Newcomb RD

References (17)

Title : Flexibility of the petunia strigolactone receptor DAD2 promotes its interaction with signaling partners - Lee_2020_J.Biol.Chem_295_4181
Author(s) : Lee HW , Sharma P , Janssen BJ , Drummond RSM , Luo Z , Hamiaux C , Collier T , Allison JR , Newcomb RD , Snowden KC
Ref : Journal of Biological Chemistry , 295 :4181 , 2020
Abstract : Strigolactones (SLs) are terpenoid-derived plant hormones that regulate various developmental processes, particularly shoot branching, root development, and leaf senescence. The SL receptor has an unusual mode of action. Upon binding SL, it hydrolyses the hormone, and then covalently binds one of the hydrolytic products. These initial events enable the SL receptor DAD2 (in petunia) to interact with the F-box protein PhMAX2A of the Skp-Cullin-F-box (SCF) complex and/or a repressor of SL signaling, PhD53A. However, it remains unclear how binding and hydrolysis structurally alters the SL receptor to enable its engagement with signaling partners. Here, we used mutagenesis to alter DAD2 and affect SL hydrolysis or DAD2's ability to interact with its signaling partners. We identified three DAD2 variants whose hydrolytic activity had been separated from the receptor's interactions with PhMAX2A or PhD53A. Two variants, DAD2(N242I) and DAD2(F135A), having substitutions in the core alpha/beta hydrolase fold domain and the hairpin, exhibited hormone-independent interactions with PhMAX2A and PhD53A respectively. Conversely, the DAD2(D166A) variant could not interact with PhMAX2A in the presence of SL, but its interaction with PhD53A remained unaffected. Structural analyses of DAD2N242I and DAD2D166A revealed only small differences compared with the structure of the wild-type receptor. Results of molecular dynamics simulations of the DAD2(N242I) structure suggested that increased flexibility is a likely cause for its SL-independent interaction with PhMAX2A. Our results suggest that PhMAX2A and PhD53A have distinct binding sites on the SL receptor and that its flexibility is a major determinant of its interactions with these two downstream regulators.
ESTHER : Lee_2020_J.Biol.Chem_295_4181
PubMedSearch : Lee_2020_J.Biol.Chem_295_4181
PubMedID: 32071083
Gene_locus related to this paper: pethy-dad2

Title : The Peripheral Olfactory Repertoire of the Lightbrown Apple Moth, Epiphyas postvittana - Corcoran_2015_PLoS.One_10_e0128596
Author(s) : Corcoran JA , Jordan MD , Thrimawithana AH , Crowhurst RN , Newcomb RD
Ref : PLoS ONE , 10 :e0128596 , 2015
Abstract : The lightbrown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana is an increasingly global pest of horticultural crops. Like other moths, E. postvittana relies on olfactory cues to locate mates and oviposition sites. To detect these cues, moths have evolved families of genes encoding elements of the peripheral olfactory reception system, including odor carriers, receptors and degrading enzymes. Here we undertake a transcriptomic approach to identify members of these families expressed in the adult antennae of E. postvittana, describing open reading frames encoding 34 odorant binding proteins, 13 chemosensory proteins, 70 odorant receptors, 19 ionotropic receptors, nine gustatory receptors, two sensory neuron membrane proteins, 27 carboxylesterases, 20 glutathione-S-transferases, 49 cytochrome p450s and 18 takeout proteins. For the odorant receptors, quantitative RT-PCR corroborated RNAseq count data on steady state transcript levels. Of the eight odorant receptors that group phylogenetically with pheromone receptors from other moths, two displayed significant male-biased expression patterns, one displayed significant female-biased expression pattern and five were expressed equally in the antennae of both sexes. In addition, we found two male-biased odorant receptors that did not group with previously described pheromone receptors. This suite of olfaction-related genes provides a substantial resource for the functional characterization of this signal transduction system and the development of odor-mediated control strategies for horticultural pests.
ESTHER : Corcoran_2015_PLoS.One_10_e0128596
PubMedSearch : Corcoran_2015_PLoS.One_10_e0128596
PubMedID: 26017144
Gene_locus related to this paper: epipo-a0a0k8tul2 , epipo-a0a0k8tul7 , epipo-a0a0k8tum4 , epipo-a0a0k8tun3 , epipo-CXE24 , epipo-a0a0k8tun6 , epipo-a0a0k8tun9 , epipo-a0a0k8tup4 , epipo-a0a0k8tup8 , epipo-a0a0k8tv77 , epipo-a0a0k8tv81 , epipo-a0a0k8tv87 , epipo-a0a0k8tv95 , epipo-a0a0k8tv97 , epipo-a0a0k8tva5 , epipo-a0a0k8tvb0 , epipo-a0a0k8tvb4

