the ratio of beneficial versus deleterious mutations, and screening capacity. We point out the advantage of using mutational spiking strategies for "hedging the bets," exploring a large number of potentially beneficial mutations, and tuning the library's mutational load. Also highlighted are the merits of low-throughput screens that measure multiple parameters at high accuracy, and of using the desired substrate and reaction conditions rather than surrogates. We subsequently describe library construction strategies (rational and analytical) based on structure and sequence analyses, including ancestral libraries, which are particularly suitable for low-throughput screens. We also discuss the critical role of including compensatory, stabilizing mutations during library construction. Finally, the design efficiency and the optimal mutational loads of libraries are assessed by comparing targeted mutational libraries versus libraries of random mutations.
ESTHER : Goldsmith_2013_Methods.Enzymol_523_257
PubMedSearch : Goldsmith_2013_Methods.Enzymol_523_257
PubMedID: 23422434

Title : Catalytic versatility and backups in enzyme active sites: the case of serum paraoxonase 1 - Ben-David_2012_J.Mol.Biol_418_181
Author(s) : Ben-David M , Elias M , Filippi JJ , Dunach E , Silman I , Sussman JL , Tawfik DS
Ref : Journal of Molecular Biology , 418 :181 , 2012
Abstract : The origins of enzyme specificity are well established. However, the molecular details underlying the ability of a single active site to promiscuously bind different substrates and catalyze different reactions remain largely unknown. To better understand the molecular basis of enzyme promiscuity, we studied the mammalian serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1) whose native substrates are lipophilic lactones. We describe the crystal structures of PON1 at a catalytically relevant pH and of its complex with a lactone analogue. The various PON1 structures and the analysis of active-site mutants guided the generation of docking models of the various substrates and their reaction intermediates. The models suggest that promiscuity is driven by coincidental overlaps between the reactive intermediate for the native lactonase reaction and the ground and/or intermediate states of the promiscuous reactions. This overlap is also enabled by different active-site conformations: the lactonase activity utilizes one active-site conformation whereas the promiscuous phosphotriesterase activity utilizes another. The hydrolysis of phosphotriesters, and of the aromatic lactone dihydrocoumarin, is also driven by an alternative catalytic mode that uses only a subset of the active-site residues utilized for lactone hydrolysis. Indeed, PON1's active site shows a remarkable level of networking and versatility whereby multiple residues share the same task and individual active-site residues perform multiple tasks (e.g., binding the catalytic calcium and activating the hydrolytic water). Overall, the coexistence of multiple conformations and alternative catalytic modes within the same active site underlines PON1's promiscuity and evolutionary potential.
ESTHER : Ben-David_2012_J.Mol.Biol_418_181
PubMedSearch : Ben-David_2012_J.Mol.Biol_418_181
PubMedID: 22387469

Title : Divergence and convergence in enzyme evolution: parallel evolution of paraoxonases from quorum-quenching lactonases - Elias_2012_J.Biol.Chem_287_11
Author(s) : Elias M , Tawfik DS
Ref : Journal of Biological Chemistry , 287 :11 , 2012
Abstract : We discuss the basic features of divergent versus convergent evolution and of the common scenario of parallel evolution. The example of quorum-quenching lactonases is subsequently described. Three different quorum-quenching lactonase families are known, and they belong to three different superfamilies. Their key active-site architectures have converged and are strikingly similar. Curiously, a promiscuous organophosphate hydrolase activity is observed in all three families. We describe the structural and mechanistic features that underline this converged promiscuity and how this promiscuity drove the parallel divergence of organophosphate hydrolases within these lactonase families by either natural or laboratory evolution.
ESTHER : Elias_2012_J.Biol.Chem_287_11
PubMedSearch : Elias_2012_J.Biol.Chem_287_11
PubMedID: 22069329

Title : Reconstructing a missing link in the evolution of a recently diverged phosphotriesterase by active-site loop remodeling - Afriat-Jurnou_2012_Biochemistry_51_6047
Author(s) : Afriat-Jurnou L , Jackson CJ , Tawfik DS
Ref : Biochemistry , 51 :6047 , 2012
Abstract : Only decades after the introduction of organophosphate pesticides, bacterial phosphotriesterases (PTEs) have evolved to catalyze their degradation with remarkable efficiency. Their closest known relatives, lactonases, with promiscuous phosphotriasterase activity, dubbed PTE-like lactonases (PLLs), share only 30% sequence identity and also differ in the configuration of their active-site loops. PTE was therefore presumed to have evolved from a yet unknown PLL whose primary activity was the hydrolysis of quorum sensing homoserine lactones (HSLs) (Afriat et al. (2006) Biochemistry 45, 13677-13686). However, how PTEs diverged from this presumed PLL remains a mystery. In this study we investigated loop remodeling as a means of reconstructing a homoserine lactonase ancestor that relates to PTE by few mutational steps. Although, in nature, loop remodeling is a common mechanism of divergence of enzymatic functions, reproducing this process in the laboratory is a challenge. Structural and phylogenetic analyses enabled us to remodel one of PTE's active-site loops into a PLL-like configuration. A deletion in loop 7, combined with an adjacent, highly epistatic, point mutation led to the emergence of an HSLase activity that is undetectable in PTE (k(cat)/K(M) values of up to 2 x 10(4)). The appearance of the HSLase activity was accompanied by only a minor decrease in PTE's paraoxonase activity. This specificity change demonstrates the potential role of bifunctional intermediates in the divergence of new enzymatic functions and highlights the critical contribution of loop remodeling to the rapid divergence of new enzyme functions.
ESTHER : Afriat-Jurnou_2012_Biochemistry_51_6047
PubMedSearch : Afriat-Jurnou_2012_Biochemistry_51_6047
PubMedID: 22809311

Title : Evolved stereoselective hydrolases for broad-spectrum G-type nerve agent detoxification - Goldsmith_2012_Chem.Biol_19_456
Author(s) : Goldsmith M , Ashani Y , Simo Y , Ben-David M , Leader H , Silman I , Sussman JL , Tawfik DS
Ref : Chemical Biology , 19 :456 , 2012
Abstract : A preferred strategy for preventing nerve agents intoxication is catalytic scavenging by enzymes that hydrolyze them before they reach their targets. Using directed evolution, we simultaneously enhanced the activity of a previously described serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1) variant for hydrolysis of the toxic S(P) isomers of the most threatening G-type nerve agents. The evolved variants show <=340-fold increased rates and catalytic efficiencies of 0.2-5 x 10(7) M(-1) min(-1). Our selection for prevention of acetylcholinesterase inhibition also resulted in the complete reversion of PON1's stereospecificity, from an enantiomeric ratio (E) < 6.3 x 10(-4) in favor of the R(P) isomer of a cyclosarin analog in wild-type PON1, to E > 2,500 for the S(P) isomer in an evolved variant. Given their ability to hydrolyze G-agents, these evolved variants may serve as broad-range G-agent prophylactics.
ESTHER : Goldsmith_2012_Chem.Biol_19_456
PubMedSearch : Goldsmith_2012_Chem.Biol_19_456
PubMedID: 22520752

