Polgar L

References (29)

Title : A self-compartmentalizing hexamer serine protease from Pyrococcus horikoshii: substrate selection achieved through multimerization - Menyhard_2013_J.Biol.Chem_288_17884
Author(s) : Menyhard DK , Kiss-Szeman A , Tichy-Racs E , Hornung B , Radi K , Szeltner Z , Domokos K , Szamosi I , Naray-Szabo G , Polgar L , Harmat V
Ref : Journal of Biological Chemistry , 288 :17884 , 2013
Abstract : Oligopeptidases impose a size limitation on their substrates, the mechanism of which has long been under debate. Here we present the structure of a hexameric serine protease, an oligopeptidase from Pyrococcus horikoshii (PhAAP), revealing a complex, self-compartmentalized inner space, where substrates may access the monomer active sites passing through a double-gated "check-in" system, first passing through a pore on the hexamer surface and then turning to enter through an even smaller opening at the monomers' domain interface. This substrate screening strategy is unique within the family. We found that among oligopeptidases, a residue of the catalytic apparatus is positioned near an amylogenic beta-edge, which needs to be protected to prevent aggregation, and we found that different oligopeptidases use different strategies to achieve such an end. We propose that self-assembly within the family results in characteristically different substrate selection mechanisms coupled to different multimerization states.
ESTHER : Menyhard_2013_J.Biol.Chem_288_17884
PubMedSearch : Menyhard_2013_J.Biol.Chem_288_17884
PubMedID: 23632025
Gene_locus related to this paper: pyrho-PH0594

Title : The loops facing the active site of prolyl oligopeptidase are crucial components in substrate gating and specificity - Szeltner_2012_Biochim.Biophys.Acta_1834_98
Author(s) : Szeltner Z , Juhasz T , Szamosi I , Rea D , Fulop V , Modos K , Juliano L , Polgar L
Ref : Biochimica & Biophysica Acta , 1834 :98 , 2012
Abstract : Prolyl oligopeptidase (POP) has emerged as a drug target for neurological diseases. A flexible loop structure comprising loop A (res. 189-209) and loop B (res. 577-608) at the domain interface is implicated in substrate entry to the active site. Here we determined kinetic and structural properties of POP with mutations in loop A, loop B, and in two additional flexible loops (the catalytic His loop, propeller Asp/Glu loop). POP lacking loop A proved to be an inefficient enzyme, as did POP with a mutation in loop B (T590C). Both variants displayed an altered substrate preference profile, with reduced ligand binding capacity. Conversely, the T202C mutation increased the flexibility of loop A, enhancing the catalytic efficiency beyond that of the native enzyme. The T590C mutation in loop B increased the preference for shorter peptides, indicating a role in substrate gating. Loop A and the His loop are disordered in the H680A mutant crystal structure, as seen in previous bacterial POP structures, implying coordinated structural dynamics of these loops. Unlike native POP, variants with a malfunctioning loop A were not inhibited by a 17-mer peptide that may bind non-productively to an exosite involving loop A. Biophysical studies suggest a predominantly closed resting state for POP with higher flexibility at the physiological temperature. The flexible loop A, loop B and His loop system at the active site is the main regulator of substrate gating and specificity and represents a new inhibitor target.
ESTHER : Szeltner_2012_Biochim.Biophys.Acta_1834_98
PubMedSearch : Szeltner_2012_Biochim.Biophys.Acta_1834_98
PubMedID: 22940581
Gene_locus related to this paper: pig-ppce

Title : Structure and catalysis of acylaminoacyl peptidase: closed and open subunits of a dimer oligopeptidase - Harmat_2011_J.Biol.Chem_286_1987
Author(s) : Harmat V , Domokos K , Menyhard DK , Pallo A , Szeltner Z , Szamosi I , Beke-Somfai T , Naray-Szabo G , Polgar L
Ref : Journal of Biological Chemistry , 286 :1987 , 2011
Abstract : Acylaminoacyl peptidase from Aeropyrum pernix is a homodimer that belongs to the prolyl oligopeptidase family. The monomer subunit is composed of one hydrolase and one propeller domain. Previous crystal structure determinations revealed that the propeller domain obstructed the access of substrate to the active site of both subunits. Here we investigated the structure and the kinetics of two mutant enzymes in which the aspartic acid of the catalytic triad was changed to alanine or asparagine. Using different substrates, we have determined the pH dependence of specificity rate constants, the rate-limiting step of catalysis, and the binding of substrates and inhibitors. The catalysis considerably depended both on the kind of mutation and on the nature of the substrate. The results were interpreted in terms of alterations in the position of the catalytic histidine side chain as demonstrated with crystal structure determination of the native and two mutant structures (D524N and D524A). Unexpectedly, in the homodimeric structures, only one subunit displayed the closed form of the enzyme. The other subunit exhibited an open gate to the catalytic site, thus revealing the structural basis that controls the oligopeptidase activity. The open form of the native enzyme displayed the catalytic triad in a distorted, inactive state. The mutations affected the closed, active form of the enzyme, disrupting its catalytic triad. We concluded that the two forms are at equilibrium and the substrates bind by the conformational selection mechanism.
ESTHER : Harmat_2011_J.Biol.Chem_286_1987
PubMedSearch : Harmat_2011_J.Biol.Chem_286_1987
PubMedID: 21084296
Gene_locus related to this paper: aerpe-APE1547