Title : DAD2 Is an alpha\/beta Hydrolase Likely to Be Involved in the Perception of the Plant Branching Hormone, Strigolactone - Hamiaux_2012_Curr.Biol_22_2032
Author(s) : Hamiaux C , Drummond RS , Janssen BJ , Ledger SE , Cooney JM , Newcomb RD , Snowden KC
Ref : Current Biology , 22 :2032 , 2012
Abstract : Strigolactones are a recently discovered class of plant hormone involved in branching, leaf senescence, root development, and plant-microbe interactions [1-6]. They are carotenoid-derived lactones, synthesized in the roots and transported acropetally to modulate axillary bud outgrowth (i.e., branching) [1, 2]. However, a receptor for strigolactones has not been identified. We have identified the DAD2 gene from petunia, an ortholog of the rice and Arabidopsis D14 genes, and present evidence for its roles in strigolactone perception and signaling. DAD2 acts in the strigolactone pathway, and the dad2 mutant is insensitive to the strigolactone analog GR24. The crystal structure of DAD2 reveals an alpha/beta hydrolase fold containing a canonical catalytic triad with a large internal cavity capable of accommodating strigolactones. In the presence of GR24 DAD2 interacts with PhMAX2A, a central component of strigolactone signaling, in a GR24 concentration-dependent manner. DAD2 can hydrolyze GR24, with mutants of the catalytic triad abolishing both this activity and the ability of DAD2 to interact with PhMAX2A. The hydrolysis products can neither stimulate the protein-protein interaction nor modulate branching. These observations suggest that DAD2 acts to bind the mobile strigolactone signal and then interacts with PhMAX2A during catalysis to initiate an SCF-mediated signal transduction pathway.
ESTHER : Hamiaux_2012_Curr.Biol_22_2032
PubMedSearch : Hamiaux_2012_Curr.Biol_22_2032
PubMedID: 22959345
Gene_locus related to this paper: pethy-dad2

Title : Biochemical characterisation of MdCXE1, a carboxylesterase from apple that is expressed during fruit ripening - Souleyre_2011_Phytochemistry_72_564
Author(s) : Souleyre EJ , Marshall SD , Oakeshott JG , Russell RJ , Plummer KM , Newcomb RD
Ref : Phytochemistry , 72 :564 , 2011
Abstract : Esters are an important component of apple (Malusxdomestica) flavour. Their biosynthesis increases in response to the ripening hormone ethylene, but their metabolism by carboxylesterases (CXEs) is poorly understood. We have identified 16 members of the CXE multigene family from the commercial apple cultivar, 'Royal Gala', that contain all the conserved features associated with CXE members of the alpha/beta hydrolase fold superfamily. The expression of two genes, MdCXE1 and MdCXE16 was characterised in an apple fruit development series and in a transgenic line of 'Royal Gala' (AO3) that is unable to synthesise ethylene in fruit. In wild-type MdCXE1 is expressed at low levels during early stages of fruit development, rising to a peak of expression in apple fruit at harvest maturity. It is not significantly up-regulated by ethylene in the skin of AO3 fruit. MdCXE16 is expressed constitutively in wild-type throughout fruit development, and is up-regulated by ethylene in skin of AO3 fruit. Semi-purified recombinant MdCXE1 was able to hydrolyse a range of 4-methyl umbelliferyl ester substrates that included those containing acyl moieties that are found in esters produced by apple fruit. Kinetic characterisation of MdCXE1 revealed that the enzyme could be inhibited by organophosphates and that its ability to hydrolyse esters showed increasing affinity (K(m)) but decreasing turnover (k(cat)) as substrate acyl carbon length increases from C2 to C16. Our results suggest that MdCXE1 may have an impact on apple flavour through its ability to hydrolyse relevant flavour esters in ripe apple fruit.
ESTHER : Souleyre_2011_Phytochemistry_72_564
PubMedSearch : Souleyre_2011_Phytochemistry_72_564
PubMedID: 21315388
Gene_locus related to this paper: 9rosa-CXE1 , 9rosa-CXE2 , 9rosa-CXE3 , 9rosa-CXE4 , 9rosa-CXE5 , 9rosa-CXE6 , 9rosa-CXE7 , 9rosa-CXE8 , 9rosa-CXE9 , 9rosa-CXE10 , 9rosa-CXE11 , 9rosa-CXE12