Title : Directed enzyme evolution: beyond the low-hanging fruit - Goldsmith_2012_Curr.Opin.Struct.Biol_22_406
Author(s) : Goldsmith M , Tawfik DS
Ref : Current Opinion in Structural Biology , 22 :406 , 2012
Abstract : The field of directed evolution has progressed to the point where it is feasible to engineer enzymes for unnatural substrates and reactions with catalytic efficiencies and regio-specificity or stereo-specificity that rival those of natural enzymes. Here, we describe the conceptual and methodological advances that have enabled this progress. We address methodologies based on small libraries enriched with improved variants and carrying compensatory stabilizing mutations. Such libraries can be combined with low-throughput screens that provide high accuracy and directly target the desired substrate and reaction conditions, and thereby provide highly improved variants.
ESTHER : Goldsmith_2012_Curr.Opin.Struct.Biol_22_406
PubMedSearch : Goldsmith_2012_Curr.Opin.Struct.Biol_22_406
PubMedID: 22579412

Title : Computational redesign of a mononuclear zinc metalloenzyme for organophosphate hydrolysis - Khare_2012_Nat.Chem.Biol_8_294
Author(s) : Khare SD , Kipnis Y , Greisen P, Jr. , Takeuchi R , Ashani Y , Goldsmith M , Song Y , Gallaher JL , Silman I , Leader H , Sussman JL , Stoddard BL , Tawfik DS , Baker D
Ref : Nat Chemical Biology , 8 :294 , 2012
Abstract : The ability to redesign enzymes to catalyze noncognate chemical transformations would have wide-ranging applications. We developed a computational method for repurposing the reactivity of metalloenzyme active site functional groups to catalyze new reactions. Using this method, we engineered a zinc-containing mouse adenosine deaminase to catalyze the hydrolysis of a model organophosphate with a catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(m)) of ~10(4) M(-1) s(-1) after directed evolution. In the high-resolution crystal structure of the enzyme, all but one of the designed residues adopt the designed conformation. The designed enzyme efficiently catalyzes the hydrolysis of the R(P) isomer of a coumarinyl analog of the nerve agent cyclosarin, and it shows marked substrate selectivity for coumarinyl leaving groups. Computational redesign of native enzyme active sites complements directed evolution methods and offers a general approach for exploring their untapped catalytic potential for new reactivities.
ESTHER : Khare_2012_Nat.Chem.Biol_8_294
PubMedSearch : Khare_2012_Nat.Chem.Biol_8_294
PubMedID: 22306579

Title : The moderately efficient enzyme: evolutionary and physicochemical trends shaping enzyme parameters - Bar-Even_2011_Biochemistry_50_4402
Author(s) : Bar-Even A , Noor E , Savir Y , Liebermeister W , Davidi D , Tawfik DS , Milo R
Ref : Biochemistry , 50 :4402 , 2011
Abstract : The kinetic parameters of enzymes are key to understanding the rate and specificity of most biological processes. Although specific trends are frequently studied for individual enzymes, global trends are rarely addressed. We performed an analysis of k(cat) and K(M) values of several thousand enzymes collected from the literature. We found that the 'average enzyme' exhibits a k(cat) of ~0 s(-1) and a k(cat)/K(M) of ~10(5) s(-1) M(-1), much below the diffusion limit and the characteristic textbook portrayal of kinetically superior enzymes. Why do most enzymes exhibit moderate catalytic efficiencies? Maximal rates may not evolve in cases where weaker selection pressures are expected. We find, for example, that enzymes operating in secondary metabolism are, on average, ~30-fold slower than those of central metabolism. We also find indications that the physicochemical properties of substrates affect the kinetic parameters. Specifically, low molecular mass and hydrophobicity appear to limit K(M) optimization. In accordance, substitution with phosphate, CoA, or other large modifiers considerably lowers the K(M) values of enzymes utilizing the substituted substrates. It therefore appears that both evolutionary selection pressures and physicochemical constraints shape the kinetic parameters of enzymes. It also seems likely that the catalytic efficiency of some enzymes toward their natural substrates could be increased in many cases by natural or laboratory evolution.
ESTHER : Bar-Even_2011_Biochemistry_50_4402
PubMedSearch : Bar-Even_2011_Biochemistry_50_4402
PubMedID: 21506553

Title : Directed evolution of hydrolases for prevention of G-type nerve agent intoxication - Gupta_2011_Nat.Chem.Biol_7_120
Author(s) : Gupta RD , Goldsmith M , Ashani Y , Simo Y , Mullokandov G , Bar H , Ben-David M , Leader H , Margalit R , Silman I , Sussman JL , Tawfik DS
Ref : Nat Chemical Biology , 7 :120 , 2011
Abstract : Organophosphate nerve agents are extremely lethal compounds. Rapid in vivo organophosphate clearance requires bioscavenging enzymes with catalytic efficiencies of >10(7) (M(-1) min(-1)). Although serum paraoxonase (PON1) is a leading candidate for such a treatment, it hydrolyzes the toxic S(p) isomers of G-agents with very slow rates. We improved PON1's catalytic efficiency by combining random and targeted mutagenesis with high-throughput screening using fluorogenic analogs in emulsion compartments. We thereby enhanced PON1's activity toward the coumarin analog of S(p)-cyclosarin by approximately 10(5)-fold. We also developed a direct screen for protection of acetylcholinesterase from inactivation by nerve agents and used it to isolate variants that degrade the toxic isomer of the coumarin analog and cyclosarin itself with k(cat)/K(M) approximately 10(7) M(-1) min(-1). We then demonstrated the in vivo prophylactic activity of an evolved variant. These evolved variants and the newly developed screens provide the basis for engineering PON1 for prophylaxis against other G-type agents.
ESTHER : Gupta_2011_Nat.Chem.Biol_7_120
PubMedSearch : Gupta_2011_Nat.Chem.Biol_7_120
PubMedID: 21217689

Title : Paraoxonase-1 and clopidogrel efficacy -
Author(s) : Camps J , Joven J , Mackness B , Mackness MI , Tawfik DS , Draganov DI , Costa LG , Paragh G , Seres I , Horke S , James RW , Hernandez AF , Reddy ST , Shih DM , Navab M , Rochu D , Aviram M
Ref : Nat Med , 17 :1041 , 2011
PubMedID: 21900915

Title : Directed evolution of sulfotransferases and paraoxonases by ancestral libraries - Alcolombri_2011_J.Mol.Biol_411_837
Author(s) : Alcolombri U , Elias M , Tawfik DS
Ref : Journal of Molecular Biology , 411 :837 , 2011
Abstract : Large libraries of randomly mutated genes are applied in directed evolution experiments in order to obtain sufficient variability. These libraries, however, contain mostly inactive variants, and the very low frequency of improved variants can only be isolated by high-throughput screening. Small but efficient libraries comprise an attractive alternative. Here, we describe the application of ancestral libraries-libraries based on mutations predicted by phylogenetic analysis and ancestral inference. We designed and constructed such libraries using serum paraoxonases and cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs) as model enzymes. Both of these enzyme families exhibit a range of activities in drug metabolism and detoxification of xenobiotics. The ancestral serum paraoxonase and SULT libraries were screened by low-throughput means, including HPLC, using substrates and/or reactions with which all family members exhibit low activity. The libraries showed a remarkably high frequency of highly polymorphic and functionally diverse variants. Screening of as few as 300 variants enabled the isolation of mutants with up to 50-fold higher activity than the starting point enzyme. Structural and kinetic characterizations of an evolved SULT variant show how few ancestral mutations reshaped the active site and modulated the enzyme's specificity. Ancestral libraries therefore comprise a means of focusing diversity to positions and mutations that readily trigger changes in substrate and/or reaction specificity, thereby facilitating the isolation of new enzyme variants for a variety of different substrates and reactions by medium-throughput or even low-throughput screens.
ESTHER : Alcolombri_2011_J.Mol.Biol_411_837
PubMedSearch : Alcolombri_2011_J.Mol.Biol_411_837
PubMedID: 21723874