Title : GAP43 shows partial co-localisation but no strong physical interaction with prolyl oligopeptidase - Szeltner_2010_Biochim.Biophys.Acta_1804_2162
Author(s) : Szeltner Z , Morawski M , Juhasz T , Szamosi I , Liliom K , Csizmok V , Tolgyesi F , Polgar L
Ref : Biochimica & Biophysica Acta , 1804 :2162 , 2010
Abstract : It has recently been proposed that prolyl oligopeptidase (POP), the cytosolic serine peptidase with neurological implications, binds GAP43 (Growth-Associated Protein 43) and is implicated in neuronal growth cone formation, axon guidance and synaptic plasticity. We investigated the interaction between GAP43 and POP with various biophysical and biochemical methods in vitro and studied the co-localisation of the two proteins in differentiated HeLa cells. GAP43 and POP showed partial co-localisation in the cell body as well as in the potential growth cone structures. We could not detect significant binding between the recombinantly expressed POP and GAP43 using gel filtration, CD, ITC and BIACORE studies, pull-down experiments, glutaraldehyde cross-linking and limited proteolysis. However, glutaraldehyde cross-linking suggested a weak and transient interaction between the proteins. Both POP and GAP43 interacted with artificial lipids in our in vitro model system, but the presence of lipids did not evoke binding between them. In native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, GAP43 interacted with one of the three forms of a polyhistidine-tagged prolyl oligopeptidase. The interaction of the two proteins was also evident in ELISA and we have observed co-precipitation of the two proteins during co-incubation at higher concentrations. Our results indicate that there is no strong and direct interaction between POP and GAP43 at physiological conditions.
ESTHER : Szeltner_2010_Biochim.Biophys.Acta_1804_2162
PubMedSearch : Szeltner_2010_Biochim.Biophys.Acta_1804_2162
PubMedID: 20869470

Title : Characterization of a novel acylaminoacyl peptidase with hexameric structure and endopeptidase activity - Szeltner_2009_Biochim.Biophys.Acta_1794_1204
Author(s) : Szeltner Z , Kiss AL , Domokos K , Harmat V , Naray-Szabo G , Polgar L
Ref : Biochimica & Biophysica Acta , 1794 :1204 , 2009
Abstract : We have overexpressed in E. coli, purified and investigated the kinetic, thermodynamic and biophysical properties of an acylaminoacyl peptidase (AAP), from the thermophile Pyrococcus horikoshii (PhAAP). It was shown that the electrostatic environment of the catalytic site of PhAAP substantially influenced the pH dependence of the specificity rate constant (k(cat)/K(m)). However, 0.3 M NaCl, which depressed the electrostatic effects, simplified the complex pH-rate profile. The rate of formation of the enzyme-substrate complex (k(1)) was obtained from a non-linear Arrhenius plot. The lack of substrate leaving group effects indicated that k(1) is the rate determining step in the catalysis. DSC and CD measurements demonstrated that PhAAP displayed a stable structure in the catalytically competent pH range. It was shown that PhAAP is not just an acylaminoacyl peptidase, but it also has an endopeptidase activity and so differs from the mammalian AAPs. Size exclusion chromatography with PhAAP revealed a hexameric structure, which is unique among the known members of the prolyl oligopeptidase family that includes AAPs and suggests that its cellular function may be different from that of the dimeric AAP also found in the same organism.
ESTHER : Szeltner_2009_Biochim.Biophys.Acta_1794_1204
PubMedSearch : Szeltner_2009_Biochim.Biophys.Acta_1794_1204
PubMedID: 19303951
Gene_locus related to this paper: pyrho-PH0594

Title : Structural and kinetic contributions of the oxyanion binding site to the catalytic activity of acylaminoacyl peptidase - Kiss_2008_J.Struct.Biol_162_312
Author(s) : Kiss AL , Pallo A , Naray-Szabo G , Harmat V , Polgar L
Ref : J Struct Biol , 162 :312 , 2008
Abstract : It is widely accepted that the catalytic activity of serine proteases depends primarily on the Asp-His-Ser catalytic triad and other residues within the vicinity of this motif. Some of these residues form the oxyanion binding site that stabilizes the tetrahedral intermediate by hydrogen bonding to the negatively charged oxyanion. In acylaminoacyl peptidase from the thermophile Aeropyrum pernix, the main chain NH group of Gly369 is one of the hydrogen bond donors forming the oxyanion binding site. The side chain of His367, a conserved residue in acylaminoacyl peptidases across all species, fastens the loop holding Gly369. Determination of the crystal structure of the H367A mutant revealed that this loop, including Gly369, moves away considerably, accounting for the observed three orders of magnitude decrease in the specificity rate constant. For the wild-type enzyme ln(k(cat)/K(m)) vs. 1/T deviates from linearity indicating greater rate enhancement with increasing temperature for the dissociation of the enzyme-substrate complex compared with its decomposition to product. In contrast, the H367A variant provided a linear Arrhenius plot, and its reaction was associated with unfavourable entropy of activation. These results show that a residue relatively distant from the active site can significantly affect the catalytic activity of acylaminoacyl peptidase without changing the overall structure of the enzyme.
ESTHER : Kiss_2008_J.Struct.Biol_162_312
PubMedSearch : Kiss_2008_J.Struct.Biol_162_312
PubMedID: 18325786
Gene_locus related to this paper: aerpe-APE1547

