Toh S

References (8)

Title : Three mutations repurpose a plant karrikin receptor to a strigolactone receptor - Arellano-Saab_2021_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_118_
Author(s) : Arellano-Saab A , Bunsick M , Al Galib H , Zhao W , Schuetz S , Bradley JM , Xu Z , Adityani C , Subha A , McKay H , de Saint Germain A , Boyer FD , McErlean CSP , Toh S , McCourt P , Stogios PJ , Lumba S
Ref : Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A , 118 : , 2021
Abstract : Uncovering the basis of small-molecule hormone receptors' evolution is paramount to a complete understanding of how protein structure drives function. In plants, hormone receptors for strigolactones are well suited to evolutionary inquiries because closely related homologs have different ligand preferences. More importantly, because of facile plant transgenic systems, receptors can be swapped and quickly assessed functionally in vivo. Here, we show that only three mutations are required to turn the nonstrigolactone receptor, KAI2, into a receptor that recognizes the plant hormone strigolactone. This modified receptor still retains its native function to perceive KAI2 ligands. Our directed evolution studies indicate that only a few keystone mutations are required to increase receptor promiscuity of KAI2, which may have implications for strigolactone receptor evolution in parasitic plants.
ESTHER : Arellano-Saab_2021_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_118_
PubMedSearch : Arellano-Saab_2021_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_118_
PubMedID: 34301902
Gene_locus related to this paper: arath-AtD14 , arath-KAI2.D14L

Title : SMAX1-dependent seed germination bypasses GA signalling in Arabidopsis and Striga - Bunsick_2020_Nat.Plants_6_646
Author(s) : Bunsick M , Toh S , Wong C , Xu Z , Ly G , McErlean CSP , Pescetto G , Nemrish KE , Sung P , Li JD , Scholes JD , Lumba S
Ref : Nat Plants , 6 :646 , 2020
Abstract : Parasitic plant infestations dramatically reduce the yield of many major food crops of sub-Saharan Africa and pose a serious threat to food security on that continent(1). The first committed step of a successful infestation is the germination of parasite seeds primarily in response to a group of related small-molecule hormones called strigolactones (SLs), which are emitted by host roots(2). Despite the important role of SLs, it is not clear how host-derived SLs germinate parasitic plants. In contrast, gibberellins (GA) acts as the dominant hormone for stimulation of germination in non-parasitic plant species by inhibiting a set of DELLA repressors(3). Here, we show that expression of SL receptors from the parasitic plant Striga hermonthica in the presence of SLs circumvents the GA requirement for germination of Arabidopsis thaliana seed. Striga receptors co-opt and enhance signalling through the HYPOSENSITIVE TO LIGHT/KARRIKIN INSENSITIVE 2 (AtHTL/KAI2) pathway, which normally plays a rudimentary role in Arabidopsis seed germination(4,5). AtHTL/KAI2 negatively controls the SUPPRESSOR OF MAX2 1 (SMAX1) protein(5), and loss of SMAX1 function allows germination in the presence of DELLA repressors. Our data suggest that ligand-dependent inactivation of SMAX1 in Striga and Arabidopsis can bypass GA-dependent germination in these species.
ESTHER : Bunsick_2020_Nat.Plants_6_646
PubMedSearch : Bunsick_2020_Nat.Plants_6_646
PubMedID: 32451447

Title : Small-molecule antagonists of germination of the parasitic plant Striga hermonthica - Holbrook-Smith_2016_Nat.Chem.Biol_12_724
Author(s) : Holbrook-Smith D , Toh S , Tsuchiya Y , McCourt P
Ref : Nat Chemical Biology , 12 :724 , 2016
Abstract : Striga spp. (witchweed) is an obligate parasitic plant that attaches to host roots to deplete them of nutrients. In Sub-Saharan Africa, the most destructive Striga species, Striga hermonthica, parasitizes major food crops affecting two-thirds of the arable land and over 100 million people. One potential weakness in the Striga infection process is the way it senses the presence of a host crop. Striga only germinates in the presence of the plant hormone strigolactone, which exudes from a host root. Hence small molecules that perturb strigolactone signaling may be useful tools for disrupting the Striga lifecycle. Here we developed a chemical screen to suppress strigolactone signaling in the model plant Arabidopsis. One compound, soporidine, specifically inhibited a S. hermonthica strigolactone receptor and inhibited the parasite's germination. This indicates that strigolactone-based screens using Arabidopsis are useful in identifying lead compounds to combat Striga infestations.
ESTHER : Holbrook-Smith_2016_Nat.Chem.Biol_12_724
PubMedSearch : Holbrook-Smith_2016_Nat.Chem.Biol_12_724
PubMedID: 27428512