Title : In vitro detoxification of cyclosarin in human blood pre-incubated ex vivo with recombinant serum paraoxonases - Ashani_2011_Toxicol.Lett_206_24
Author(s) : Ashani Y , Goldsmith M , Leader H , Silman I , Sussman JL , Tawfik DS
Ref : Toxicol Lett , 206 :24 , 2011
Abstract : An ex vivo protocol was developed to assay the antidotal capacity of rePON1 variants to protect endogenous acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase in human whole blood against OP nerve agents. This protocol permitted us to address the relationship between blood rePON1 concentrations, their kinetic parameters, and the level of protection conferred by rePON1 on the cholinesterases in human blood, following a challenge with cyclosarin (GF). The experimental data thus obtained were in good agreement with the predicted percent residual activities of blood cholinesterases calculated on the basis of the rate constants for inhibition of human acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase by GF, the concentration of the particular rePON1 variant, and its k(cat)/K(m) value for GF. This protocol thus provides a rapid and reliable ex vivo screening tool for identification of rePON1 bioscavenger candidates suitable for protection of humans against organophosphorus-based toxicants. The results also permitted the refinement of a mathematical model for estimating the efficacious dose of rePON1s variants required for prophylaxis in humans.
ESTHER : Ashani_2011_Toxicol.Lett_206_24
PubMedSearch : Ashani_2011_Toxicol.Lett_206_24
PubMedID: 21807078

Title : Stereo-specific synthesis of analogs of nerve agents and their utilization for selection and characterization of paraoxonase (PON1) catalytic scavengers - Ashani_2010_Chem.Biol.Interact_187_362
Author(s) : Ashani Y , Gupta RD , Goldsmith M , Silman I , Sussman JL , Tawfik DS , Leader H
Ref : Chemico-Biological Interactions , 187 :362 , 2010
Abstract : Fluorogenic organophosphate inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) homologous in structure to nerve agents provide useful probes for high throughput screening of mammalian paraoxonase (PON1) libraries generated by directed evolution of an engineered PON1 variant with wild-type like specificity (rePON1). Wt PON1 and rePON1 hydrolyze preferentially the less-toxic R(P) enantiomers of nerve agents and of their fluorogenic surrogates containing the fluorescent leaving group, 3-cyano-7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin (CHMC). To increase the sensitivity and reliability of the screening protocol so as to directly select rePON1 clones displaying stereo-preference towards the toxic S(P) enantiomer, and to determine accurately K(m) and k(cat) values for the individual isomers, two approaches were used to obtain the corresponding S(P) and R(P) isomers: (a) stereo-specific synthesis of the O-ethyl, O-n-propyl, and O-i-propyl analogs and (b) enzymic resolution of a racemic mixture of O-cyclohexyl methylphosphonylated CHMC. The configurational assignments of the S(P) and R(P) isomers, as well as their optical purity, were established by X-ray diffraction, reaction with sodium fluoride, hydrolysis by selected rePON1 variants, and inhibition of AChE. The S(P) configuration of the tested surrogates was established for the enantiomer with the more potent anti-AChE activity, with S(P)/R(P) inhibition ratios of 10-100, whereas the R(P) isomers of the O-ethyl and O-n-propyl were hydrolyzed by wt rePON1 about 600- and 70-fold faster, respectively, than the S(P) counterpart. Wt rePON1-induced R(P)/S(P) hydrolysis ratios for the O-cyclohexyl and O-i-propyl analogs are estimated to be >>1000. The various S(P) enantiomers of O-alkyl-methylphosphonyl esters of CHMC provide suitable ligands for screening rePON1 libraries, and can expedite identification of variants with enhanced catalytic proficiency towards the toxic nerve agents.
ESTHER : Ashani_2010_Chem.Biol.Interact_187_362
PubMedSearch : Ashani_2010_Chem.Biol.Interact_187_362
PubMedID: 20303930

Title : ApoE induces serum paraoxonase PON1 activity and stability similar to ApoA-I - Gaidukov_2010_Biochemistry_49_532
Author(s) : Gaidukov L , Viji RI , Yacobson S , Rosenblat M , Aviram M , Tawfik DS
Ref : Biochemistry , 49 :532 , 2010
Abstract : Serum paraoxonase (PON1) is an anti-atherogenic interfacially activated lipo-lactonase that was shown to selectively bind high-density lipoprotein (HDL) carrying apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I). ApoA-I binding occurs with nanomolar affinity and induces a dramatic increase in enzyme stability and lactonase activity. This study examined the association of PON1 with reconstituted HDL (rHDL) carrying apolipoprotein E, and its consequences on the stability and enzymatic activity of PON1, and on its anti-atherogenic potential. The results indicate that reconstituted HDL particles prepared with two most common isoforms of apoE (apoE3 and apoE4) associate with rePON1 in a manner and affinity similar to those of apoA-I. Binding to apoE-HDL stimulates the lactonase activity and stabilizes the enzyme, although the latter occurs to a >10-fold lesser extent compared to apoA-I-HDL particles. The anti-atherogenic potential of PON1, measured by inhibition of LDL oxidation and stimulation of macrophage cholesterol efflux, was also stimulated by apoE-HDL, at levels of 40-96% compared to apoA-I-HDL. Overall, reconstituted apoE-HDL exhibits properties similar to those of apoA-I-HDL, but with a lower capacity to stabilize PON1 and to induce its anti-atherogenic functions. ApoE, apoA-I, and to a lesser degree apoA-IV show distinct structural and functional similarities but little sequence homology. That these apolipoproteins, but not apoA-II, bind PON1 with high affinity and stimulate its activity suggests that PON1-HDL recognition is based primarily on surface properties of the apolipoproteins and that specific protein-protein interactions may play only a secondary role.
ESTHER : Gaidukov_2010_Biochemistry_49_532
PubMedSearch : Gaidukov_2010_Biochemistry_49_532
PubMedID: 20025294

Title : Directed evolution of serum paraoxonase PON3 by family shuffling and ancestor\/consensus mutagenesis, and its biochemical characterization - Khersonsky_2009_Biochemistry_48_6644
Author(s) : Khersonsky O , Rosenblat M , Toker L , Yacobson S , Hugenmatter A , Silman I , Sussman JL , Aviram M , Tawfik DS
Ref : Biochemistry , 48 :6644 , 2009
Abstract : Serum paraoxonases (PONs) are calcium-dependent lactonases with anti-atherogenic and detoxification functions. Here we describe the directed evolution and characterization of recombinant variants of serum paraoxonase PON3 that express in an active and soluble manner in Escherichia coli. These variants were obtained by combining family shuffling and phylogeny-based mutagenesis: the limited diversity of accessible, cloned PON3 genes was complemented by spiking the shuffling reaction with ancestor/consensus mutations, mutations to residues that comprise the consensus or appear in the predicted ancestors of the PON family. We screened the resulting libraries for PON3's lactonase activity while ensuring that the selected variants retained the substrate specificity of wild-type mammalian PON3s. The availability of highly stable, recombinant PON3 that is free of all other serum components enabled us to explore unknown biochemical features of PON3, including its binding to HDL particles, the effect of HDL on PON3's stability and enzymatic activity, and ex vivo tests of its anti-atherogenic properties. Overall, it appears that PON3 possesses properties very similar to those of PON1: the enzyme's lactonase activity is selectively stimulated by binding to apoAI-HDL, with a concomitant increase in its stability. PON3 also exhibits potentially anti-atherogenic functions, although at levels lower than those of PON1.
ESTHER : Khersonsky_2009_Biochemistry_48_6644
PubMedSearch : Khersonsky_2009_Biochemistry_48_6644
PubMedID: 19492856