Title : Structure, function and biological relevance of prolyl oligopeptidase - Szeltner_2008_Curr.Protein.Pept.Sci_9_96
Author(s) : Szeltner Z , Polgar L
Ref : Curr Protein Pept Sci , 9 :96 , 2008
Abstract : A group of serine peptidases, the prolyl oligopeptidase family, cannot hydrolyze proteins and peptides containing more than 30 residues. The crystal structure of prolyl oligopeptidase (POP) has shown that the enzyme is composed of a peptidase domain with an alpha/beta hydrolase fold and a seven-bladed beta-propeller domain. This domain covers the catalytic triad and excludes large, structured peptides from the active site. The mechanism of substrate selection has been reviewed, along with the binding mode of the substrate and the catalytic mechanism, which differ from that of the classical serine peptidases in several features. POP is essentially a cytosolic enzyme and has been shown to be involved in a number of biological processes, but its precise function is still unknown. Many reports addressed experimentally the possible role of POP in cognitive and psychiatric processes, its involvement in the inositol phosphate signaling pathway, and its ability to metabolize bioactive peptides. Inhibitors were designed to reveal the cellular functions of POP and to treat neurological disorders. Other studies concerned the cellular localization of POP, its presumed interaction with the cytoskeletal elements, and its involvement in peptide/protein transport/secretion processes. The possible role of POP in Alzheimer disease is an intriguing issue, which is still debated. Recently, recombinant bacterial POPs have been investigated as potential therapeutics for celiac sprue, an autoimmune disease of small intestine caused by the intake of gluten proteins.
ESTHER : Szeltner_2008_Curr.Protein.Pept.Sci_9_96
PubMedSearch : Szeltner_2008_Curr.Protein.Pept.Sci_9_96
PubMedID: 18336325

Title : Truncated prolyl oligopeptidase from Pyrococcus furiosus - Juhasz_2007_Proteins_69_633
Author(s) : Juhasz T , Szeltner Z , Polgar L
Ref : Proteins , 69 :633 , 2007
Abstract : The peptidase domain of prolyl oligopeptidase is covered by a propeller domain, which excludes large peptides and proteins from the catalytic triad. Previous studies indicated that some amino acids of the N-terminal region constitute a part of the substrate entrance to the active site. To investigate the catalytic role of the N-terminus, we removed the residues 1-32 from the enzyme and examined the kinetic, thermodynamic, and structural consequences of the deletion, using the thermophile Pyrococcus furiosus prolyl oligopeptidase. An about threefold decrease in the catalytic activity along with a 20 degrees C reduction in the temperature optimum was observed. The pH-rate profile, the rate-limiting step, and the activation parameters did not change significantly. However, a substantial decrease was observed in the stability of the protein as demonstrated by circular dichroism and differential scanning calorimetry measurements, and by denaturation with guanidinium chloride. It was concluded that the N-terminal segment did not facilitate the substrate binding, independent of the size of the substrate, but contributed principally to the protein stability required for the formation of the proper active site.
ESTHER : Juhasz_2007_Proteins_69_633
PubMedSearch : Juhasz_2007_Proteins_69_633
PubMedID: 17623862

Title : Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) peptides and cycloretro-inverso peptides derived from bradykinin as substrates and inhibitors of prolyl oligopeptidase - Gorrao_2007_Peptides_28_2146
Author(s) : Gorrao SS , Hemerly JP , Lima AR , Melo RL , Szeltner Z , Polgar L , Juliano MA , Juliano L
Ref : Peptides , 28 :2146 , 2007
Abstract : Prolyl oligopeptidase (POP, EC is a member of a family of serine peptidases with post-proline cleaving activity towards peptides. It is located in the cytosol in active form but without hydrolytic activity on proteins or peptides higher than 30 amino acids. Its function is not well defined, but it is involved in central nervous system disorders. Here, we studied the substrate specificity of wild type POP (POPwt) and its C255T variant lacking the non-catalytic Cys(255). This residue is located in the seven-bladed beta-propeller domain that regulates the activity of POP. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) peptides were used with sequences derived from bradykinin-containing region of human kininogen and flanked by Abz (ortho-aminobenzoic acid) and EDDnp [N-ethylenediamine-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)]. The peptide Abz-GFSPFRQ-EDDnp was taken as leader substrate for the synthesis of five series of peptides modified at the P(3), P(2), P'(1), P'(2) and P'(3) residues. The optimal amino acids in each position for POPwt resulted in the sequence RRPYIR that is very similar to the C-terminal sequence of neurotensin. The cyclic peptides c(G((n))FSPFR) (n=1-4) were hydrolyzed by POP; their cycloretro and cycloretro-inverso analogues were inhibitors in the micromolar range. The differences between POPwt and its C255T mutant in the hydrolysis of the series derived from Abz-GFSPFRQ-EDDnp were restricted to the non-prime site of the substrates. The kinetic data of hydrolysis and inhibition by the cyclic peptides are consistent with the structures of POP-substrate/inhibitor complexes and with the substrate specificity data obtained with linear FRET peptides. All together, these results give information about the POP-substrate/inhibitor interactions that further complete knowledge of this important oligopeptidase.
ESTHER : Gorrao_2007_Peptides_28_2146
PubMedSearch : Gorrao_2007_Peptides_28_2146
PubMedID: 17904692