Title : High-resolution crystal structure of plant carboxylesterase AeCXE1, from Actinidia eriantha, and its complex with a high-affinity inhibitor paraoxon - Ileperuma_2007_Biochemistry_46_1851
Author(s) : Ileperuma NR , Marshall SD , Squire CJ , Baker HM , Oakeshott JG , Russell RJ , Plummer KM , Newcomb RD , Baker EN
Ref : Biochemistry , 46 :1851 , 2007
Abstract : Carboxylesterases (CXEs) are widely distributed in plants, where they have been implicated in roles that include plant defense, plant development, and secondary metabolism. We have cloned, overexpressed, purified, and crystallized a carboxylesterase from the kiwifruit species Actinidia eriantha (AeCXE1). The structure of AeCXE1 was determined by X-ray crystallography at 1.4 A resolution. The crystal structure revealed that AeCXE1 is a member of the alpha/beta-hydrolase fold superfamily, most closely related structurally to the hormone-sensitive lipase subgroup. The active site of the enzyme, located in an 11 A deep hydrophobic gorge, contains the conserved catalytic triad residues Ser169, Asp276, and His306. Kinetic analysis using artificial ester substrates showed that the enzyme can hydrolyze a range of carboxylester substrates with acyl groups ranging from C2 to C16, with a preference for butyryl moieties. This preference was supported by the discovery of a three-carbon acyl adduct bound to the active site Ser169 in the native structure. AeCXE1 was also found to be inhibited by organophosphates, with paraoxon (IC50 = 1.1 muM) a more potent inhibitor than dimethylchlorophosphate (DMCP; IC50 = 9.2 muM). The structure of AeCXE1 with paraoxon bound was determined at 2.3 A resolution and revealed that the inhibitor binds covalently to the catalytic serine residue, with virtually no change in the structure of the enzyme. The structural information for AeCXE1 provides a basis for addressing the wider functional roles of carboxylesterases in plants.
ESTHER : Ileperuma_2007_Biochemistry_46_1851
PubMedSearch : Ileperuma_2007_Biochemistry_46_1851
PubMedID: 17256879
Gene_locus related to this paper: actde-CXE1

Title : Amplification of DNA from preserved specimens shows blowflies were preadapted for the rapid evolution of insecticide resistance - Hartley_2006_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_103_8757
Author(s) : Hartley CJ , Newcomb RD , Russell RJ , Yong CG , Stevens JR , Yeates DK , La Salle J , Oakeshott JG
Ref : Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A , 103 :8757 , 2006
Abstract : Mutations of esterase 3 confer two forms of organophosphate resistance on contemporary Australasian Lucilia cuprina. One form, called diazinon resistance, is slightly more effective against commonly used insecticides and is now more prevalent than the other form, called malathion resistance. We report here that the single amino acid replacement associated with diazinon resistance and two replacements associated with malathion resistance also occur in esterase 3 in the sibling species Lucilia sericata, suggesting convergent evolution around a finite set of resistance options. We also find parallels between the species in the geographic distributions of the polymorphisms: In both cases, the diazinon-resistance change is absent or rare outside Australasia where insecticide pressure is lower, whereas the changes associated with malathion resistance are widespread. Furthermore, PCR analysis of pinned specimens of Australasian L. cuprina collected before the release of organophosphate insecticides reveals no cases of the diazinon-resistance change but several cases of those associated with malathion resistance. Thus, the early outbreak of resistance in this species can be explained by the preexistence of mutant alleles encoding malathion resistance. The pinned specimen analysis also shows much higher genetic diversity at the locus before organophosphate use, suggesting that the subsequent sweep of diazinon resistance in Australasia has compromised the scope for the locus to respond further to the ongoing challenge of the insecticides.
ESTHER : Hartley_2006_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_103_8757
PubMedSearch : Hartley_2006_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_103_8757
PubMedID: 16723400