Title : Stability effects of mutations and protein evolvability - Tokuriki_2009_Curr.Opin.Struct.Biol_19_596
Author(s) : Tokuriki N , Tawfik DS
Ref : Current Opinion in Structural Biology , 19 :596 , 2009
Abstract : The past several years have seen novel insights at the interface of protein biophysics and evolution. The accepted paradigm that proteins can tolerate nearly any amino acid substitution has been replaced by the view that the deleterious effects of mutations, and especially their tendency to undermine the thermodynamic and kinetic stability of protein, is a major constraint on protein evolvability--the ability of proteins to acquire changes in sequence and function. We summarize recent findings regarding how mutations affect protein stability, and how stability affects protein evolution. We describe ways of predicting and analyzing stability effects of mutations, and mechanisms that buffer or compensate for these destabilizing effects and thereby promote protein evolvabilty, in nature and in the laboratory.
ESTHER : Tokuriki_2009_Curr.Opin.Struct.Biol_19_596
PubMedSearch : Tokuriki_2009_Curr.Opin.Struct.Biol_19_596
PubMedID: 19765975

Title : In vivo administration of BL-3050: highly stable engineered PON1-HDL complexes - Gaidukov_2009_BMC.Clin.Pharmacol_9_18
Author(s) : Gaidukov L , Bar D , Yacobson S , Naftali E , Kaufman O , Tabakman R , Tawfik DS , Levy-Nissenbaum E
Ref : BMC Clin Pharmacol , 9 :18 , 2009
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Serum paraoxonase (PON1) is a high density lipoprotein (HDL)-associated enzyme involved in organophosphate (OP) degradation and prevention of atherosclerosis. PON1 comprises a potential candidate for in vivo therapeutics, as an anti-atherogenic agent, and for detoxification of pesticides and nerve agents. Because human PON1 exhibits limited stability, engineered, recombinant PON1 (rePON1) variants that were designed for higher reactivity, solubility, stability, and bacterial expression, are candidates for treatment. This work addresses the feasibility of in vivo administration of rePON1, and its HDL complex, as a potentially therapeutic agent dubbed BL-3050.
METHODS: For stability studies we applied different challenges related to the in vivo disfunctionalization of HDL and PON1 and tested for inactivation of PON1's activity. We applied acute, repetitive administrations of BL-3050 in mice to assess its toxicity and adverse immune responses. The in vivo efficacy of recombinant PON1 and BL-3050 were tested with an animal model of chlorpyrifos-oxon poisoning.
RESULTS: Inactivation studies show significantly improved in vitro lifespan of the engineered rePON1 relative to human PON1. Significant sequence changes relative to human PON1 might hamper the in vivo applicability of BL-3050 due to adverse immune responses. However, we observed no toxic effects in mice subjected to repetitive administration of BL-3050, suggesting that BL-3050 could be safely used. To further evaluate the activity of BL-3050 in vivo, we applied an animal model that mimics human organophosphate poisoning. In these studies, a significant advantages of rePON1 and BL-3050 (>87.5% survival versus <37.5% in the control groups) was observed. Furthermore, BL-3050 and rePON1 were superior to the conventional treatment of atropine-2-PAM as a prophylactic treatment for OP poisoning. CONCLUSION: In vitro and in vivo data described here demonstrate the potential advantages of rePON1 and BL-3050 for treatment of OP toxicity and chronic cardiovascular diseases like atherosclerosis. The in vivo data also suggest that rePON1 and BL-3050 are stable and safe, and could be used for acute, and possibly repeated treatments, with no adverse effects.
ESTHER : Gaidukov_2009_BMC.Clin.Pharmacol_9_18
PubMedSearch : Gaidukov_2009_BMC.Clin.Pharmacol_9_18
PubMedID: 19922610

Title : Potential role of phenotypic mutations in the evolution of protein expression and stability - Goldsmith_2009_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_106_6197
Author(s) : Goldsmith M , Tawfik DS
Ref : Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A , 106 :6197 , 2009
Abstract : Phenotypic mutations (errors occurring during protein synthesis) are orders of magnitude more frequent than genetic mutations. Consequently, the sequences of individual protein molecules transcribed and translated from the same gene can differ. To test the effects of such mutations, we established a bacterial system in which an antibiotic resistance gene (TEM-1 beta-lactamase) was transcribed by either a high-fidelity RNA polymerase or its error-prone mutant. This setup enabled the analysis of individual mRNA transcripts that were synthesized under normal or error-prone conditions. We found that an increase of approximately 20-fold in the frequency of transcription errors promoted the evolution of higher TEM-1 expression levels and of more stable enzyme variants. The stabilized variants exhibited a distinct advantage under error-prone transcription, although under normal transcription they conferred resistance similar to wild-type TEM-1. They did so, primarily, by increasing TEM-1's tolerance to destabilizing deleterious mutations that arise from transcriptional errors. The stabilized TEM-1 variants also showed increased tolerance to genetic mutations. Thus, although phenotypic mutations are not individually subjected to inheritance and natural selection, as are genetic mutations, they collectively exert a direct and immediate effect on protein fitness. They may therefore play a role in shaping protein traits such as expression levels, stability, and tolerance to genetic mutations.
ESTHER : Goldsmith_2009_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_106_6197
PubMedSearch : Goldsmith_2009_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_106_6197
PubMedID: 19339491

Title : How protein stability and new functions trade off - Tokuriki_2008_PLoS.Comput.Biol_4_e1000002
Author(s) : Tokuriki N , Stricher F , Serrano L , Tawfik DS
Ref : PLoS Comput Biol , 4 :e1000002 , 2008
Abstract : Numerous studies have noted that the evolution of new enzymatic specificities is accompanied by loss of the protein's thermodynamic stability (DeltaDeltaG), thus suggesting a tradeoff between the acquisition of new enzymatic functions and stability. However, since most mutations are destabilizing (DeltaDeltaG>0), one should ask how destabilizing mutations that confer new or altered enzymatic functions relative to all other mutations are. We applied DeltaDeltaG computations by FoldX to analyze the effects of 548 mutations that arose from the directed evolution of 22 different enzymes. The stability effects, location, and type of function-altering mutations were compared to DeltaDeltaG changes arising from all possible point mutations in the same enzymes. We found that mutations that modulate enzymatic functions are mostly destabilizing (average DeltaDeltaG = +0.9 kcal/mol), and are almost as destabilizing as the "average" mutation in these enzymes (+1.3 kcal/mol). Although their stability effects are not as dramatic as in key catalytic residues, mutations that modify the substrate binding pockets, and thus mediate new enzymatic specificities, place a larger stability burden than surface mutations that underline neutral, non-adaptive evolutionary changes. How are the destabilizing effects of functional mutations balanced to enable adaptation? Our analysis also indicated that many mutations that appear in directed evolution variants with no obvious role in the new function exert stabilizing effects that may compensate for the destabilizing effects of the crucial function-altering mutations. Thus, the evolution of new enzymatic activities, both in nature and in the laboratory, is dependent on the compensatory, stabilizing effect of apparently "silent" mutations in regions of the protein that are irrelevant to its function.
ESTHER : Tokuriki_2008_PLoS.Comput.Biol_4_e1000002
PubMedSearch : Tokuriki_2008_PLoS.Comput.Biol_4_e1000002
PubMedID: 18463696