Title : The acylaminoacyl peptidase from Aeropyrum pernix K1 thought to be an exopeptidase displays endopeptidase activity - Kiss_2007_J.Mol.Biol_368_509
Author(s) : Kiss AL , Hornung B , Radi K , Gengeliczki Z , Sztaray B , Juhasz T , Szeltner Z , Harmat V , Polgar L
Ref : Journal of Molecular Biology , 368 :509 , 2007
Abstract : Mammalian acylaminoacyl peptidase, a member of the prolyl oligopeptidase family of serine peptidases, is an exopeptidase, which removes acylated amino acid residues from the N terminus of oligopeptides. We have investigated the kinetics and inhibitor binding of the orthologous acylaminoacyl peptidase from the thermophile Aeropyrum pernix K1 (ApAAP). Complex pH-rate profiles were found with charged substrates, indicating a strong electrostatic effect in the surroundings of the active site. Unexpectedly, we have found that oligopeptides can be hydrolysed beyond the N-terminal peptide bond, demonstrating that ApAAP exhibits endopeptidase activity. It was thought that the enzyme is specific for hydrophobic amino acids, in particular phenylalanine, in accord with the non-polar S1 subsite of ApAAP. However, cleavage after an Ala residue contradicted this notion and demonstrated that P1 residues of different nature may bind to the S1 subsite depending on the remaining peptide residues. The crystal structures of the complexes formed between the enzyme and product-like inhibitors identified the oxyanion-binding site unambiguously and demonstrated that the phenylalanine ring of the P1 peptide residue assumes a position different from that established in a previous study, using 4-nitrophenylphosphate. We have found that the substrate-binding site extends beyond the S2 subsite, being capable of binding peptides with a longer N terminus. The S2 subsite displays a non-polar character, which is unique among the enzymes of this family. The S3 site was identified as a hydrophobic region that does not form hydrogen bonds with the inhibitor P3 residue. The enzyme-inhibitor complexes revealed that, upon ligand-binding, the S1 subsite undergoes significant conformational changes, demonstrating the plasticity of the specificity site.
ESTHER : Kiss_2007_J.Mol.Biol_368_509
PubMedSearch : Kiss_2007_J.Mol.Biol_368_509
PubMedID: 17350041
Gene_locus related to this paper: aerpe-APE1547

Title : Properties of the prolyl oligopeptidase homologue from Pyrococcus furiosus - Juhasz_2006_FEBS.Lett_580_3493
Author(s) : Juhasz T , Szeltner Z , Polgar L
Ref : FEBS Letters , 580 :3493 , 2006
Abstract : Prolyl oligopeptidase (POP), the paradigm of a serine peptidase family, hydrolyses peptides, but not proteins. The thermophilic POP from Pyrococcus furiosus (Pfu) appeared to be an exception, since it hydrolysed large proteins. Here we demonstrate that the Pfu POP does not display appreciable activity against azocasein. The autolysis observed earlier was an artefact. We have also found that the pH-rate profile is different from that of the mammalian enzyme and the low pK(a) extracted from the curve represents the ionization of the catalytic histidine. We conclude that some oligopeptidases may be true endopeptidases, cleaving at disordered segments of proteins, but with very low efficacy.
ESTHER : Juhasz_2006_FEBS.Lett_580_3493
PubMedSearch : Juhasz_2006_FEBS.Lett_580_3493
PubMedID: 16714022

Title : Unclosed beta-propellers display stable structures: implications for substrate access to the active site of prolyl oligopeptidase - Juhasz_2005_J.Mol.Biol_346_907
Author(s) : Juhasz T , Szeltner Z , Fulop V , Polgar L
Ref : Journal of Molecular Biology , 346 :907 , 2005
Abstract : Prolyl oligopeptidase is implicated in the metabolism of neuropeptides and is involved in amnesia and depression. It contains a peptidase and an unusual beta-propeller domain that excludes large peptides and proteins from the active site. The propeller consists of seven blades not closed by a "Velcro" between the first and last blades. The propeller domain was expressed as a stable, soluble protein, P(7). Its conformational identity with that of the native propeller was verified by circular dichroism and digestion with trypsin. Differential scanning calorimetry, kinetic denaturation with urea and equilibrium denaturation with guanidinium chloride have shown that the propeller is more stable than the parent prolyl oligopeptidase. The deletion of the seventh blade of P(7) led to a stable structure, a six-bladed propeller, P(6), which immediately dimerized, in contrast with the monomeric P(7). Addition of an 11 amino acid residue extension to the C terminus of P(6) also produced a dimer, whereas the P(6) labelled with a His-tag at the N terminus displayed a monomer structure. The stability of P(6) and its variants was lower than that of P(7). The denatured propellers refolded readily. This study shows that the unclosed P(7) is a stable structure, and suggests that an opening between the peptidase and the propeller domains is more important for the substrate entry than is the putative opening between the first and seventh blades. Our results suggest that the propellers are simple, versatile structures, which can be prepared artificially.
ESTHER : Juhasz_2005_J.Mol.Biol_346_907
PubMedSearch : Juhasz_2005_J.Mol.Biol_346_907
PubMedID: 15713471

Title : Flexibility of prolyl oligopeptidase: molecular dynamics and molecular framework analysis of the potential substrate pathways - Fuxreiter_2005_Proteins_60_504
Author(s) : Fuxreiter M , Magyar C , Juhasz T , Szeltner Z , Polgar L , Simon I
Ref : Proteins , 60 :504 , 2005
Abstract : The flexibility of prolyl oligopeptidase has been investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) and molecular framework approaches to delineate the route of the substrate to the active site. The selectivity of the enzyme is mediated by a seven-bladed beta-propeller that in the crystal structure does not indicate the possible passage for the substrate to the catalytic center. Its open topology however, could allow the blades to move apart and let the substrate into the large central cavity. Flexibility analysis of prolyl oligopeptidase structure using the FIRST (Floppy Inclusion and Rigid Substructure Topology) approach and the atomic fluctuations derived from MD simulations demonstrated the rigidity of the propeller domain, which does not permit the substrate to approach the active site through this domain. Instead, a smaller tunnel at the inter-domain region comprising the highly flexible N-terminal segment of the peptidase domain and a facing hydrophilic loop from the propeller (residues 192-205) was identified by cross-correlation analysis and essential dynamics as the only potential pathway for the substrate. The functional importance of the flexible loop has been also verified by kinetic analysis of the enzyme with a split loop. Catalytic effect of engineered disulfide bridges was rationalized by characterizing the concerted motions of the two domains.
ESTHER : Fuxreiter_2005_Proteins_60_504
PubMedSearch : Fuxreiter_2005_Proteins_60_504
PubMedID: 15971204