Title : RNA interference in the light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) induced by double-stranded RNA feeding - Turner_2006_Insect.Mol.Biol_15_383
Author(s) : Turner CT , Davy MW , MacDiarmid RM , Plummer KM , Birch NP , Newcomb RD
Ref : Insect Molecular Biology , 15 :383 , 2006
Abstract : RNA interference (RNAi) or gene silencing is typically induced in insects by the injection of double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs), short interfering RNAs, or through the use of hairpin constructs in transgenic insects. Here we demonstrate in the horticultural pest, Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), that RNAi can be triggered by oral delivery of dsRNA to larvae. Transcript levels of a larval gut carboxylesterase gene (EposCXE1) were reduced to less than half that of controls within 2 days of being fed EposCXE1 dsRNA. Transcript levels of the pheromone binding protein gene (EposPBP1) were reduced in adult antennae by feeding larvae EposPBP1 dsRNA. Knockdown of EposPBP1 transcripts was observed for the first 2 days after adult eclosion but recovered to wild-type levels at 4 days posteclosion. The potential mechanisms involved in the initiation, movement and amplification of the silencing signal are discussed.
ESTHER : Turner_2006_Insect.Mol.Biol_15_383
PubMedSearch : Turner_2006_Insect.Mol.Biol_15_383
PubMedID: 16756557

Title : Multiple mutations and gene duplications conferring organophosphorus insecticide resistance have been selected at the Rop-1 locus of the sheep blowfly, Lucilia cuprina - Newcomb_2005_J.Mol.Evol_60_207
Author(s) : Newcomb RD , Gleeson DM , Yong CG , Russell RJ , Oakeshott JG
Ref : Journal of Molecular Evolution , 60 :207 , 2005
Abstract : Sequences of the esterase gene alpha E7 were compared across 41 isogenic (IV) strains of the sheep blowfly, Lucilia cuprina, and one strain of the sibling species, L. sericata. The 1.2-kb region sequenced includes sites of two insecticide resistance mutations. Gly137Asp confers resistance to organophosphorus insecticides (OPs), particularly preferring diethyl OPs such as diazinon, while Trp251Leu prefers dimethyl OPs, and particularly malathion, with the additional presence of carboxylester moieties. We found that there are just eight haplotypes among the 41 chromosomes studied: two Gly137Asp containing haplotypes, two Trp251Leu containing haplotypes, and four susceptible haplotypes, including the L. sericata sequence. While phylogenetic analysis of these haplotypes suggests that the Asp137 and Leu251 mutations each arose at least twice, evidence for recombination was detected across the region, therefore single origins for these resistance mutations cannot be ruled out. Levels of linkage disequilibrium in the data are high and significant hitchhiking is indicated by Fay and Wu' s H test but not the Tajima test. A test of haplotype diversity indicates a paucity of diversity compared with neutral expectations. Both these results are consistent with a very recent selective sweep at the Lc alphaE7 locus. Interestingly, gene duplications of three different combinations of OP resistant haplotypes were identified in seven of the isogenic (IV) strains. All three types of duplication involve an Asp137 and a Trp251 haplotype. To examine whether more haplotypes existed before the hypothesised selective sweep, fragments of alpha E7 surrounding the resistance mutations were amplified from pinned material dating back to before OPs were used. Four new sequence haplotypes, not sampled in the survey of extant haplotypes, were obtained that are all associated with susceptibility. This is suggestive of a higher historical level of susceptible allelic diversity at this locus.
ESTHER : Newcomb_2005_J.Mol.Evol_60_207
PubMedSearch : Newcomb_2005_J.Mol.Evol_60_207
PubMedID: 15785849
Gene_locus related to this paper: luccu-E3aest7