Title : Directed enzyme evolution via small and effective neutral drift libraries - Gupta_2008_Nat.Methods_5_939
Author(s) : Gupta RD , Tawfik DS
Ref : Nat Methods , 5 :939 , 2008
Abstract : Small libraries for directed evolution can be obtained by neutral drifts that maintain the protein's original function, yielding highly polymorphic, stable and evolvable variants. We describe methods for preparing such libraries, using serum paraoxonase (PON1). An optimized GFP variant fused to PON1 reported levels of soluble, functional enzyme, enabling selection by flow cytometry and identification of enzyme variants exhibiting improved specific and total activities toward several substrates, including toxic organophosphates.
ESTHER : Gupta_2008_Nat.Methods_5_939
PubMedSearch : Gupta_2008_Nat.Methods_5_939
PubMedID: 18931667

Title : The development of human sera tests for HDL-bound serum PON1 and its lipolactonase activity - Gaidukov_2007_J.Lipid.Res_48_1637
Author(s) : Gaidukov L , Tawfik DS
Ref : J Lipid Res , 48 :1637 , 2007
Abstract : Serum paraoxonase (PON1) is a lipolactonase that associates with HDL-apolipoprotein A-I (HDL-apoA-I) and thereby plays a role in the prevention of atherosclerosis. Current sera tests make use of promiscuous substrates and provide no indications regarding HDL-PON1 complex formation. We developed new enzymatic tests that detect total PON1 levels, irrespective of HDL status and R/Q polymorphism, as well as the degree of catalytic stimulation and increased stability that follow PON1's tight binding to HDL-apoA-I. The tests are based on measuring total PON1 levels with a fluorogenic phosphotriester, measuring the lipolactonase activity with a chromogenic lactone, and assaying the enzyme's chelator-mediated inactivation rate. The latter two are affected by tight HDL binding and thereby derive the levels of the serum PON1-HDL complex. We demonstrate these new tests with a group of healthy individuals (n=54) and show that the levels of PON1-HDL vary by a factor of 12. Whereas the traditionally applied paraoxonase and arylesterase tests weakly reflect PON1-HDL levels (R=0.64), the lipolactonase test provides better correlation (R=0.80). These new tests indicate the levels and activity of PON1 in a physiologically relevant context as well as the levels and quality of the HDL particles with which the enzyme is associated.
ESTHER : Gaidukov_2007_J.Lipid.Res_48_1637
PubMedSearch : Gaidukov_2007_J.Lipid.Res_48_1637
PubMedID: 17435182

Title : Directed evolution by in vitro compartmentalization -
Author(s) : Miller OJ , Bernath K , Agresti JJ , Amitai G , Kelly BT , Mastrobattista E , Taly V , Magdassi S , Tawfik DS , Griffiths AD
Ref : Nat Methods , 3 :561 , 2006
PubMedID: 16791215

Title : The latent promiscuity of newly identified microbial lactonases is linked to a recently diverged phosphotriesterase - Afriat_2006_Biochemistry_45_13677
Author(s) : Afriat L , Roodveldt C , Manco G , Tawfik DS
Ref : Biochemistry , 45 :13677 , 2006
Abstract : In essence, evolutionary processes occur gradually, while maintaining fitness throughout. Along this line, it has been proposed that the ability of a progenitor to promiscuously catalyze a low level of the evolving activity could facilitate the divergence of a new function by providing an immediate selective advantage. To directly establish a role for promiscuity in the divergence of natural enzymes, we attempted to trace the origins of a bacterial phosphotriesterase (PTE), an enzyme thought to have evolved for the purpose of degradation of a synthetic insecticide introduced in the 20th century. We surmised that PTE's promiscuous lactonase activity may be a vestige of its progenitor and tested homologues annotated as "putative PTEs" for lactonase and phosphotriesterase activity. We identified three genes that define a new group of microbial lactonases dubbed PTE-like lactonases (PLLs). These enzymes proficiently hydrolyze various lactones, and in particular quorum-sensing N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs), and exhibit much lower promiscuous phosphotriesterase activities. PLLs share key sequence and active site features with PTE and differ primarily by an insertion in one surface loop. Given their biochemical and biological function, PLLs are likely to have existed for many millions of years. PTE could have therefore evolved from a member of the PLL family while utilizing its latent promiscuous paraoxonase activity as an essential starting point.
ESTHER : Afriat_2006_Biochemistry_45_13677
PubMedSearch : Afriat_2006_Biochemistry_45_13677
PubMedID: 17105187

Title : Enhanced stereoselective hydrolysis of toxic organophosphates by directly evolved variants of mammalian serum paraoxonase - Amitai_2006_FEBS.J_273_1906
Author(s) : Amitai G , Gaidukov L , Adani R , Yishay S , Yacov G , Kushnir M , Teitlboim S , Lindenbaum M , Bel P , Khersonsky O , Tawfik DS , Meshulam H
Ref : Febs J , 273 :1906 , 2006
Abstract : We addressed the ability of various organophosphorus (OP) hydrolases to catalytically scavenge toxic OP nerve agents. Mammalian paraoxonase (PON1) was found to be more active than Pseudomonas diminuta OP hydrolase (OPH) and squid O,O-di-isopropyl fluorophosphatase (DFPase) in detoxifying cyclosarin (O-cyclohexyl methylphosphonofluoridate) and soman (O-pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate). Subsequently, nine directly evolved PON1 variants, selected for increased hydrolytic rates with a fluorogenic diethylphosphate ester, were tested for detoxification of cyclosarin, soman, O-isopropyl-O-(p-nitrophenyl) methyl phosphonate (IMP-pNP), DFP, and chlorpyrifos-oxon (ChPo). Detoxification rates were determined by temporal acetylcholinesterase inhibition by residual nonhydrolyzed OP. As stereoisomers of cyclosarin and soman differ significantly in their acetylcholinesterase-inhibiting potency, we actually measured the hydrolysis of the more toxic stereoisomers. Cyclosarin detoxification was approximately 10-fold faster with PON1 mutants V346A and L69V. V346A also exhibited fourfold and sevenfold faster hydrolysis of DFP and ChPo, respectively, compared with wild-type, and ninefold higher activity towards soman. L69V exhibited 100-fold faster hydrolysis of DFP than the wild-type. The active-site mutant H115W exhibited 270-380-fold enhancement toward hydrolysis of the P-S bond in parathiol, a phosphorothiolate analog of parathion. This study identifies three key positions in PON1 that affect OP hydrolysis, Leu69, Val346 and His115, and several amino-acid replacements that significantly enhance the hydrolysis of toxic OPs. GC/pulsed flame photometer detector analysis, compared with assay of residual acetylcholinesterase inhibition, displayed stereoselective hydrolysis of cyclosarin, soman, and IMP-pNP, indicating that PON1 is less active toward the more toxic optical isomers.
ESTHER : Amitai_2006_FEBS.J_273_1906
PubMedSearch : Amitai_2006_FEBS.J_273_1906
PubMedID: 16640555