Title : Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of porcine acylaminoacyl peptidase - Wright_2005_Acta.Crystallogr.Sect.F.Struct.Biol.Cryst.Commun_61_942
Author(s) : Wright H , Kiss AL , Szeltner Z , Polgar L , Fulop V
Ref : Acta Crystallographica Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun , 61 :942 , 2005
Abstract : Acylaminoacyl peptidase (also known as acylamino-acid-releasing enzyme or acylpeptide hydrolase; EC is an unusual member of the prolyl oligopeptidase family catalysing the hydrolysis of an N-acylated peptide to an acylamino acid and a peptide with a free N-terminus. Acylaminoacyl peptidase purified from porcine liver has been crystallized in mother liquor containing 0.1 M Tris-HCl pH 7.0, 10%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 8000, 50 mM MgCl2 and 1%(w/v) CHAPS using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique. A full data set to 3.4 A resolution was collected at ESRF beamline ID14-4 and space group C222 was assigned, with unit-cell parameters a = 84.8, b = 421.1, c = 212.0 A and four molecules in the asymmetric unit.
ESTHER : Wright_2005_Acta.Crystallogr.Sect.F.Struct.Biol.Cryst.Commun_61_942
PubMedSearch : Wright_2005_Acta.Crystallogr.Sect.F.Struct.Biol.Cryst.Commun_61_942
PubMedID: 16511202
Gene_locus related to this paper: aerpe-APE1547

Title : The PREPL A protein, a new member of the prolyl oligopeptidase family, lacking catalytic activity - Szeltner_2005_Cell.Mol.Life.Sci_62_2376
Author(s) : Szeltner Z , Alshafee I , Juhasz T , Parvari R , Polgar L
Ref : Cell Mol Life Sciences , 62 :2376 , 2005
Abstract : The PREPL (previously called KIAA0436) gene encodes a putative serine peptidase from the prolyl oligopeptidase family. A chromosomal deletion involving the PREPL gene leads to a severe syndrome with multiple symptoms. Homology with oligopeptidase B suggested that the enzyme cleaves after an arginine or lysine residue. Several PREPL splice variants have been identified, and a 638-residue variant (PREPL A) was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Its secondary structure was similar to that of oligopeptidase B, but differential-scanning calorimetry indicated a higher conformational stability. Dimerization may account for the enhanced stability. Unexpectedly, the PREPL A protein did not cleave peptide substrates containing a P1 basic residue, but did slowly hydrolyse an activated ester substrate, and reacted with diisopropyl fluorophosphate. These results indicated that the catalytic serine is a reactive residue. However, the negligible hydrolytic activity suggests that the function of PREPL A is different from that of the other members of the prolyl oligopeptidase family.
ESTHER : Szeltner_2005_Cell.Mol.Life.Sci_62_2376
PubMedSearch : Szeltner_2005_Cell.Mol.Life.Sci_62_2376
PubMedID: 16143824
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-PREPL

Title : Concerted structural changes in the peptidase and the propeller domains of prolyl oligopeptidase are required for substrate binding - Szeltner_2004_J.Mol.Biol_340_627
Author(s) : Szeltner Z , Rea D , Juhasz T , Renner V , Fulop V , Polgar L
Ref : Journal of Molecular Biology , 340 :627 , 2004
Abstract : Prolyl oligopeptidase contains a peptidase domain and its catalytic triad is covered by the central tunnel of a seven-bladed beta-propeller. This domain makes the enzyme an oligopeptidase by excluding large structured peptides from the active site. The apparently rigid crystal structure does not explain how the substrate can approach the catalytic groups. Two possibilities of substrate access were investigated: either blades 1 and 7 of the propeller domain move apart, or the peptidase and/or propeller domains move to create an entry site at the domain interface. Engineering disulfide bridges to the expected oscillating structures prevented such movements, which destroyed the catalytic activity and precluded substrate binding. This indicated that concerted movements of the propeller and the peptidase domains are essential for the enzyme action.
ESTHER : Szeltner_2004_J.Mol.Biol_340_627
PubMedSearch : Szeltner_2004_J.Mol.Biol_340_627
PubMedID: 15210359
Gene_locus related to this paper: pig-q6q2c2

Title : Electrostatic environment at the active site of prolyl oligopeptidase is highly influential during substrate binding - Szeltner_2003_J.Biol.Chem_278_48786
Author(s) : Szeltner Z , Rea D , Renner V , Juliano L , Fulop V , Polgar L
Ref : Journal of Biological Chemistry , 278 :48786 , 2003
Abstract : The positive electrostatic environment of the active site of prolyl oligopeptidase was investigated by using substrates with glutamic acid at positions P2, P3, P4, and P5, respectively. The different substrates gave various pH rate profiles. The pKa values extracted from the curves are apparent parameters, presumably affected by the nearby charged residues, and do not reflect the ionization of a simple catalytic histidine as found in the classic serine peptidases like chymotrypsin and subtilisin. The temperature dependence of kcat/Km did not produce linear Arrhenius plots, indicating different changes in the individual rate constants with the increase in temperature. This rendered it possible to calculate these constants, i.e. the formation (k1) and decomposition (k-1) of the enzyme-substrate complex and the acylation constant (k2), as well as the corresponding activation energies. The results have revealed the relationship between the complex Michaelis parameters and the individual rate constants. Structure determination of the enzyme-substrate complexes has shown that the different substrates display a uniform binding mode. None of the glutamic acids interacts with a charged group. We conclude that the specific rate constant is controlled by k1 rather than k2 and that the charged residues from the substrate and the enzyme can markedly affect the formation but not the structure of the enzyme-substrate complexes.
ESTHER : Szeltner_2003_J.Biol.Chem_278_48786
PubMedSearch : Szeltner_2003_J.Biol.Chem_278_48786
PubMedID: 14514675
Gene_locus related to this paper: pig-ppce