Title : The carboxylesterase gene family from Arabidopsis thaliana - Marshall_2003_J.Mol.Evol_57_487
Author(s) : Marshall SD , Putterill JJ , Plummer KM , Newcomb RD
Ref : Journal of Molecular Evolution , 57 :487 , 2003
Abstract : Carboxylesterases hydrolyze esters of short-chain fatty acids and have roles in animals ranging from signal transduction to xenobiotic detoxification. In plants, however, little is known of their roles. We have systematically mined the genome from the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana for carboxylesterase genes and studied their distribution in the genome and expression profile across a range of tissues. Twenty carboxylesterase genes (AtCXE) were identified. The AtCXE family shares conserved sequence motifs and secondary structure characteristics with carboxylesterases and other members of the larger alpha/beta hydrolase fold superfamily of enzymes. Phylogenetic analysis of the AtCXE genes together with other plant carboxylesterases distinguishes seven distinct clades, with an Arabidopsis thaliana gene represented in six of the seven clades. The AtCXE genes are widely distributed across the genome (present in four of five chromosomes), with the exception of three clusters of tandemly duplicated genes. Of the interchromosomal duplication events, two have been mediated through newly identified partial chromosomal duplication events that also include other genes surrounding the AtCXE loci. Eighteen of the 20 AtCXE genes are expressed over a broad range of tissues, while the remaining 2 (unrelated) genes are expressed only in the flowers and siliques. Finally, hypotheses for the functional roles of the AtCXE family members are presented based on the phylogenetic relationships with other plant carboxylesterases of known function, their expression profile, and knowledge of likely esterase substrates found in plants.
ESTHER : Marshall_2003_J.Mol.Evol_57_487
PubMedSearch : Marshall_2003_J.Mol.Evol_57_487
PubMedID: 14738307
Gene_locus related to this paper: 9rosa-CXE1 , 9rosa-CXE2 , 9rosa-CXE3 , 9rosa-CXE4 , 9rosa-CXE5 , 9rosa-CXE6 , 9rosa-CXE7 , 9rosa-CXE8 , 9rosa-CXE9 , 9rosa-CXE10 , 9rosa-CXE11 , 9rosa-CXE12 , actde-CXE1 , actde-CXE3 , actde-CXE4 , actde-CXE5 , actde-CXE6 , actde-CXE7 , actde-CXE8 , actde-CXE9 , actde-CXE10 , arath-At2g45610 , arath-AT2G03550 , arath-AT5G27320 , arath-AT5G62180 , arath-CXE12 , arath-CXE15 , arath-F1N13.220 , arath-F14J22.11 , arath-F14J22.12 , arath-F16N3.25 , arath-CXE8 , arath-At5g14310 , arath-CXE6 , arath-gid1 , arath-GID1B , arath-CXE11 , arath-CXE18 , arath-Q8LF34 , arath-CXE13 , arath-CXE1 , capan-PepEST , lyces-Q9ZWF3 , nicta-hsr203j , orysa-Q7XTC5 , orysa-Q852M6 , orysa-Q8GSE8 , orysa-Q8H5P9 , orysa-Q8H5P5 , orysa-Q8H5P4 , orysa-Q7F1Y5 , orysa-Q8GS14 , orysa-Q8GSJ3 , orysa-Q8GRZ3 , orysa-Q8H3K6 , orysa-Q8H3K4 , orysa-Q8RZ79 , orysa-Q93VD4 , orysa-Q94JD7 , pinra-PrMC3 , pissa-Q9SSY8 , vitvi-BIG8.1