Title : The catalytic histidine dyad of high density lipoprotein-associated serum paraoxonase-1 (PON1) is essential for PON1-mediated inhibition of low density lipoprotein oxidation and stimulation of macrophage cholesterol efflux - Rosenblat_2006_J.Biol.Chem_281_7657
Author(s) : Rosenblat M , Gaidukov L , Khersonsky O , Vaya J , Oren R , Tawfik DS , Aviram M
Ref : Journal of Biological Chemistry , 281 :7657 , 2006
Abstract : High density lipoprotein (HDL)-associated paraoxonase-1 (PON1) anti-atherogenic properties in macrophages, i.e. inhibition of cell-mediated oxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) and stimulation of cholesterol efflux, were studied using recombinant variants of PON1 and apoA-I expressed in Escherichia coli and reconstituted HDL (rHDL) particles composed of phosphatidylcholine/free cholesterol (PC/FC) and apoA-I. PON1 lactonase activity is stimulated by apoA-I by approximately 7-fold relative to PC/FC particles. Wild-type (WT) PON1 bound to rHDL inhibited macrophage-mediated LDL oxidation and stimulated cholesterol efflux from the cells to 2.3- and 3.2-fold greater extents, respectively, compared with WT PON1 bound to PC/FC particles without apoA-I. We also tested PON1 catalytic histidine dyad mutants (H115Q and H134Q) that are properly folded and that bind HDL in a similar mode compared with WT PON1, but that exhibit almost no lactonase activity. These could not inhibit macrophage-mediated LDL oxidation or stimulate rHDL-mediated cholesterol efflux from the cells. Furthermore, whereas HDL-bound WT PON1 induced the formation of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) in macrophages, the His dyad mutants did not, suggesting that the above anti-atherogenic properties of HDL-associated PON1 involve LPC release. Indeed, enrichment of macrophages with increasing concentrations of LPC resulted in inhibition of the cells' capability to oxidize LDL and in stimulation of HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux from the macrophages in an LPC dose-dependent manner. Thus, we provide the first direct indication that the anti-atherogenic properties of PON1 are related to its lipolactonase activity and propose a model in which PON1 acts as a lipolactonase to break down oxidized lipids and to generate LPC.
ESTHER : Rosenblat_2006_J.Biol.Chem_281_7657
PubMedSearch : Rosenblat_2006_J.Biol.Chem_281_7657
PubMedID: 16407304

Title : The 192R\/Q polymorphs of serum paraoxonase PON1 differ in HDL binding, lipolactonase stimulation, and cholesterol efflux - Gaidukov_2006_J.Lipid.Res_47_2492
Author(s) : Gaidukov L , Rosenblat M , Aviram M , Tawfik DS
Ref : J Lipid Res , 47 :2492 , 2006
Abstract : Serum paraoxonase (PON1) is a HDL-associated enzyme exhibiting potentially antiatherogenic properties. Here, we examined the common PON1-192R/Q human polymorphism. Despite numerous studies, the effect of this polymorphism on the antiatherogenic potential of PON1 is yet unresolved. Our structural model suggests that amino acid 192 constitutes part of the HDL-anchoring surface and active site of PON1. Based on our findings that PON1 is an interfacially activated lipolactonase that selectively binds HDL carrying apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and is thereby greatly stabilized and catalytically activated, we examined the interaction of the PON1-192 isozymes with reconstituted HDL-apoA-I particles. We found that PON1 position 192 is indeed involved in HDL binding. The PON1-192Q binds HDL with a 3-fold lower affinity than the R isozyme and consequently exhibits significantly reduced stability, lipolactonase activity, and macrophage cholesterol efflux. We also observed the lower affinity and stability of the 192Q versus the 192R isozyme in sera of individuals belonging to the corresponding genotypes. The observed differences in the properties of PON1-192R/Q isozymes provide a basis for further analysis of the contribution of the 192R/Q polymorphism to the susceptibility to atherosclerosis, although other factors, such as the overall levels of PON1, may play a more significant role.
ESTHER : Gaidukov_2006_J.Lipid.Res_47_2492
PubMedSearch : Gaidukov_2006_J.Lipid.Res_47_2492
PubMedID: 16914770

Title : High-throughput screening of enzyme libraries: thiolactonases evolved by fluorescence-activated sorting of single cells in emulsion compartments - Aharoni_2005_Chem.Biol_12_1281
Author(s) : Aharoni A , Amitai G , Bernath K , Magdassi S , Tawfik DS
Ref : Chemical Biology , 12 :1281 , 2005
Abstract : Single bacterial cells, each expressing a different library variant, were compartmentalized in aqueous droplets of water-in-oil (w/o) emulsions, thus maintaining a linkage between a plasmid-borne gene, the encoded enzyme variant, and the fluorescent product this enzyme may generate. Conversion into a double, water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) emulsion enabled the sorting of these compartments by FACS, as well as the isolation of living bacteria cells and their enzyme-coding genes. We demonstrate the directed evolution of new enzyme variants by screening >10(7) serum paraoxonase (PON1) mutants, to yield 100-fold improvements in thiolactonase activity. In vitro compartmentalization (IVC) of single cells, each carrying >10(4) enzyme molecules, in a volume of <10 femtoliter (fl), enabled detection and selection despite the fast, spontaneous hydrolysis of the substrate, the very low initial thiolactonase activity of PON1, and the use of difusable fluorescent products.
ESTHER : Aharoni_2005_Chem.Biol_12_1281
PubMedSearch : Aharoni_2005_Chem.Biol_12_1281
PubMedID: 16356845

Title : The 'evolvability' of promiscuous protein functions - Aharoni_2005_Nat.Genet_37_73
Author(s) : Aharoni A , Gaidukov L , Khersonsky O , Mc QGS , Roodveldt C , Tawfik DS
Ref : Nat Genet , 37 :73 , 2005
Abstract : How proteins with new functions (e.g., drug or antibiotic resistance or degradation of man-made chemicals) evolve in a matter of months or years is still unclear. This ability is dependent on the induction of new phenotypic traits by a small number of mutations (plasticity). But mutations often have deleterious effects on functions that are essential for survival. How are these seemingly conflicting demands met at the single-protein level? Results from directed laboratory evolution experiments indicate that the evolution of a new function is driven by mutations that have little effect on the native function but large effects on the promiscuous functions that serve as starting point. Thus, an evolving protein can initially acquire increased fitness for a new function without losing its original function. Gene duplication and the divergence of a completely new protein may then follow.
ESTHER : Aharoni_2005_Nat.Genet_37_73
PubMedSearch : Aharoni_2005_Nat.Genet_37_73
PubMedID: 15568024