Title : Electrostatic effects and binding determinants in the catalysis of prolyl oligopeptidase. Site specific mutagenesis at the oxyanion binding site - Szeltner_2002_J.Biol.Chem_277_42613
Author(s) : Szeltner Z , Rea D , Renner V , Fulop V , Polgar L
Ref : Journal of Biological Chemistry , 277 :42613 , 2002
Abstract : Prolyl oligopeptidase, a member of a new family of serine peptidases, plays an important role in memory disorders. Earlier x-ray crystallographic investigations indicated that stabilization of the tetrahedral transition state of the reaction involved hydrogen bond formation between the oxyanion of the tetrahedral intermediate and the OH group of Tyr(473). The contribution of the OH group was tested with the Y473F variant using various substrates. The charged succinyl-Gly-Pro-4-nitroanilide was hydrolyzed with a much lower k(cat)/K(m) compared with the neutral benzyloxycarbonyl-G1y-Pro-2-naphthylamide, although the binding modes of the two substrates were similar, as shown by x-ray crystallography. This suggested that electrostatic interactions between Arg(643) and the succinyl group competed with the productive binding mechanism. Unlike most enzyme reactions, catalysis by the wild-type enzyme exhibited positive activation entropy. In contrast, the activation entropy for the Y473F variant was negative, suggesting that the tyrosine OH group is involved in stabilizing both the transition state and the water shell at the active site. Importantly, Tyr(473) is also implicated in the formation of the enzyme-substrate complex. The nonlinear Arrhenius plot suggested a greater significance of the oxyanion binding site at physiological temperature. The results indicated that Tyr(473) was more needed at high pH, at high temperature, and with charged substrates exhibiting "internally competitive inhibition.
ESTHER : Szeltner_2002_J.Biol.Chem_277_42613
PubMedSearch : Szeltner_2002_J.Biol.Chem_277_42613
PubMedID: 12202494
Gene_locus related to this paper: pig-ppce

Title : Substrate-dependent competency of the catalytic triad of prolyl oligopeptidase - Szeltner_2002_J.Biol.Chem_277_44597
Author(s) : Szeltner Z , Rea D , Juhasz T , Renner V , Mucsi Z , Orosz G , Fulop V , Polgar L
Ref : Journal of Biological Chemistry , 277 :44597 , 2002
Abstract : Prolyl oligopeptidase, a serine peptidase unrelated to trypsin and subtilisin, is implicated in memory disorders and is an important target of drug design. The catalytic competence of the Asp(641) residue of the catalytic triad (Ser(554), Asp(641), His(680)) was studied using the D641N and D641A variants of the enzyme. Both variants displayed 3 orders of magnitude reduction in k(cat)/K(m) for benzyloxycarbonyl-Gly-Pro-2-naphthylamide. Using an octapeptide substrate, the decrease was 6 orders of magnitude, whereas with Z-Gly-Pro-4-nitrophenyl ester there was virtually no change in k(cat)/K(m). This indicates that the contribution of Asp(641) is very much dependent on the substrate-leaving group, which was not the case for the classic serine peptidase, trypsin. The rate constant for benzyloxycarbonyl-Gly-Pro-thiobenzylester conformed to this series as demonstrated by a method designed for monitoring the hydrolysis of thiolesters in the presence of thiol groups. Alkylation of His(680) with Z-Gly-Pro-CH(2)Cl was concluded with similar rate constants for wild-type and D641A variant. However, kinetic measurements with Z-Gly-Pro-OH, a product-like inhibitor, indicated that the His(680) is not accessible in the enzyme variants. Crystal structure determination of these mutants revealed subtle perturbations related to the catalytic activity. Many of these observations show differences in the catalysis between trypsin and prolyl oligopeptidase.
ESTHER : Szeltner_2002_J.Biol.Chem_277_44597
PubMedSearch : Szeltner_2002_J.Biol.Chem_277_44597
PubMedID: 12228249
Gene_locus related to this paper: pig-ppce

Title : The prolyl oligopeptidase family - Polgar_2002_Cell.Mol.Life.Sci_59_349
Author(s) : Polgar L
Ref : Cell Mol Life Sciences , 59 :349 , 2002
Abstract : A group of serine peptidases, the prolyl oligopeptidase family, cannot hydrolyze peptides containing more than about 30 residues. This group is unrelated to the classical trypsin and subtilisin families, and includes dipeptidyl peptidase IV, acylaminoacyl peptidase and oligopeptidase B, in addition to the prototype prolyl oligopeptidase. The recent crystal structure determination of prolyl oligopeptidase (80 kDa) has shown that the enzyme contains a peptidase domain with an alpha/beta hydrolase fold, and its catalytic triad is covered by the central tunnel of an unusual seven-bladed beta-propeller. This domain operates as a gating filter, excluding large, structured peptides from the active site. The binding mode of substrates and the catalytic mechanism differ from that of the classical serine peptidases in several features. The members of the family are important targets of drug design. Prolyl oligopeptidase is involved in amnesia, depression and blood pressure control, dipeptidyl peptidase IV in type 2 diabetes and oligopeptidase B in trypanosomiasis.
ESTHER : Polgar_2002_Cell.Mol.Life.Sci_59_349
PubMedSearch : Polgar_2002_Cell.Mol.Life.Sci_59_349
PubMedID: 11915948