Title : The acetylcholinesterase gene and organophosphorus resistance in the Australian sheep blowfly, Lucilia cuprina - Chen_2001_Insect.Biochem.Mol.Biol_31_805
Author(s) : Chen Z , Newcomb RD , Forbes E , McKenzie J , Batterham P
Ref : Insect Biochemistry & Molecular Biology , 31 :805 , 2001
Abstract : Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), encoded by the Ace gene, is the primary target of organophosphorous (OP) and carbamate insecticides. Ace mutations have been identified in OP resistants strains of Drosophila melanogaster. However, in the Australian sheep blowfly, Lucilia cuprina, resistance in field and laboratory generated strains is determined by point mutations in the Rop-1 gene, which encodes a carboxylesterase, E3. To investigate the apparent bias for the Rop-1/E3 mechanism in the evolution of OP resistance in L. cuprina, we have cloned the Ace gene from this species and characterized its product. Southern hybridization indicates the existence of a single Ace gene in L. cuprina. The amino acid sequence of L. cuprina AChE shares 85.3% identity with D. melanogaster and 92.4% with Musca domestica AChE. Five point mutations in Ace associated with reduced sensitivity to OP insecticides have been previously detected in resistant strains of D. melanogaster. These residues are identical in susceptible strains of D. melanogaster and L. cuprina, although different codons are used. Each of the amino acid substitutions that confer OP resistance in D. melanogaster could also occur in L. cuprina by a single non-synonymous substitution. These data suggest that the resistance mechanism used in L. cuprina is determined by factors other than codon bias. The same point mutations, singly and in combination, were introduced into the Ace gene of L. cuprina by site-directed mutagenesis and the resulting AChE enzymes expressed using a baculovirus system to characterise their kinetic properties and interactions with OP insecticides. The K(m) of wild type AChE for acetylthiocholine (ASCh) is 23.13 microM and the point mutations change the affinity to the substrate. The turnover number of Lucilia AChE for ASCh was estimated to be 1.27x10(3) min(-1), similar to Drosophila or housefly AChE. The single amino acid replacements reduce the affinities of the AChE for OPs and give up to 8.7-fold OP insensitivity, while combined mutations give up to 35-fold insensitivity. However, other published studies indicate these same mutations yield higher levels of OP insensitivity in D. melanogaster and A. aegypti. The inhibition data indicate that the wild type form of AChE of L. cuprina is 12.4-fold less sensitive to OP inhibition than the susceptible form of E3, suggesting that the carboxylesterases may have a role in the protection of AChE via a sequestration mechanism. This provides a possible explanation for the bias towards the evolution of resistance via the Rop-1/E3 mechanism in L. cuprina.
ESTHER : Chen_2001_Insect.Biochem.Mol.Biol_31_805
PubMedSearch : Chen_2001_Insect.Biochem.Mol.Biol_31_805
PubMedID: 11378416
Gene_locus related to this paper: luccu-ACHE

Title : Two different amino acid substitutions in the ali-esterase, E3, confer alternative types of organophosphorus insecticide resistance in the sheep blowfly, Lucilia cuprina - Campbell_1998_Insect.Biochem.Mol.Biol_28_139
Author(s) : Campbell PM , Newcomb RD , Russell RJ , Oakeshott JG
Ref : Insect Biochemistry & Molecular Biology , 28 :139 , 1998
Abstract : Two types of organophosphorus (OP) insecticide resistance are associated with reduced 'ali-esterase' (E3 isozyme) activity in Lucilia cuprina. The 'diazinon' resistance type shows generally greater resistance for diethyl than dimethyl OPs but no resistance to malathion. The 'malathion' resistance type shows generally greater resistance for dimethyl than diethyl OPs, low level diazinon resistance, but exceptionally high malathion resistance (600 x susceptible), the last being attributed to hydrolysis of the carboxylester groups which are peculiar to malathion (malathion carboxylesterase, MCE). E3 variants from diazinon resistant strains have previously been shown to have a Gly(137) --> Asp substitution that structural modelling predicts is only about 4.6 Angstrom from the gamma oxygen of the catalytic serine residue. Here we show that E3 variants from malathion resistant strains have a Trp(251) --> Leu substitution predicted to be about 4.3 Angstrom from that serine. We have expressed alleles of the gene encoding both resistance variants of E3 and an OP susceptible variant in a baculovirus system and compared the kinetics of their products. We find that both resistance substitutions reduce ali-esterase activity and enhance OP hydrolase activity. Furthermore the Gly(137) --, Asp substitution enhances OP hydrolase activity for a diethyl OP substrate (chlorfenvinphos) more than does the Trp(251) --> Leu substitution, which is consistent with the OP cross-resistance patterns. Trp(251) --> Leu also reduces the K-m for carboxylester hydrolysis of malathion about 10-fold to 21 mu M, which is consistent with increased RICE activity in malathion resistant strains. We then present a model in which the malathion carboxylesterase activity of the E3-Leu(251) enzyme is enhanced in vivo by its OP hydrolase activity. The latter activity enables it to reactivate after phosphorylation by malaoxon, the activated form of malathion, accounting for the exceptionally high level of resistance to malathion. We conclude that the two types of resistance can be explained by kinetic changes caused by the two allelic substitutions in the E3 enzyme
ESTHER : Campbell_1998_Insect.Biochem.Mol.Biol_28_139
PubMedSearch : Campbell_1998_Insect.Biochem.Mol.Biol_28_139
Gene_locus related to this paper: luccu-E3aest7