Title : High-throughput screens and selections of enzyme-encoding genes - Aharoni_2005_Curr.Opin.Chem.Biol_9_210
Author(s) : Aharoni A , Griffiths AD , Tawfik DS
Ref : Curr Opin Chemical Biology , 9 :210 , 2005
Abstract : The availability of vast gene repertoires from both natural sources (genomic and cDNA libraries) and artificial sources (gene libraries) demands the development and application of novel technologies that enable the screening or selection of large libraries for a variety of enzymatic activities. We describe recent developments in the selection of enzyme-coding genes for directed evolution and functional genomics. We focus on HTS approaches that enable selection from large libraries (>10(6) gene variants) with relatively humble means (i.e. non-robotic systems), and on in vitro compartmentalization in particular.
ESTHER : Aharoni_2005_Curr.Opin.Chem.Biol_9_210
PubMedSearch : Aharoni_2005_Curr.Opin.Chem.Biol_9_210
PubMedID: 15811807

Title : Directed evolution of proteins for heterologous expression and stability - Roodveldt_2005_Curr.Opin.Struct.Biol_15_50
Author(s) : Roodveldt C , Aharoni A , Tawfik DS
Ref : Current Opinion in Structural Biology , 15 :50 , 2005
Abstract : Recent developments have been made in the application of directed evolution to achieve the efficient heterologous expression of proteins in Escherichia coli and yeast by increasing the stability and solubility of the protein in the host environment. One interesting conclusion that emerges is that the evolutionary process often improves the stability and solubility of an intermediate (apoprotein, proprotein or folding intermediate) that otherwise constitutes a bottleneck to functional expression, rather than altering the protein's final state.
ESTHER : Roodveldt_2005_Curr.Opin.Struct.Biol_15_50
PubMedSearch : Roodveldt_2005_Curr.Opin.Struct.Biol_15_50
PubMedID: 15718133

Title : Structure-reactivity studies of serum paraoxonase PON1 suggest that its native activity is lactonase - Khersonsky_2005_Biochemistry_44_6371
Author(s) : Khersonsky O , Tawfik DS
Ref : Biochemistry , 44 :6371 , 2005
Abstract : PON1 is the best-studied member of a family of enzymes called serum paraoxonases, or PONs, identified in mammals (including humans) and other vertebrates as well as in invertebrates. PONs exhibit a range of important activities, including drug metabolism and detoxification of organophosphates such as nerve agents. PON1 resides on HDL (the 'good cholesterol') and is also involved in the prevention of atherosclerosis. Despite this wealth of activities, the identity of PON1's native substrate, namely, the substrate for which this enzyme and other enzymes from the PON family evolved, remains unknown. To elucidate the substrate preference and other details of PON1 mechanism of catalysis, structure-activity studies were performed with three groups of substrates that are known to be hydrolyzed by PON1: phosphotriesters, esters, and lactones. We found that the hydrolysis of aryl esters is governed primarily by steric factors and not the pK(a) of the leaving group. The rates of hydrolysis of aliphatic esters are much slower and show a similar dependence on the pK(a) of the leaving group to that of the nonenzymatic reactions in solution, while the aryl phosphotriesters show much higher dependence than the respective nonenzymatic reaction. PON1-catalyzed lactone hydrolysis shows almost no dependence on the pK(a) of the leaving group, and unlike all other substrates, lactones seem to differ in their K(M) rather than k(cat) values. These, and the relatively high rates measured with several lactone substrates (k(cat)/K(M) approximately 10(6) M(-)(1) s(-)(1)) imply that PON1 is in fact a lactonase.
ESTHER : Khersonsky_2005_Biochemistry_44_6371
PubMedSearch : Khersonsky_2005_Biochemistry_44_6371
PubMedID: 15835926

Title : High affinity, stability, and lactonase activity of serum paraoxonase PON1 anchored on HDL with ApoA-I - Gaidukov_2005_Biochemistry_44_11843
Author(s) : Gaidukov L , Tawfik DS
Ref : Biochemistry , 44 :11843 , 2005
Abstract : Serum paraoxonase (PON1) is a high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-associated enzyme exhibiting antiatherogenic properties. This study examined the interaction of recombinant PON1 with reconstituted HDL comprised of PC, cholesterol, and various apolipoproteins (apoA-I, -II, and -IV). The affinity, stability, and lactonase activity were strongly correlated, with apoA-I exhibiting the strongest effects, apoA-IV exhibiting weaker yet significant effects, and apoA-II having a negative effect relative to protein-free particles. We found that PON1 binds apoA-I HDL with sub-nanomolar affinities (K(d) << 10(-)(9) M) and slow dissociation rates (t(1/2) > 80 min), while binding affinity for other particles was dramatically lower. A truncated form of PON1 lacking the N-terminal helix maintains considerable binding to apoA-I HDL (K(d) = 1.2 x 10(-)(7) M), validating the structural model which indicates additional parts of the enzyme involved in HDL binding. Kinetic inactivation assays revealed the existence of an equilibrium between two forms of PON1 differing in their stability by a factor of 100. Various lipoproteins and detergent preparations shift this equilibrium toward the more stable conformation. Consistent with its highest affinity, only apoA-I HDL is capable of totally shifting the equilibrium toward the stable form. The paraoxonase and arylesterase activities were stimulated by HDL by 2-5-fold as previously reported, almost independently of the apoliporotein content. In contrast, only apoA-I is capable of stimulating the lactonase activity by
ESTHER : Gaidukov_2005_Biochemistry_44_11843
PubMedSearch : Gaidukov_2005_Biochemistry_44_11843
PubMedID: 16128586

Title : Structure and evolution of the serum paraoxonase family of detoxifying and anti-atherosclerotic enzymes - Harel_2004_Nat.Struct.Mol.Biol_11_412
Author(s) : Harel M , Aharoni A , Gaidukov L , Brumshtein B , Khersonsky O , Meged R , Dvir H , Ravelli RB , McCarthy A , Toker L , Silman I , Sussman JL , Tawfik DS
Ref : Nat Struct Mol Biol , 11 :412 , 2004
Abstract : Members of the serum paraoxonase (PON) family have been identified in mammals and other vertebrates, and in invertebrates. PONs exhibit a wide range of physiologically important hydrolytic activities, including drug metabolism and detoxification of nerve agents. PON1 and PON3 reside on high-density lipoprotein (HDL, 'good cholesterol') and are involved in the prevention of atherosclerosis. We describe the first crystal structure of a PON family member, a variant of PON1 obtained by directed evolution, at a resolution of 2.2 A. PON1 is a six-bladed beta-propeller with a unique active site lid that is also involved in HDL binding. The three-dimensional structure and directed evolution studies permit a detailed description of PON1's active site and catalytic mechanism, which are reminiscent of secreted phospholipase A2, and of the routes by which PON family members diverged toward different substrate and reaction selectivities.
ESTHER : Harel_2004_Nat.Struct.Mol.Biol_11_412
PubMedSearch : Harel_2004_Nat.Struct.Mol.Biol_11_412
PubMedID: 15098021

Title : Directed evolution of mammalian paraoxonases PON1 and PON3 for bacterial expression and catalytic specialization - Aharoni_2004_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_101_482
Author(s) : Aharoni A , Gaidukov L , Yagur S , Toker L , Silman I , Tawfik DS
Ref : Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A , 101 :482 , 2004
Abstract : Serum paraoxonases (PONs) are a group of enzymes that play a key role in organophosphate (OP) detoxification and in prevention of atherosclerosis. However, their structure and mechanism of action are poorly understood. PONs seem like jacks-of-all-trades, acting on a very wide range of substrates, most of which are of no physiological relevance. Family shuffling and screening lead to the first PON variants that express in a soluble and active form in Escherichia coli. We describe variants with kinetic parameters similar to those reported for PONs purified from sera and others that show dramatically increased activities. In particular, we have evolved PON1 variants with OP-hydrolyzing activities 40-fold higher than wild type and a specificity switch of >2,000-fold, producing PONs specialized for OP rather than ester hydrolysis. Analysis of the newly evolved variants provides insights into the evolutionary relationships between different family members.
ESTHER : Aharoni_2004_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_101_482
PubMedSearch : Aharoni_2004_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_101_482
PubMedID: 14695884