Title : Structures of prolyl oligopeptidase substrate\/inhibitor complexes. Use of inhibitor binding for titration of the catalytic histidine residue - Fulop_2001_J.Biol.Chem_276_1262
Author(s) : Fulop V , Szeltner Z , Renner V , Polgar L
Ref : Journal of Biological Chemistry , 276 :1262 , 2001
Abstract : Structure determination of the inactive S554A variant of prolyl oligopeptidase complexed with an octapeptide has shown that substrate binding is restricted to the P4-P2' region. In addition, it has revealed a hydrogen bond network of potential catalytic importance not detected in other serine peptidases. This involves a unique intramolecular hydrogen bond between the P1' amide and P2 carbonyl groups and another between the P2' amide and Nepsilon2 of the catalytic histidine 680 residue. It is argued that both hydrogen bonds promote proton transfer from the imidazolium ion to the leaving group. Another complex formed with the product-like inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl-glycyl-proline, indicating that the carboxyl group of the inhibitor forms a hydrogen bond with the Nepsilon2 of His(680). Because a protonated histidine makes a stronger interaction with the carboxyl group, it offers a possibility of the determination of the real pK(a) of the catalytic histidine residue. This was found to be 6.25, lower than that of the well studied serine proteases. The new titration method gave a single pK(a) for prolyl oligopeptidase, whose reaction exhibited a complex pH dependence for k(cat)/K(m), and indicated that the observed pK(a) values are apparent. The procedure presented may be applicable for other serine peptidases.
ESTHER : Fulop_2001_J.Biol.Chem_276_1262
PubMedSearch : Fulop_2001_J.Biol.Chem_276_1262
PubMedID: 11031266
Gene_locus related to this paper: pig-ppce

Title : Catalysis of serine oligopeptidases is controlled by a gating filter mechanism - Fulop_2000_EMBO.Rep_1_277
Author(s) : Fulop V , Szeltner Z , Polgar L
Ref : EMBO Rep , 1 :277 , 2000
Abstract : Proteases have a variety of strategies for selecting substrates in order to prevent uncontrolled protein degradation. A recent crystal structure determination of prolyl oligopeptidase has suggested a way for substrate selection involving an unclosed seven-bladed beta-propeller domain. We have engineered a disulfide bond between the first and seventh blades of the propeller, which resulted in the loss of enzymatic activity. These results provided direct evidence for a novel strategy of regulation in which oscillating propeller blades act as a gating filter during catalysis, letting small peptide substrates into the active site while excluding large proteins to prevent accidental proteolysis.
ESTHER : Fulop_2000_EMBO.Rep_1_277
PubMedSearch : Fulop_2000_EMBO.Rep_1_277
PubMedID: 11256612
Gene_locus related to this paper: pig-ppce

Title : The noncatalytic beta-propeller domain of prolyl oligopeptidase enhances the catalytic capability of the peptidase domain - Szeltner_2000_J.Biol.Chem_275_15000
Author(s) : Szeltner Z , Renner V , Polgar L
Ref : Journal of Biological Chemistry , 275 :15000 , 2000
Abstract : Prolyl oligopeptidase, which is involved in memory disorders, is a member of a new family of serine peptidases. In addition to the peptidase domain, the enzyme contains a beta-propeller, which excludes large peptides from the active site. The enzyme is inhibited with thiol reagents, possibly by reacting with Cys-255 located close to the substrate binding site. This assumption was tested with the Cys-255 --> Thr, Cys-255 --> Ala, and Cys-255 --> Ser variants of prolyl oligopeptidase. In contrast to the wild type enzyme, the Cys-255 --> Thr variant was not inhibited with N-ethylmaleimide, indicating that Cys-255, of the 16 free cysteine residues, exclusively accounts for the enzyme inhibition. Unlike the wild type enzyme that showed a doubly bell-shaped pH rate profile, the modified enzyme displayed a single bell-shaped pH dependence with benzyloxycarbonyl-Gly-Pro-naphthylamide. It was the high pH form of the enzyme that virtually disappeared with all three enzyme variants. A substantial reduction was also observed in k(cat)/K(m) for the aminobenzoyl-Ser-Pro-Phe(NO(2))-Ala-OH substrate. The high pK(a) (9.77) of Cys-255 determined by titration with N-ethylmaleimide excluded the possibility that ionization of the thiol group was responsible for generation of the two active enzyme forms. The impaired activity of the enzyme variants could be rationalized in terms of weaker binding, which manifests itself in high K(m) for substrates and high K(i) for inhibitors, like benzyloxycarbonyl-Gly-Pro-OH and aminobenzoyl-Ser-d-Pro-Phe(NO(2))-Ala-OH. It was concluded that, besides selecting substrates by size, the beta-propeller domain containing Cys-255 remarkably contributed to catalysis of the peptidase domain.
ESTHER : Szeltner_2000_J.Biol.Chem_275_15000
PubMedSearch : Szeltner_2000_J.Biol.Chem_275_15000
PubMedID: 10747969

Title : Prolyl oligopeptidase: an unusual beta-propeller domain regulates proteolysis - Fulop_1998_Cell_94_161
Author(s) : Fulop V , Bocskei Z , Polgar L
Ref : Cell , 94 :161 , 1998
Abstract : Prolyl oligopeptidase is a large cytosolic enzyme that belongs to a new class of serine peptidases. The enzyme is involved in the maturation and degradation of peptide hormones and neuropeptides, which relate to the induction of amnesia. The 1.4 A resolution crystal structure is presented here. The enzyme contains a peptidase domain with an alpha/beta hydrolase fold, and its catalytic triad (Ser554, His680, Asp641) is covered by the central tunnel of an unusual beta propeller. This domain makes prolyl oligopeptidase an oligopeptidase by excluding large structured peptides from the active site. In this way, the propeller protects larger peptides and proteins from proteolysis in the cytosol. The structure is also obtained with a transition state inhibitor, which may facilitate drug design to treat memory disorders.
ESTHER : Fulop_1998_Cell_94_161
PubMedSearch : Fulop_1998_Cell_94_161
PubMedID: 9695945
Gene_locus related to this paper: pig-ppce