Title : PARASITIC PLANTS. Probing strigolactone receptors in Striga hermonthica with fluorescence - Tsuchiya_2015_Science_349_864
Author(s) : Tsuchiya Y , Yoshimura M , Sato Y , Kuwata K , Toh S , Holbrook-Smith D , Zhang H , McCourt P , Itami K , Kinoshita T , Hagihara S
Ref : Science , 349 :864 , 2015
Abstract : Elucidating the signaling mechanism of strigolactones has been the key to controlling the devastating problem caused by the parasitic plant Striga hermonthica. To overcome the genetic intractability that has previously interfered with identification of the strigolactone receptor, we developed a fluorescence turn-on probe, Yoshimulactone Green (YLG), which activates strigolactone signaling and illuminates signal perception by the strigolactone receptors. Here we describe how strigolactones bind to and act via ShHTLs, the diverged family of alpha/beta hydrolase-fold proteins in Striga. Live imaging using YLGs revealed that a dynamic wavelike propagation of strigolactone perception wakes up Striga seeds. We conclude that ShHTLs function as the strigolactone receptors mediating seed germination in Striga. Our findings enable access to strigolactone receptors and observation of the regulatory dynamics for strigolactone signal transduction in Striga.
ESTHER : Tsuchiya_2015_Science_349_864
PubMedSearch : Tsuchiya_2015_Science_349_864
PubMedID: 26293962
Gene_locus related to this paper: strhe-ShHTL2 , strhe-ShHTL10 , strhe-ShHTL6 , strhe-ShHTL9 , strhe-ShHTL8 , strhe-ShHTL11 , strhe-ShD14 , strhe-ShHTL4 , strhe-ShHTL1 , strhe-ShHTL7 , strhe-ShHTL3 , strhe-ShHTL5

Title : Structure-function analysis identifies highly sensitive strigolactone receptors in Striga - Toh_2015_Science_350_203
Author(s) : Toh S , Holbrook-Smith D , Stogios PJ , Onopriyenko O , Lumba S , Tsuchiya Y , Savchenko A , McCourt P
Ref : Science , 350 :203 , 2015
Abstract : Strigolactones are naturally occurring signaling molecules that affect plant development, fungi-plant interactions, and parasitic plant infestations. We characterized the function of 11 strigolactone receptors from the parasitic plant Striga hermonthica using chemical and structural biology. We found a clade of polyspecific receptors, including one that is sensitive to picomolar concentrations of strigolactone. A crystal structure of a highly sensitive strigolactone receptor from Striga revealed a larger binding pocket than that of the Arabidopsis receptor, which could explain the increased range of strigolactone sensitivity. Thus, the sensitivity of Striga to strigolactones from host plants is driven by receptor sensitivity. By expressing strigolactone receptors in Arabidopsis, we developed a bioassay that can be used to identify chemicals and crops with altered strigolactone levels.
ESTHER : Toh_2015_Science_350_203
PubMedSearch : Toh_2015_Science_350_203
PubMedID: 26450211
Gene_locus related to this paper: strhe-ShHTL2 , strhe-ShHTL10 , strhe-ShHTL6 , strhe-ShHTL9 , strhe-ShHTL8 , strhe-ShHTL11 , strhe-ShHTL4 , strhe-ShHTL1 , strhe-ShHTL7 , strhe-ShHTL3 , strhe-ShHTL5