Title : Directed evolution of recombinant serum paraoxonase (PON) variants - Aharoni_2004_Discov.Med_4_120
Author(s) : Aharoni A , Tawfik DS
Ref : Discov Med , 4 :120 , 2004
Abstract : Extract: Owing to their detoxifying functions, and roles in drug metabolism as well as the prevention of atherosclerosis, mammalian or serum paraoxonases (PONs) are an intriguing subject of research and a prime therapeutic and engineering target. Initially identified in mammals, PON and PON-related genes have now been found in fowls, zebra fish, and even in invertebrates such as C. elegans. The more closely-related PON genes are divided into three classes or sub-families: PON1, PON2 and PON3, that share 60-70% sequence identity. PONs are calcium-dependent hydrolases that catalyze the hydrolysis of a broad range of esters and lactones. PON1, which is by far the most investigated member of this family, also catalyzes, albeit at much lower rates, the hydrolysis and thereby inactivation of various organophosphates (OPs), including the nerve agents sarin and soman. PON1 is also involved in drug metabolism and is used for drug inactivation. In recent years, it has become apparent that PONs also play an important role in the prevention of atherosclerosis. The levels of PON1 in the blood and its catalytic proficiency appear to have a major impact both on the individual's susceptibility to pollutants and insecticides, and to atherosclerosis. Furthermore, mice lacking the PON1 gene are highly susceptible to atherosclerosis and to OP poisoning. PON1 and PON3 reside in the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol-carrying particles known as HDL ("good cholesterol"). HDL has two key roles: mediation of cholesterol efflux, e.g., from macrophage foam cells in atherosclerotic lesions, and limitation of lipid oxidation in LDL. PONs have been implicated in both activities.
ESTHER : Aharoni_2004_Discov.Med_4_120
PubMedSearch : Aharoni_2004_Discov.Med_4_120
PubMedID: 20705007

Title : Directed evolution of an extremely fast phosphotriesterase by in vitro compartmentalization - Griffiths_2003_EMBO.J_22_24
Author(s) : Griffiths AD , Tawfik DS
Ref : EMBO Journal , 22 :24 , 2003
Abstract : We describe the selection of a phosphotriesterase with a very fast k(cat) (over 10(5) s(-1)), 63 times higher than the already very efficient wild-type enzyme. The enzyme was selected from a library of 3.4 x 10(7) mutated phosphotriesterase genes using a novel strategy based on linking genotype and phenotype by in vitro compartmentalization (IVC) using water-in-oil emulsions. First, microbeads, each displaying a single gene and multiple copies of the encoded protein, are formed by compartmentalized in vitro translation. These microbeads can then be selected for catalysis or binding. To select for catalysis the microbeads are re-emulsified in a reaction buffer of choice with a soluble substrate. The product and any unreacted substrate are coupled to the beads when the reaction is finished. Product-coated beads, displaying active enzymes and the genes that encode them, are detected with anti-product antibodies and selected using flow cytometry. This completely in vitro process selects for all enzymatic features simultaneously (substrate recognition, product formation, rate acceleration and turnover) and single enzyme molecules can be detected.
ESTHER : Griffiths_2003_EMBO.J_22_24
PubMedSearch : Griffiths_2003_EMBO.J_22_24
PubMedID: 12505981

Title : Esterolytic antibodies as mechanistic and structural models of hydrolases-a quantitative analysis - Lindner_2002_J.Mol.Biol_320_559
Author(s) : Lindner AB , Kim SH , Schindler DG , Eshhar Z , Tawfik DS
Ref : Journal of Molecular Biology , 320 :559 , 2002
Abstract : Understanding enzymes quantitatively and mimicking their remarkable catalytic efficiency is a paramount challenge. Here, we applied esterolytic antibodies (the D-Abs) to dissect and quantify individual elements of enzymatic catalysis such as transition state (TS) stabilization, nucleophilic reactivity and conformational changes. Kinetic and mutagenic analysis of the D-Abs were combined with existing structural evidence to show that catalysis by the D-Abs is driven primarily by stabilization of the tetrahedral oxyanionic intermediate of ester hydrolysis formed by the nucleophilic attack of an exogenous (solution) hydroxide anion. The side-chain of TyrH100d is shown to be the main H-bond donor of the D-Abs oxyanion hole. The pH-rate and pH-binding profiles indicate that the strength of this H-bond increases dramatically as the neutral substrate develops into the oxyanionic TS, resulting in TS stabilization of 5-7 kcal/mol, which is comparable to oxyanionic TS stabilization in serine hydrolases. We show that the rate of the exogenous (intermolecular) nucleophilic attack can be enhanced by 2000-fold by replacing the hydroxide nucleophile with peroxide, an alpha-nucleophile that is much more reactive than hydroxide. In the presence of peroxide, the rate saturates (k(cat)(max)) at 6 s(-1). This rate-ceiling appears to be dictated by the rate of the induced-fit conformational rearrangement leading to the active antibody-TS complex. The selective usage of negatively charged exogenous nucleophiles by the D-Abs led to the identification of a positively charged channel. Imprinted by the negatively-charged TS-analogue against which these antibodies were elicited, this channel presumably directs the nucleophile to the antibody-bound substrate. Our findings are discussed in comparison with serine esterases and, in particular, with cocaine esterase (cocE), which possesses a tyrosine based oxyanion hole.
ESTHER : Lindner_2002_J.Mol.Biol_320_559
PubMedSearch : Lindner_2002_J.Mol.Biol_320_559
PubMedID: 12096909

Title : Man-made cell-like compartments for molecular evolution - Tawfik_1998_Nat.Biotechnol_16_652
Author(s) : Tawfik DS , Griffiths AD
Ref : Nat Biotechnol , 16 :652 , 1998
Abstract : Cellular compartmentalization is vital for the evolution of all living organisms. Cells keep together the genes, the RNAs and proteins that they encode, and the products of their activities, thus linking genotype to phenotype. We have reproduced this linkage in the test tube by transcribing and translating single genes in the aqueous compartments of water-in-oil emulsions. These compartments, with volumes close to those of bacteria, can be recruited to select genes encoding catalysts. A protein or RNA with a desired catalytic activity converts a substrate attached to the gene that encodes it to product. In other compartments, substrates attached to genes that do not encode catalysts remain unmodified. Subsequently, genes encoding catalysts are selectively enriched by virtue of their linkage to the product. We demonstrate the linkage of genotype to phenotype in man-made compartments using a model system. A selection for target-specific DNA methylation was based on the resistance of the product (methylated DNA) to restriction digestion. Genes encoding HaeIII methyltransferase were selected from a 10(7)-fold excess of genes encoding another enzyme.
ESTHER : Tawfik_1998_Nat.Biotechnol_16_652
PubMedSearch : Tawfik_1998_Nat.Biotechnol_16_652
PubMedID: 9661199