Title : Molecular Basis of Esterase-Mediated OP Resistance in Two Higher Diptera -
Author(s) : Oakeshott JG , Claudianos C , Campbell PM , Robin GC , Newcomb RD , Odgers WA , Harcourt RL , Russell RJ
Ref : In: Structure and Function of Cholinesterases and Related Proteins - Proceedings of Sixth International Meeting on Cholinesterases , (Doctor, B.P., Taylor, P., Quinn, D.M., Rotundo, R.L., Gentry, M.K. Eds) Plenum Publishing Corp. :497 , 1998

Title : The Acetylcholinesterase Gene and Organophosphorous Resistance in the Australian Sheep Blowfly, Lucilia Cuprina -
Author(s) : Chen Z , Forbes E , Newcomb RD , McKenzie JA , Batterham P
Ref : In: Structure and Function of Cholinesterases and Related Proteins - Proceedings of Sixth International Meeting on Cholinesterases , (Doctor, B.P., Taylor, P., Quinn, D.M., Rotundo, R.L., Gentry, M.K. Eds) Plenum Publishing Corp. :550 , 1998

Title : A single amino acid substitution converts a carboxylesterase to an organophosphorus hydrolase and confers insecticide resistance on a blowfly - Newcomb_1997_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_94_7464
Author(s) : Newcomb RD , Campbell PM , Ollis DL , Cheah E , Russell RJ , Oakeshott JG
Ref : Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , 94 :7464 , 1997
Abstract : Resistance to organophosphorus (OP) insecticides is associated with decreased carboxylesterase activity in several insect species. It has been proposed that the resistance may be the result of a mutation in a carboxylesterase that simultaneously reduces its carboxylesterase activity and confers an OP hydrolase activity (the "mutant ali-esterase hypothesis"). In the sheep blowfly, Lucilia cuprina, the association is due to a change in a specific esterase isozyme, E3, which, in resistant flies, has a null phenotype on gels stained using standard carboxylesterase substrates. Here we show that an OP-resistant allele of the gene that encodes E3 differs at five amino acid replacement sites from a previously described OP-susceptible allele. Knowledge of the structure of a related enzyme (acetylcholinesterase) suggests that one of these substitutions (Gly137 --> Asp) lies within the active site of the enzyme. The occurrence of this substitution is completely correlated with resistance across 15 isogenic strains. In vitro expression of two natural and two synthetic chimeric alleles shows that the Asp137 substitution alone is responsible for both the loss of E3's carboxylesterase activity and the acquisition of a novel OP hydrolase activity. Modeling of Asp137 in the homologous position in acetylcholinesterase suggests that Asp137 may act as a base to orientate a water molecule in the appropriate position for hydrolysis of the phosphorylated enzyme intermediate.
ESTHER : Newcomb_1997_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_94_7464
PubMedSearch : Newcomb_1997_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_94_7464
PubMedID: 9207114
Gene_locus related to this paper: luccu-ACHE , luccu-E3aest7