Title : Detection of Parasitic Plant Suicide Germination Compounds Using a High-Throughput Arabidopsis HTL\/KAI2 Strigolactone Perception System - Toh_2014_Chem.Biol_21_988
Author(s) : Toh S , Holbrook-Smith D , Stokes ME , Tsuchiya Y , McCourt P
Ref : Chemical Biology , 21 :988 , 2014
Abstract : Strigolactones are terpenoid-based plant hormones that act as communication signals within a plant, between plants and fungi, and between parasitic plants and their hosts. Here we show that an active enantiomer form of the strigolactone GR24, the germination stimulant karrikin, and a number of structurally related small molecules called cotylimides all bind the HTL/KAI2 alpha/beta hydrolase in Arabidopsis. Strigolactones and cotylimides also promoted an interaction between HTL/KAI2 and the F-box protein MAX2 in yeast. Identification of this chemically dependent protein-protein interaction prompted the development of a yeast-based, high-throughput chemical screen for potential strigolactone mimics. Of the 40 lead compounds identified, three were found to have in planta strigolactone activity using Arabidopsis-based assays. More importantly, these three compounds were all found to stimulate suicide germination of the obligate parasitic plant Striga hermonthica. These results suggest that screening strategies involving yeast/Arabidopsis models may be useful in combating parasitic plant infestations.
ESTHER : Toh_2014_Chem.Biol_21_988
PubMedSearch : Toh_2014_Chem.Biol_21_988
PubMedID: 25126711

Title : Thermoinhibition uncovers a role for strigolactones in Arabidopsis seed germination - Toh_2012_Plant.Cell.Physiol_53_107
Author(s) : Toh S , Kamiya Y , Kawakami N , Nambara E , McCourt P , Tsuchiya Y
Ref : Plant Cell Physiol , 53 :107 , 2012
Abstract : Strigolactones are host factors that stimulate seed germination of parasitic plant species such as Striga and Orobanche. This hormone is also important in shoot branching architecture and photomorphogenic development. Strigolactone biosynthetic and signaling mutants in model systems, unlike parasitic plants, only show seed germination phenotypes under limited growth condition. To understand the roles of strigolactones in seed germination, it is necessary to develop a tractable experimental system using model plants such as Arabidopsis. Here, we report that thermoinhibition, which involves exposing seeds to high temperatures, uncovers a clear role for strigolactones in promoting Arabidopsis seed germination. Both strigolactone biosynthetic and signaling mutants showed increased sensitivity to seed thermoinhibition. The synthetic strigolactone GR24 rescued germination of thermoinbibited biosynthetic mutant seeds but not a signaling mutant. Hormone analysis revealed that strigolactones alleviate thermoinhibition by modulating levels of the two plant hormones, GA and ABA. We also showed that GR24 was able to counteract secondary dormancy in Arabidopsis ecotype Columbia (Col) and Cape Verde island (Cvi). Systematic hormone analysis of germinating Striga helmonthica seeds suggested a common mechanism between the parasitic and non-parasitic seeds with respect to how hormones regulate germination. Thus, our simple assay system using Arabidopsis thermoinhibition allows comparisons to determine similarities and differences between parasitic plants and model experimental systems for the use of strigolactones.
ESTHER : Toh_2012_Plant.Cell.Physiol_53_107
PubMedSearch : Toh_2012_Plant.Cell.Physiol_53_107
PubMedID: 22173099

Title : A small-molecule screen identifies new functions for the plant hormone strigolactone - Tsuchiya_2010_Nat.Chem.Biol_6_741
Author(s) : Tsuchiya Y , Vidaurre D , Toh S , Hanada A , Nambara E , Kamiya Y , Yamaguchi S , McCourt P
Ref : Nat Chemical Biology , 6 :741 , 2010
Abstract : Parasitic weeds of the genera Striga and Orobanche are considered the most damaging agricultural agents in the developing world. An essential step in parasitic seed germination is sensing a group of structurally related compounds called strigolactones that are released by host plants. Although this makes strigolactone synthesis and action a major target of biotechnology, little fundamental information is known about this hormone. Chemical genetic screening using Arabidopsis thaliana as a platform identified a collection of related small molecules, cotylimides, which perturb strigolactone accumulation. Suppressor screens against select cotylimides identified light-signaling genes as positive regulators of strigolactone levels. Molecular analysis showed strigolactones regulate the nuclear localization of the COP1 ubiquitin ligase, which in part determines the levels of light regulators such as HY5. This information not only uncovers new functions for strigolactones but was also used to identify rice cultivars with reduced capacity to germinate parasitic seed.
ESTHER : Tsuchiya_2010_Nat.Chem.Biol_6_741
PubMedSearch : Tsuchiya_2010_Nat.Chem.Biol_6_741
PubMedID: 20818397