Title : Low barrier hydrogen bond is absent in the catalytic triads in the ground state but Is present in a transition-state complex in the prolyl oligopeptidase family of serine proteases - Kahyaoglu_1997_J.Biol.Chem_272_25547
Author(s) : Kahyaoglu A , Haghjoo K , Guo F , Jordan F , Kettner C , Felfoldi F , Polgar L
Ref : Journal of Biological Chemistry , 272 :25547 , 1997
Abstract : High frequency proton NMR spectra for two members of the prolyl oligopeptidase class of serine proteases, prolyl oligopeptidase and oligopeptidase B, showed that resonances corresponding to the active center histidine Ndelta1H and Nepsilon2H generally observed in this region, are absent in these enzymes. However, for both enzymes, as well as with the H652A and H652Q active center variants of oligopeptidase B, there are two resonances observed in this region that could be assigned to two protonated histidines with a noncatalytic function. The results indicate that these two histidines participate in strong hydrogen bonds. The absence of resonances pertinent to the active center histidine resonances suggests the absence of a low barrier hydrogen bond between the Asp and His in these two enzymes in their ground states. Addition of the peptide boronic acid t-butoxycarbonyl-(D)Val-Leu-(L)boroArg to oligopeptidase B resulted in potent, slow binding inhibition of the enzyme and the appearance of a new resonance at 15.8 ppm, whose chemical shift is appropriate for a tetrahedral boronate complex and a low barrier hydrogen bond. The results demonstrate important dissimilarities between the active centers of the prolyl oligopeptidase class of serine proteases and the pancreatic and subtilisin classes both in the ground state and in the transition-state analog complexes.
ESTHER : Kahyaoglu_1997_J.Biol.Chem_272_25547
PubMedSearch : Kahyaoglu_1997_J.Biol.Chem_272_25547
PubMedID: 9325271

Title : Effects of ionic strength on the catalysis and stability of prolyl oligopeptidase - Polgar_1995_Biochem.J_312_267
Author(s) : Polgar L
Ref : Biochemical Journal , 312 :267 , 1995
Abstract : Prolyl oligopeptidase is the prototype of a new serine protease family, unrelated to trypsin and subtilisin. In contrast with these proteases, prolyl oligopeptidase is remarkably sensitive to ionic strength, being more active in the presence of high concentrations of salt. The enzyme has two catalytic forms, which interconvert with changing pH. To reveal the structural bases of these phenomena, the effects of 0.5 M NaCl on the stability of the enzyme were investigated by studying its denaturation as a function of pH, temperature, and urea concentration. The three independent methods have unequivocally demonstrated that denaturation of the enzyme is promoted in the presence of NaCl. Furthermore, destabilization of the low-pH form by urea is more significant than that of the high-pH form. Examination of the fluorescence emission spectra of various denatured forms indicates that the enzyme is not fully unfolded in 8 M urea, nor at acidic pH. The tryptophan residues in the acid-denatured state are mainly buried. The results are interpreted in terms of the decay of the protective water shell at the higher ionic strength. The higher enthalpy and entropy of activation for heat denaturation provide further evidence that a more ordered water structure stabilizes the protein in the absence of salt. The biphasic kinetics obtained with denaturation by heat and urea suggest that the enzyme has two domains of different stabilities.
ESTHER : Polgar_1995_Biochem.J_312_267
PubMedSearch : Polgar_1995_Biochem.J_312_267
PubMedID: 7492323

Title : Prolyl oligopeptidases - Polgar_1994_Methods.Enzymol_244_188
Author(s) : Polgar L
Ref : Methods Enzymol , 244 :188 , 1994
Abstract :
ESTHER : Polgar_1994_Methods.Enzymol_244_188
PubMedSearch : Polgar_1994_Methods.Enzymol_244_188
PubMedID: 7845207

Title : Structural relationship between lipases and peptidases of the prolyl oligopeptidase family - Polgar_1992_FEBS.Lett_311_281
Author(s) : Polgar L
Ref : FEBS Letters , 311 :281 , 1992
Abstract : In prolyl oligopeptidase and its homologues, which constitute a new serine protease family, the order of the catalytic Ser and His residues in the amino acid sequence is the reverse of what is found in the trypsin and subtilisin families. The exact position of the third member of the catalytic triad, an Asp residue, has not yet been identified in the new family. Recent determination of the three-dimensional structures of pancreatic and microbial lipases has shown that the order of their catalytic residues is Ser, Asp, His, and this fits the order Ser, His of prolyl oligopeptidase. However, there is no sequence homology between lipases and peptidases, except for a 10-residue segment, which encompasses the essential Ser, and for the immediate vicinity of the catalytic Asp and His residues. This comparison identifies the catalytic Asp residue in the prolyl oligopeptidase family. The relative positions of the three catalytic residues in peptidases and microbial lipases were the same and this indicated structural and possibly evolutionary relationship between the two families.
ESTHER : Polgar_1992_FEBS.Lett_311_281
PubMedSearch : Polgar_1992_FEBS.Lett_311_281
PubMedID: 1397329

Title : A new family of serine-type peptidases related to prolyl oligopeptidase [letter] - Rawlings_1991_Biochem.J_279_907
Author(s) : Rawlings ND , Polgar L , Barrett AJ
Ref : Biochemical Journal , 279 :907 , 1991
Abstract :
ESTHER : Rawlings_1991_Biochem.J_279_907
PubMedSearch : Rawlings_1991_Biochem.J_279_907
PubMedID: 1953688