Title : cDNA cloning, baculovirus-expression and kinetic properties of the esterase, E3, involved in organophosphorus resistance in Lucilia cuprina - Newcomb_1997_Insect.Biochem.Mol.Biol_27_15
Author(s) : Newcomb RD , Campbell PM , Russell RJ , Oakeshott JG
Ref : Insect Biochemistry & Molecular Biology , 27 :15 , 1997
Abstract : Resistance to organophosphorus insecticides (OPs) in the sheep blowfly, Lucilia cuprina, is associated with a non-staining phenotype of the carboxylesterase isozyme, E3 (E.C. Here, we show that a member of alpha-esterase multigene family, Lc alpha E7, encodes E3. An Lc alpha E7 cDNA has been isolated from an OP-susceptible strain and expressed in a baculovirus. The expressed product is the same as E3 in its electrophoretic mobility and preference for alpha-over beta-naphthyl acetate as substrate. Its preference (kcat/K(m)) for a range of carboxylester substrates is alpha-naphthyl butyrate > alpha-naphthyl propionate > alpha-naphthyl acetate > methylthiobutyrate > p-nitrophenyl acetate. The enzyme is potently inhibited by OPs (ki [paraoxon] = 6.3 +/- 1.4 x 10(7)/M/min, ki [chlorfenvinphos] = 5.9 +/- 0.6 x 10(7)/M/min) and exhibits a high turnover of methylthiobutyrate (1009/s), consistent with its proposed homology to the ali-esterase that is thought to mutate to confer OP resistance in Musca domestica. E3 shares 64% amino acid identity with its Drosophila melanogaster homologue, Dm alpha E7, and is also closely related to other esterases involved in OP resistance such as the B1 esterase of Culex pipiens (38%) and E4 of Myzus persicae (30%).
ESTHER : Newcomb_1997_Insect.Biochem.Mol.Biol_27_15
PubMedSearch : Newcomb_1997_Insect.Biochem.Mol.Biol_27_15
PubMedID: 9061925

Title : Isolation of alpha cluster esterase genes associated with organophosphate resistance in Lucilia cuprina - Newcomb_1996_Insect.Mol.Biol_5_211
Author(s) : Newcomb RD , East PD , Russell RJ , Oakeshott JG
Ref : Insect Molecular Biology , 5 :211 , 1996
Abstract : PCR primers designed from the alpha-esterase gene cluster of Drosophila melanogaster have been used to isolate fragments from eight esterase genes in the Australian sheep blowfly, Lucilia cuprina. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that three are homologues of the alpha E7, alpha E8 and alpha E9 genes of the alpha-esterase cluster of D. melanogaster. A further three are also probably alpha-esterases, whereas the remaining two more closely resemble beta-esterases. Transcripts for five of the alpha-esterase genes were detected by PCR in adult midgut, consistent with a role for these enzymes in digestion and/or detoxification. Based on the tissue distribution of these transcripts, Lc alpha E7 may possibly encode the esterase, E3, which is involved in organophosphate resistance.
ESTHER : Newcomb_1996_Insect.Mol.Biol_5_211
PubMedSearch : Newcomb_1996_Insect.Mol.Biol_5_211
PubMedID: 8799740
Gene_locus related to this paper: luccu-E3aest7

Title : Molecular cloning of an alpha-esterase gene cluster on chromosome 3r of Drosophila melanogaster - Russell_1996_Insect.Biochem.Mol.Biol_26_235
Author(s) : Russell RJ , Robin GC , Kostakos P , Newcomb RD , Boyce TM , Medveczky KM , Oakeshott JG
Ref : Insect Biochemistry & Molecular Biology , 26 :235 , 1996
Abstract : All or part of the alpha-esterase gene cluster in Drosophila melanogaster has been isolated by screening a YAC clone that spans cytological region 84D3-10 with consensus carboxyl/cholinesterase oligonucleotides. The cluster encompasses 11 putative esterase genes within 65 kb of genomic DNA and is one of the largest clusters of related protein-coding genes yet reported in Drosophila. The cluster must include the gene encoding the major alpha-esterase isozyme, EST9, which has previously been mapped to 84D3-5. It probably also includes the genes encoding the EST23, MCE and ALI esterases that have previously been mapped to 84D3-E2. The latter three are homologs of genes involved in organophosphate insecticide resistance in the sheep blowfly, Lucilia cuprina and the housefly, Musca domestica. Sequencing of one of the putative esterase genes in the Drosophila cluster, alpha E1, shows that it would encode features characteristic of an active carboxyl/cholinesterase, including the so-called catalytic triad, the nucleophilic elbow and oxyanion hole. It also shows that the closest relative of alpha E1 amongst previously published esterase sequences is ESTB1, which confers organophosphate resistance in Culex mosquitoes. We argue that we have cloned the D. melanogaster version of a major cluster of esterase genes which have variously mutated to confer organophosphate resistance in diverse Diptera.
ESTHER : Russell_1996_Insect.Biochem.Mol.Biol_26_235
PubMedSearch : Russell_1996_Insect.Biochem.Mol.Biol_26_235
PubMedID: 8900595
Gene_locus related to this paper: drome-aes01